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L I B R.ARY 

OF THE 

U N 1 VERS ITY 

or ILLINOIS 

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the way and even now is continuallv developing new and better methods and machinery. 



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The Technograph 



University of Illinois 



Volume XXXIII NOVEMBER, 1920 Number I. 



CONTENTS 

Modern Tendencies in Fi-ench Architecture Ralph Fanning 1 

The Guardian of the Ways, the Block Signal N. E. Sowers 3 

Why Balance An Automobile Engine ]Martin Filsh 6 

Research Problems in Electricity Chas. T. Knipp 15 

Honorary and Professional Engineering Fi-aternity I badges 17 

A Clock Tower, The Scarab Comjietition 19 

A Course for Metermen Ellery B. Paine 20 

A Snow Landing Gear for Airplanes M. R. Riddell 21 

Engineering Education Harold L. Parr 23 

Samuel Wesley Stratton Francis Wright 2() 

Verse 27 

Editorials 28 

Industrial Boiler Testing P. F. Witte 30 

One Railroad Resumes Construction Work Kurt Siecke 35 

The Engineering Urge W. .M. Wilson 38 

Departmental Notes 41 

Alumni Notes 45 



STAFF 

Georok L. N. Mkvku Editor 

LnoYU B. Bakkk Assistant Editor 

R.M.i'ii W. IiiKNFKi.DT Assistant Editor 

Macox a. Aiiiurr Assistant Editor 

Fki;u W. SciiKi.NKMAN Uusiness Manager 

Rkginai.u F. Packauu \ssistant Business Manager 

Walter A. Mlkm.kk Assistant Business Manager 

SOCIETY UEl'KESTNTATIVES 

Hauoi.1i J. Mock A. A. IC. 

E. J. McDo.NAi.ii Architecture 

J. C. Ai.i.MAX Civil ICngineering 

N. A. Ka(ii.a.M) Ceramics 

J. M. Ag.nkw Electrical Engineering 

H. G. Ro.sK.NDAi.K Mechanical Engineering 

H. M. Wii.tk.n Mining Engineering 

C. W. Ci.Kwonrii Railway Engineering 



Published quarterly by the IlUni Publishing Company. Application as second-class matter pending at the 
postoffice at I'rbana, Illinois. Office 2l.i Enijinecring Hall, Vrbann, Illinois. !<ub.scriii1i(jns $1.25 per year. 

tiinglc copies .}0 cents. 



4^404^^ 



Noveviber, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Modern Tendencies in French Architecture 



I5y i\.\i.i'i[ Fanninu 
Axsociatr in A nlii lecture 



FKAXi'i:. the 1:111(1 111' soft (Hillincs. |p;islcl sluidcs 
and pictiiri'sciui' luriiis li:is loiij; iicid her jdact' 
i(f graci' and dijtiiity. a (hanniiij; sal(tii for all 
the art worsliiju'i-s wlio (•(Hiic t" ]iay lioniage to an 
idolized art mistress. AN'itli a wealth of arciiitectiir- 
al tradition n])on which to rely, Franet? held charm- 
ed admirers by ottering the glories of the (iothic in 
catlu'dral and council hall, the splendor of the Re- 
naissance in i)alace and i)ark. I'aris itself, unrival- 
ed in metropolitan heauty and harmony, has long 
been the Mecca toward which the art pilgrim turued 
for inspiration and training. The great war knock- 
ing at the portal of this shrine, sent the artists scat- 
tering over the battle-fields and overturned the so- 
cial and educational routine that had been as chang- 
ing yet as tixed as the stars. The Ecole des Beaux 
Arts and the atliers of Paris were emptied over 
night as the sounds of the Marsellaise summoned 
the French to follow the tri-colors or forced upon 
the foreigners, with whom Paris is ever so largely 
ti!l('(l. the need of taking ilecisive action in playing 
I heir jiarts either as loyal ]iatiiols oi- as servants 
to the call of Humanity. 

Fol- o\i'r I'liui- years llic tangible jn'ogi-ess of 
architectural development in France was nil while 
the mendiers of the pi-ofession gave their time, their 
energy, their limbs or their lives to check the tire 
which threatened to burn to cinders and make waste 
their fair lands of ([uaint homes and stati-ly monu- 
ments. Now that the waste of war has partially 
subsided, — to the extent that Paris at least can IVcl 
safe fi'om any advancing foe other than social \in 
I'cst and starvation ])rices and, taking inventory of 
her art treasures, can open up her famed galleries 
without fear of her lios])itality being abused by the 
unappreciat i\('. or her gems carried away by the 
souvenir mad, — what has France to ollVr tor inspira- 
tion and training, not only to her own archilects. 
but to the foreigners who again come lo stand in 
the reception lines of her salon? .Many of the men 
who gave ]iromise of carrying on faithfully the arch 
itectui'al traditions of the l-k-ole des Bc^aux Arts are 
no more: others have had to devote their energies to 
more urgent and very materialistic interests. What 
is to be the future powers of this school that here- 
tofore has i)layed such an imjiortant (lart in the 
training of American architecls? Willi iIk- seas 



a^aiii nniniperilcd ami an apology, for the long de- 
sired jjcace |iosted, foreigners ai-e again flocking to 
h'rance, probably in increasingly large nundters since 
tlu! war has given many a man an interest in a coun- 
try for which, if he did not actually sutler, he was 
put to periods of discomfort, and a desire to see it 
under more advantageous circumstances. What 
are the modern tendencies in French art to oti'er 
these students in their quest for the ideal in archi- 
tecture? 

The present day French architect seems to be a 
rery close student of the monumental symetrical ueo- 
classic in design, — a style which it would seem 
reached its hig'hest development, the zenith of its 
power, uiuler Levau (1G12-I(i7()), Mansart. (11)47- 
170S), Perrault (](;;5:M68S) in such works as the 
Louvre, Tuileries, and the greater part of Versailles. 
i^vcn the change from the classical lisence under the 
IJourbons to the later more severely classical re- 
vivals, such as the Pantheon by SouU'lot (17UM7S1) 
or St. Snli)ice built by Servandoni in 177ij, only em- 
jihasized the importance of rigid symetry and formal 
l>lai)ning. In their conception and handling of such 
inoiiiiniental schemes, none can rival the modern 
French from whom American students may learn 
much of the composition of ma.s.ses, balance of plans, 
axial treatments, spacious circulation and dignity 
and formality of general "parterre''. The only ques- 
tion is whether the grand style, so symbolic and so 
natural a iiroduct of the court of the Louis', is the 
(•(nrect solution of our present day problems or a 
just portrayal of our more democratic, less formal 
sliiving for equality and efficiency. There are, of 
course, problems where extrenu' formality of plan 
is most |M-aiseworthy, but the complications of pres- 
ent day planning, esjiecially in architecturally sky- 
scraping Amei-ica, may ]irove impossible to the man 
trained lo think only of plans nicely revolving about 
imposing axes. 

While the modern French school still holds its 
exhalted jtosition in the mastery of mass composi- 
tion and |ilau, it does not seem that in the under- 
standing of decorative forms anil architectural or 
iiaTuentalion. the moderns are profiting very much 
I'll her by classic schooling or the wealth of decora- 
tion inherited from the nu'dieval masters or the 
and Liter Kenaissance periods. Kecent architectur- 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



November, 1920 



;il (IciMPiMlidii. wliflhcr siill iiiloxicalcil liv llic <!(■■ 

li;iiK-li on Art Ni'uveau liecr, or still fiidilv Ir ili" 

(ircjis of Hocfoco wine, shows little that wonlil liMiip! 
a taste ac-iMistonicd to a diet of deconilive lojiic wilh 
"Decoration following; Form followinj; Fmiction." 
Perhaps it is nnjnst iiein;; over eritical of a 
people who have had little ehanee of arehitecl iiral 
expression diirinjj the iiast turhilant years, hut when 
snili a linildinj; as the eoni]taratively reeent Hotel 
(If N'iilf at Tours is held uj) to Anieriean sliidenis as 
;in cxaiiiph- of a hijjhly meritorious develoi)ni(Mi1 of 
architectural design, one feels liiat Americans need 
not i;o to I''iaiice for modern t\ilorai;c in beantitnl 
or logical Iniildiiii;. While such a lloriil structure 
may tit into the environmenl of niisly lights or 
sniilin'; snushine of the Loire as the French lan- 
•jnage adopts itself to polite chatter and pleasant 
conversation, it would be no less than had taste that 
would prompt the suhmission of stuh a design to the 
average American public where straightforward. 




Paris--The Little Palace. (Le Petite I 



honest exi)ressiou of materials and functions are 
the architectural ideals. 

In Paris itself where the remnants of the expo- 
sition.s of 1878 and 1900, the Trocadero and the 
"(Jrand" and "Petit" Palaces, are pointed out as 
brilliant achievements of late French architecture, 
or the domes of the recently dedicated church of 
Sacre Cour claims one's attention to recent accom- 
plishment, one is not apt to feel that inodcru French 
training can compete with that which might be ob- 
tained by American students from the designers of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Station, the Wool wort li 
Building or St. Thomas Cathedral in New York. 
The few very recent structiii-es. .•i])ai-1nient himse;;, 
shops, industrial villages that one sees about Francv' 
with their ginger-brea<l decorations, tlieir inidti- 
l>licitly of floi-id niatei-ials. incongrnonsly mixed and 
badly clinsen. would surely not be sanclioneil by 
good architectural practice in Ann'rica, even Ihougli 
all allowance were made for temperinental and ra- 




Tiuioilero — Paris. 

cial dillereuces between the French and American 
public. 

For the American student who is planning to 
give to architecture hi.s best efforts, there should be 
a very good understanding of modern tendencies in 
design before he gave himself up as a disciple of 
French training. He should understand that the 
I'A-ole ])roblenis are not altogether American prob- 
lems, that the F^renchman has a different palette, a 
dilVerent setting and is apt to look at design from 
a dillereut point of perspective. There is much to 
be learned from the French in general composition. 
There is no better place than the Ecole in which to 
master the tecnique of architectural expression in 
drawing and renderings. There is the old world at- 
mosphere of art and centuries of culture to be found 
nowhere better than in France, but may not all 
thi'se things be better comprehended and better ap- 
preciated by the student who has first founded some 
comprehensive ideas of the American problem of 
architecture in its structural and social sense? 
There can be no better training for the coming 
American architect than au intelligent familiarity 
with old world architecture, and wide knowledge 
and appreciation of life and people should be a part 




New "Hotel de Villa", Tours 
(Continued on Page 37) 



\ovember, 1920 



THE TE('HN0(;RAPH 



The Guardian of The Ways, The Block Signal 



1{\' X. 1^. SdWKUS, K. K. ■l.'4 



Tlil] liKidi'i'll ;intiiirKil ic liliick sij;!!;!! syslciu rcp- 
rcsciit.s nearly a lialf ci'iitiiry of [iroi^M'ss in 
Safety Enfiiiiccriiij;. Alth()ii};li in iiraetieally 
every case where si<;nals liave l)een installed, the 
l)riniarv reason for tlieir installation was the seeui-- 
inj; of increased train-mile capacity for the tracks, 
liack of This reason lies a fundamental jjrinciple of 
the sifjnal system — increased safety. For no matter 
how many trains it is possible to get over a certain 
track in a day, if the train operation is not as near 
safe as hnman skill and ingeiinlty can make it, that 
track will lie operating at a loss. A single error on 
the part of one of eight or ten men, a mis-read ordei- 
oi- a niis-inter])reted sign, might resnlt in a wreck 
which wonld cripi)le the road for jionrs or days, be- 
sides causing tremendons exjjense on accninil of in- 
juries and mined eqnipment. It was for this reasoTi 
tiiat the signal system was develojied. 

Automatic signals were not primarily intendesl 
to sni)ersede the Train-despatcher system of nsing 
written oi'ders foi' train niovcnionts : they were, rath- 
er, designed In supplcMicnl ihc Irain order sysleui 
and to furnish the engineer of a train with such 
.iddiiionai information concerning the track ahead 
as would enable him to handle his iraIn with the 
maxinmni of safety and sjieed. i"oi- example, most 
railinads ]iiiiliibii the inserting of any matter in a 
train oidi'r w liicli does not directly concern the train 
movement. I ndei- this inle the engineer wonlil have 
orders concerning only the trains he was to meet 
and where he was to meet them; then, if a track 
foreman were repairing a switch just ahead of tiie 
train and, at that time, hail the ti'ack in an unsafe 
condition for the passage of a train, the engineer's 
orders conld tell iiim nothing aiiont this condition. 
even if the Dispatcher knew aljont it. A condition 
sncli as this, which. Ity the way, (|uile fre(|iu'iitly oc 
curs, might easily canse a serious acci<lenl. were 
it not fur the fact that, where there is an automatic 
sigu.il system, the engineer would be wafue(l whili 
at least a mile away tliat the track ahead was tin 
safe, '{'here ar(> a f<'w cases whei'e automatic signals 
are used without train orders or a hispatcher, but 
these ai-e for the most part on electric interurban 
lines, where tiie cars run on delinite schedides from 
which they have no rea.son to vary. 

The modern automatic block signal Inis been ile- 
veloped to the point wheic it can be de|ieiided upon 
not to I'.'iil more than one tiirie uul of ti\e thousand 



operations, and one liMiidi('(l ninety nine out of two 
humlred sucii failures are on the side of safety, i i. e. 
the signal assumes the '"sto])" ])osition and fails to 
"cleai-", which obviously could not cau.se an acci- 
dent, i Li'ss than one time in a million does a sig- 
nal reiuaiii "clear" when it slioulil be in the stoji jjo- 
siliou. and iu I'oiir out of live such c.-ises there ai-e 
other factors which tend to jirevent possible acci- 
dent. Safety and elficiency like this is not the re- 
sult of accident, nor was it obtained tlinmgh the 
genius and skill of any one iii.iu. Since the inven- 
tion of the track circuit, the basic iirinciple of near- 
ly all au_tonnitic signals, some forty-odd year.s ago, 
literally thousands of the country's ablest inventors 
and manufacturers have been coiiperating to secure 
This result. The magnitude of their task is not 
easily conceived, until one learns that the signals 
lietween two jjassing tracks three miles apart com- 
prise four complete signals, fifteen relays, 102 cells 
of battery, twenty miles of line wire and more than 
a mile of connecting wires, inside the signal cases: 
and that the average control circuit passes through 
the contacts of at least three relays and two circuit 
controllers; and that the failure of any one item 
would upset the smooth working of the system. 

.\ll elect fical apparatus is designed to work on 
the closed circuit principle, thereby giving full jiro- 
tection in the event of a failure of the power supi)ly. 
The only e.\ce|itions to this statement are the norm- 
ally open sjiecial i-elays, which are used to get a di- 
rectional ellect and are to be mentioned later, and 
the motors driving the signal mechaiiicisms which, 
of course, stoj) after the signal arm has been '.iinved 
to the proper position. I assume that laost iiuoi»le 

are more or less f iliar with the principle of the 

track ciicuit, in which oirrent flows from i battery 
along one rail to tlie next signal, through the coils 
of a relay there, em-rgizing it and holding its a'-nia 
lure nil. and back to the battery along the other rail. 
Obviously, when a Irain enters the limits of the 
tr-',k c'icuil. its wheels short circuit the cii"- 
cnit, shunting most of the current away from the 
relay and causing its arnuitiii-e to clrii|i. The gen- 
eral scheme of connections is such that the track 
(cii-cuit) relay controls the "home" relay iu that 
signal and, through a line circuit, the "home" relay 
in the ojiposing signal at the other end of the block. 
The "home" "relay then controls the current supply 
of till' sigu.il motor and "hold clear"' or "clutch"" 



THE tecun(h;kai*h 



November, 1920 



coil. I llic clccr r(iiii;ij;ncl wliicli Imlds llic sij;ii:il nt-in 
in llic •■cli'.ir"' |Misiii(ini. Cmrciil liir (lie liii.' cir 
ciiits and simml iiiuiors is usually obtained from si>p- 
aratc liallciics nf i.-n\)\ivv oxidczinc-canslic soda 

cells. This same ty| I' cell is also used on tlie 

track circuits, reducing the nunihcr of tyjx's of re 
ncw.iis which must lie k('i)t in stock. 

In sjiitc oT the I'acl that line circuits often pass 
thiouj;h the contacts of three or more relays, this 
allVcts the safety of tiie circuit l)nt little, as the con 
tacts of up to date relays olfer very little resistance 
to the passage of current. The contacts of such re 
lays, of which there are usually four, are made of 
larjie silver and {jrapiiite contact pieces which are 
held tifjhtly tojjellier liy the mafjnetic pull of the 
large ()i)eratin<i coils. In addition to this, it has 
become the general custom to provide the most im 
portant circuits with two relay contacts in parallel, 
provided of course, that the Contacts are available. 
The mo<l(>rn signal relay is a very well constructed 
piece of mechanism and when once adjusted holds 
its adjustment almost indefinitely. Incidentally, 
it is the general ])ractice to seal all relays to protect 
them from unauthorized adjustment. These relays 
are made and adjusted with such uniformity that 
after they have been installed they show not more 
than one to two percent of variation in the amount 
of current recpiired to ojierate them. 

Signal operating mechanisms have also received 
the attention of the great body of designers and 
manufacturers. In the very beginning of signalling, 
a few princi]iles were established, from which no 
one has strayed very far. It was forseeu early in 
tlie game that no form of mechanical latch or dog 
could be used to hold a signal blade at "clear". Any 
such latch, recpiiring power to release it .could not 
be safe. So rigidly has this principle been adhered 
to that today there is but one original mechanism in 
which anything resendtling such a latch is used, and 
it is arranged so that tiic hold clear coil forces it 
into mesh, and the weight of the signal arm instant- 
ly forces it out of engagement when the current is 
.shut iilV lioni the hold clear coil. iMost mechanisms, 
however, hold the blade in the clear position eith'r 
electrodynaiiiically, by allowing just suHicient cur- 
rent to How thriiugh the motor to hold the blade, or 
l)y friction brakes which reipiire current flowing in 
the hold clear coils to hold them engaged. Another 
princi])le laid down in the early days of signalling 
was that there should be a minimum of sliding parts 
in the mechanism. The reason for this is obvious; 
there is far better chance for a sliding part beiiig 
stuck, rusted or frozen in its guides than there Js for 
a rolling or rcvid\ing i)art, unih'r the same circum- 



stances. The signal mechanisms of today sliow an 
almost complete absence of sliding parts; practical- 
ly e\ery mo\ing p.irt revolves in bearings or t.".i<"uls 
on rollci's. 

The most claboraje circuits atid efficient mech- 
anisms woidd lie worthless without a very good way 
of getting the signals through to the engineer. In 
the earlier days, the problem was solved by display- 
ing a red disc (or at night a red light) to indicate 
"stop", and a white disc (or a white light) to indi- 
cate ''proceed." Many of these old disc signals nm 
in use today, and you may see dozens of them con- 
trolling interurban traffic along the Lake Michigan 
shore. However they were not adapted to certain 
classes of work; the discs could not be seen far 
enough in the o])en country, and so there was a grad- 
ual change to the type of signal using an arm or 
blade which could be displayed in different positions, 
which means for showing different colored lights 
at night. The use of the white light to indicate 
"clear" was also abandoned, after several accidents 
had l)een caused by the white light being displayed 
where the red lens had been broken out. The color 
adojjted in its place was green, which had formerly 
been used to indicate "caution." When green was 
taken to indicate "clear", yellow, which had not been 
used before that time, was taken for "caution." In 
recent years two more colors have been added to the 
list, viz., 'lunar white' — a peculiar bluish white, and 
l)urple. They are apt to be confused at long distanc- 
es and are used chiefly on certain short range sig- 
nals in large interlocking plants, where a large num- 
ber of red and green lights might be confusing. The 
signal arm or blade has also undergone several 
changes. From the signal showing the arm in two 
positions in the lower right hand quadrant there 
has been a gradual change to the signal showing the 
arm in one of three positions in the upper right hand 
quadrant. The arm in the lower (juadraut was not 
well adapted to being used in three positions for the 
reason that, at a considerable distance the arm in a 
])osition of 45 degrees below the horizontal seemed 
to blur with the signal mast. The position of the 
blade in the ujiper quadrant can be determined with 
greater certainty and at much greater dis- 
tance than in the h)wer (juadrant. The indica- 
tions almost universally used now are: (1) Blade 
vertical, green light displayed at night, "proceed at 
full sjieed"; ( L' I Blade at angle of 45 degrees with 
the horizontal, yellow light disidayed at night, "pro- 
ceed with caution, ex|)ecting to find the next signal 
at "stop"; {■.',) Blade horizontal, leil light displayed 
at night, "stop, track ahead is obstructed". In ad- 
dition to these there are various special meanings 



Xormihrr, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



j;ivcii to sijiiials. (li'iiciidiiij; upon wlictlicr llic cliil 
1)1' llic ItlaiU- is s(in;ire, j)(>iiiU'cl, rouiidt'd or lisli-tailed. 
wlictluM- tlic sij;iial is ])r(ivi(l('d with a iiuiiiIm'I- plati' 
oi- not. clc. 

A r(iiii]iai'at i\('ly ri'cciit dcvcluiniiciit in llic aiit- 
(tniatic signal licid is tlic systoui j;entM-all.v used on 
sin<;U' fracii i-ccids. called the Absolute and I'erniis- 
sive Block system, usually i-efei-ivd to as the A. 1*. H. 
system. The working; of this system can hest i)e de- 
sci-ii)ed liy takiinj; up a particular case, 'i'heie are 
two "passiiij;" tracks, X and Y, located aldiut ten 
miles apart. I'nder the A. 1'. B. system there would 
he a pair of signals (one signal governing trall'ic in 
each direction) at each end of each passing track 
and about three pairs of signals located between X 
and Y, dividing the space into a[)proxiniately ecpial 
si)aces. Tliei-e is a train A at X and a train B at Y. 
.\s soon as either .V or B pass beyond the signals; 
located at the end of their i)assiiig tracks all tli" 
signals governing tlie oihei- at once go to the yAo\> 
position. Suppose A leaves lii-sl. tlien all the sig 
nals governing trall'ic in I5"s dii-ection, between X 
and Y, assume the stop position. The engineer of I? 
sees the signal immediately aliead of iiini at stop 
and knows that some other train lias left X and is 
])roceeiling toward him. As soon as A gets into the 
clear at Y, the signal ahead of B clears up and l> 
j)rocee(ls toward X. If there is a third train (' fol- 
lowing B, it need only wait until B has passed the 
(irst jiair of intermediate signals on its way to X, 
foi- the signal circuits are arranged so that tin- sig 
nals clear up as soon as the train gels out of the 
block, allowing a following train to follow immed- 
iately. "Selecting" relays, wliicli close certain cir 
cuits when a train pa.sses the signal iu one direction, 
but do not close them when a train passes in the oth- 
er direction are the basis of the .system. AYith them 
are used sjjecial relays to shunt around the selecting 
rel.iys and allow the signals to clear up behind the 
train. The system has the advantages of ])roviding 
coniplete |protection for hiMd-on moxcments and still 
jillowiug trains to follow one .inollicr without ini 
due loss of lime. 

There are several new develoi)ments in the anto- 
malic signal field, the general use of which will lend 
to incre.-ise the safety of llie system. The til'sl of 
these is the use of .Mteinating < 'urrenl for the |iowei- 
supply. .Mierualing current is geneialeil at a cen 
tral station, provided with au.xiliary apparatus to 
obviate ]iower failure, anil transmitted at higii volt 
age along the line of the i-ailroad. .\l each signal 
location a stepdown transformer is installed to sup 
ply the line, motor and track circuits at Ihal signal. 



When it is consideied Ih.il the average signal sec- 
tion, under the care of one maiutainer, often com- 
prises a thousaml or more cells of battery, each of 
which reipiires renewing e\('ry six to ten months, 
it is easy to see that the general use of an A. (". suji- 
ply .system materially reduce failures, liy ]>ronu)tinu; 
better maintenance. Along with the A. (\ power 
.system came the practice of lighting the signals by 
electricity. The oil lamps much used at present are 
of very low candle-power, e.xpi'iisive and inell'icieni 
and re(piire about one-third of the maintainer's time 
lo care for them jiroperly. 10le<-tric lighting of sig- 
nals (whether the necessary current is supplied by a 
tap on the A. C. transformer. winding, or in case of 
the I>. (\ .systems, by an au.xiliary lighting battery I 
with the circuit.^ arranged to light Ihe lam])s only 
when a train is ap]ii-oaching, would materially in- 
crea.se the general safety of the system, by i)rovid- 
ing brighter, clearer indications and by reducing the 
number of lamp failures. 

Another de\clo]Miient of signalling, which is slill 
in its earliest inf.incy. but which may grow to 
astounding ])ro|)oil ions, is the automatic train con- 
trol and slop. There are several test locations of 
this device, which is intended to keep the train tinder 
control and slo]) it if the t'ligineer runs ])ast a signal 
at "stop'", but until it is develo]»ed to the ]ioiiit of 
safety and reliability reached by the automatic sig- 
nal it cannot be adoi>led for general use. ^^'e have 
Ihe signal indication beside the track and the con- 
trol devices, throttle and air brakes on the locomor- 
i\('. but the necessary reipiirement -some de])end- 
able connection between the two — is the one most 
dilVicult to till, 'i here are I'oui- general solutions, 
but none of them seems i)articiilarly suited for this 
work. The oldest way consists of using a mechanic 
al tri]), operated by the signal, to open a valve on the 
locomotive and set the air brakes. The main oli 
jections to this melhod are that it is not particularly 
certain of ojtei-alion, and thai Ihe i)arts, both the 
trip and t he engine valve, are apt lo be fouled by for- 
eign objects. The c(Uitact rail method, eni|(loying 
;! short I'.iil nv ramp which is energi/.eil or clead ac- 
cording as to whether the signal indicates stop or 
jiroceed, together with a conlacl shoe on the loco- 
motive, seems to be the most pT-oniising and pi-icli- 
cal system. The two minoi- methods, imluction be- 
tween an (■leclromagnei beneath Ihe track and 
another on the locomotive frame, and Ihe ai)plicalion 
of Hertzian waves, do not jjossess the necessary 
ipialilications of simplicity and absolute reliabilitj' 
to desei-ve more than passing mention at this stage 
of their develojunent. 



THE TECHNOORAPH 



November, 1920 



Why Balance an Automobile Engine? 

By AIaktin Pkiscu, M. E. '21 



IT is I'ssi'iiti.il that ail aiitDiiiohilc ciifiiiic sliould 
lie puwoi-liil iuid at till' saiiR' time lifjlit and (•(im- 
pact. Li^'iit \veij;lit [irosupposes that the dimeu- 
sioiis of the component [lai'ts of tlu; engine will be as 
small as safety will permit, (^)mpactness is obtained 
liy a skillful a i-i-a linemen t of the parts of the enj^ine 
so that the total space occupied by the assembled 
engine will be a minimum. However, iu order to 
obtain, at the same time, compactness, light weight 
and HKiH I'OWEK it is necessary to run the engine 
at high speeds. Auto eugines running at 2500 to 
:{()()() revolutions per minute are not uncommon. 

It is a well known fact that a reciprocating- 
l>art engine produces, in addition to the useful forc- 
es, a host of undesirable ones which manifest them- 
selves iu poorly designed eugines by virtue of the 
vibration they set up and their tendency to set the 
engine foundation in motion. At low speeds these 
eti'ects, though they are not serious, are quite ap- 
parent. At HIGH SPEEDS, however, these second- 
ary forces become very objectionable, for they are 
nearly always greater than the useful forces, and 
were no steps taken to eliminate or at least reduce 
them, the excessive vibration they induce would tear 
the engine to pieces in short order. At any rate 
they reduce the efficiency of the engine. 

It is the designer's task to discover the nature 
of all the forces which act upon every part of the 
engine and compute their magnitude and direction, 
so that he may introduce such new forces iu the 
guise of balancing weights as will nullify or reduce 
those components which tend to shake the engine, 
but will not reduce the useful effect upon the fly- 
wheel. 

\IHKATION may be caused in two ways: (1) 
Hy unbalanced rotating parts, (2) by unbalanced 
reciprocating parts. 

1. If the flywheel is heavy on one side, or the 
crank throw is unbalanced, so that there is an un- 
l)alanced weight W rotating with a uniform peri- 
pheral speed V about the crankshaft axis at a radial 
dislance r fi'om it, the so called "centrifugal" force 
will exert a radial pull upon tlie crankshaft, acting 
through the center of gravity of W, and amounts to 



f = 



\V V 



</v 



(1) 



'i'his force f rotates with W and is unchanged in 
magnitude for any crank position. Its tendency 
plane in which the center of gravity of W revolves. 
This force f may be balanced by attaching di- 
rectly oiijxisite to W at a distance i\ such a weight 
\V, that 



\Vv 



W,v, 



^Xv 



or W 



(2) 



2. The reciprocating parts of the engine, be- 
cause of their rapid accelerations produce inertia 
forces which are not so easy to balance. The piston 
must accelerate from rest to full piston speed and 
then come to rest again, twice every revolution. 
Moreover, the connecting rod has a complicated 
whij)ping or lashing motion. The wrist pin end is 
confined to move in a straight line, while the crank 
pin end must move in a circle. The net result is that 
the intermediate points of the rod must follow a 
complicated path in obedience to forces which a'-e 
changing their magnitudes and directions from in- 
stant to instant. Consequently the velocities of all 
the points in the connecting rod are also constantly 
changing in magnitude and direction and the result- 
ing high accelerations produce inertia forces which 
tend to rock the engine bed and produce unequal 
pressures on different sides of the bearings and 
cylinder causing these members to wear unevenly 



is to move the wimic engine in all direction in the 




Noi-ember, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Consider the engine with the crank on upper 
dead center, as shown in Fig. 1. In tliis position no 
motion is possible and tlie forces act only to strain 
the engine l)ed. The total pressure within the clear- 
ance space caused by the working medium acts with 
equal intensity upon the piston and cylinder head, 
so that there are two eiiual and opposite forces 
tending to ])ull the engine apart. Call these forces 
P, and IV.. Furthermore, the bearings are acted 
upon by the weight w of the piston, connecting rod 
an<l crankshaft in addition to Pj. Therefore the 
bearings always have the static pressure Pj-f"''^' — 
P, = w acting downward. In an auto engine w is 
very small as compared to the other forces acting 
so that it may be neglected. 




However, when tiic ci'aiik has moved past tlie 
dead center the parts become accelerated and new 
KINETIC forces have to be dealt with. In Fig. 2, 
the force upon the cylinder head, P^ is still equal 
to P.^ acting on the piston. Pj is transmitted un- 
diminished to the engine frame. Pj, on the other 
hand, no longer appears in its entirety as a pressure 
upon the bearings, but a part of it acts to ACCEL- 
Elx.\TE the piston, wrist pin and connecting rod 
and lo turn over the flywheel. The resultant press- 
ure K upon the bearings is now less than I\ (neg- 
li'cting wi l)y the force necessary to accelerate the 
moving ])arts. K does not act in the same straight 
line as I',, l)Ut the difference is so small that it may 
be so considered in order to simplify the discussion. 
Now then, since P,>K there is an unbalanced force 
1', — K = r, wliicii ill this case acts upward, l' 
tends lo :illci-n:ilcly lill mikI drop Ihc engine. To 
resist lliis icnilciu y Ilirri^ ninsl lie a l.al,in<'iiig force, 
whiili is su|i|ilii-(l in jiiMct i<-c by the Tensile Resist- 
ance of llie rinin<lation bolls. 

Imagine the elements of an engine shown in 



Fig. 3. The piston A is acted upon by : 

1. The pressure of the working medium. If A 
is the area of the piston in square inches and P the 
unit pressure in pounds per square inch the total 
force on the piston is PA acting down. 

2. The downward acceleration of the piston 
and its pin causes a retarding force F which acts 
upward. F is given by 



AV„ 



F 



A,, w hen 



(3) 



W^ is the weiglit of llie jiislon and is known 

y is the gravitational constant 

A^ is the acceleration of the piston. It may be 
determined for any position of the crank, either 
analytically by solving 



K 

A^ = R ( '-- ) ( cos (i -\ cos 20 ) 

L 



(I) 



(For the siginficance of the syndmls see notes 
accompanying table 2). 

or else, graphically by the use of Klieii's construc- 
tion.* 

The resultant force upon the piston is, therefore, 

PA + F ,5) 

Before an analysis of the other forces can be 
made it is necessary to find the direction, point of 
a]iplication and magnitude of the resultant force (i 
acting upon the connecting rod. The direction of Q 
will be the same as the direction of the acceleration 
of the mass center of the rod as determined by 
Klein's construction. To determine its point of ap 
plication x, it is necessary, in the analysis to re- 
place the rod, which has a relatively complicated 
form, by a simpler kinetically equivalent system. 
By this is meant that the new system must have the 
same mass, center of gravity and moment of inertia 
as the old. The simplest system kinetically equiv 
alent to a connecting rod is made up of two ma- 
terial points of mass m, and m. joined by a weight- 
less rigid link. If h, and h. are their resjiective dis- 
tances from the center of gravity of the rod, 

m. -\- nio = .M, the mass of the rod, 

m,hi = lUoli.., 

and m,li, -\- mji. = MK-. (K is the radius 
of gyration of the rod about its center of gravity.* 

If we li.\ h, the three eipnitions may be solved 
simidtaneoiisly, in which event they reduce to 



h,h,, 



K-- 



(fi) 



•See any Rood text of "Kinematics and Kinetics of Ma- 
ctilner.v", or "The Diesel Engine" by G. J. Wells and A. J. 
W'allis-Tayler, p. 100; also. "Kinematics and Kinetics of 
-Machinery", A. C. Harper and J. A. Dent, Chap. VII. 



THE TE(;ilN()(ii:Aril 



Nouciubcr, l!)20 




Fig. 4. Dt'tenniiiatioii of "Q" Forces. 

l''nr till' |nii'])osi' of tilt' prohlciii it is only uee- 
cssaiy to tind li. ntid llius locale the position of uu. 
Havliij; fouiul in., and its accclcral ion fo (by Klein's 
c'onstnietion, see Fig. 4l draw tiifoufili ni^ a line 
ni.K ]tai-allel to f(>- Tiiis will eiit llu' line joining 
the ci'iinkpiii and wrisi pin centers at K. Through 
K draw a line C2K n;"i-allel to Og, the acceleration 
of I he center of gravity of the rod. QK will cut the 
rod in some point x which is the point of applica- 
tion of il. the inertia force of the rod. 

If the weight of the rod is neglected, the niag- 
nilude 111' *.). from Klein's const iiict ion is 



AV, 



ii = (()/()( 'I Kc^-l 



where K("-) = radial acceleration of crank i)in 

W,. = weight of connecting rod 

Og ^ acceleration of the center of gravity of rod 

OC = accelleration of the wrist pin 

The Inertia forces acting on the connecting rod 
are now completely determined, and it remains only 
to compute the third force that shakes the engine 
lied. This is the so called centrifugal foi-ce of the 
nital ing crank. 

If \\', is the weight i>( the crank throw and 
crank pin r^ is the distance of the center of gravity 
of W lr<im the a.xis of lotat ion 

"> is the angular velocity of the crank, then, 
the centrifugal foi'ce of the rotating crank is 



W. 



F. = 



r,("=) 



(SI 



This force acts radially, and tends to ]mll the engine 
in all ilirections in the plane of rotation of the 
center of gravity of \Vc. 

The three forces of I'A -\ !•', (J. and I'', may now 
he conii)ineil vecforially in order to tind their result 
ant. This residtant is the actual force shaking the 
engine bed and is the force which should he reduced 
by a balance weight. In Fig. .") is shown the vector 
addition which will yield the shaking force. The 
actual bal.-incing is done by vectorially coinbiiiiug 
Suction ])ressure l.'i.S Ih./in^ Abs. 



Fxh.iust ])ressnre 18 Ib./in.^ Abs. 

Length of connecting rod 8% inches. 

Distance from center of gravity of rod to 
the three unbalanced forces I»A -|- F, Q and F, for 
successive crank positions during the whole jycle. 
Hy joining the ends of the resultant vectors a closed 
curve will be obtained. This curve is a polar dia- 
gram of the shaking forces. If its area is found hy 
means of a jilanimeter and replaced by a circle of 
equal area, the radius of this circle (to scale) is a 
close ;i|)proximation of the average sliaking force 
acting upon the engine. Now then, if we as'j-sme 
that our balancing weight is to be attached to the 
crank shaft so that its center of mass is at some dis- 
tance r from the crank shaft's axis of rotation, the 
actual weight to be attached may be found from 
('(piation (1 I. If the distance first assumed proves 
impractical for mechanical or other reasons a new 
distance may be assumed and the corresponding 
weight can be easily found from (2). 

An actual investigation of a commercial auto- 
mobile engine which was analjtically balanced in 
the described nninner is here reproduced. The jun- 
ior mechanical engineers, as a part of their course 
in Kinematics and Kinetics of Machinei-y denote 
about one third of the semester to such a commercial 
balancing problem. The class of 1921 balanced a 
Falls Motor Company Type 'S' six cylinder engine. 
For this purpose, the class was divided into squads 
of four men. One man in the group acted as forcMian. 
It was the foreman's duty to see that the work was 
apportioned properly among the squad members. 
The actual analysis of the problem as worked out 
by one of these groups is described to show how the 
principles outlined above may he applied to an actu- 
al engine. As a by-product of the solution, data of 
interest to the designer, such as hearing, crank pin, 
wrist pin pressures, side thrust against the cylinder, 
the turning elfort and the power developed hy the 
engine were obtained. 

The following is a description of the engine as 
obtained from the manufacturer: 

FALLS MOTOK COMPANY, SIX CYLINDER,— 

MODEL 'S'— EN<iINE 

DIMENSIONS: 

Diameter of cylindei' 3% inches. 

Stroke il/4 inches 

Piston displacement — (six cylinders) _1{)5.584 cu. in. 
\'olnme of compression sjjace when piston 

is at to]> of stroke S.ti:! cu. in. 

('om|)ression ratio S.d 

Comin-ession pressiire,-^ 98.08 Ih./in.^ Abs. 

Jlaximum explosion pressure :U0 lb./in.''(Jauge 



Aorriiibrr, I9J0 



TIIK TECUXOCUAril 



the wrist i)iu 6.3 inches. 

Ui.stauce from center of gravity of 

crank to crauk.shaft a.\is 1.288 inches. 

WEIGHTS : 

AVeight of piston complete with wrist 

pin and piston rings 1 lb. 15 oz. = 1.938 lb. 

Weight of connecting rod complete 

wilii bushings 1 lb. 12 oz. = 1.75 lb. 

Weight of crank throw 7.89 lb. 

Maximum speed of engine is 2500 r. p. m. 

FIKIXG ORDER: 14-2 6-3-5. 

TIMING : 

Intake: opens on crankshaft after upper dead 

center 13° 

closes on crankshaft after lower dead 

center 42° 

Exhaust : opens on crankshaft before lower 

dead center 45° 

closes on crankshaft after upper dead 

center 10° 

Time in seconds for 50 complete swings of con- 
necting rod about the center of wrist pin__44.16. 



e 


Cose 


ze 


Cotia 


IC. 

fCoiJS 


CsatK 


S^'e.lt 




t.c- 







1. 00000 





l.OOOOO 


.26160 


1.26150 


isau.o 


2.66 


15310 




IS 


.96593 


30 


.36603 


.22646 


1.19239 


14472.6 


2.53 


14470 




30 


.8660: 


60 


.50000 


.13075 


.99678 


12098.1 


2.11 


12050 




45 


.70711 


90 


.00000 


.00000 


.70711 


8582.2 


1.60 


6570 




60 


.50000 


120 


-.50000 


-.13075 


.36925 


4481.7 


..78 


4460 


ll 


75 


.25882 


150 


-.06603 


-.22646 


.03236 


392.8 


.07 


400 


90 


.00000 


180 


-1.00000 


-.26150 


-.26150 


-3173.8 


-.56 


- 3200 


=^ 


105 


-.25882 


210 


-.66603 


-.22646 


-.48528 


-5689.9 


-1.04 


- 6940 


t\l 


WO 


-.60000 


240 


-.50000 


-.13075 


-.63075 


-7655.4 


-1.36 


- 7760 




135 


-.70711 


270 


.00000 


.00000 


-.70711 


-6582.2 


-1.50 


- 85AO 




150 


-.66603 


300 


.50000 


.13075 


-.73528 


.6924.2 


-1.56 


- 6910 




165 


-.96593 


330 


.86603 


.22646 


-.73947 


-8975.2 


-l.f.7 


8960 




IGO 


-1.00000 


360 


1.00000 


.26150 


-.73650 


-8963.4 


-1.57 


- 0960 




9 


At 


F 


r/soo 


Qg 


a 


q/soo 


304500 


Po:„r«,n 







153U.0 


921 


1.84 


ZM 


720.0 


1.44 


4.32 


0- 




IS 


1M72.6 


879 


1.74 


2.21 


686.1 


1.37 


4.11 


1-23 




30 


12096.05 


727 


1.45 


2.07 


642.6 


1.28 


3.64 


2-22 




tf 


8582.2 


516 


1.03 


1.90 


689.8 


1.17 


3.51 


3-21 




60 


MSI. 7 


269 


.54 


1.75 


643.2 


1.08 


3.24 


4-20 


5^^ 


75 


392.1 


24 


.05 


1.66 


511.0 


1.02 


3.06 


5-1'J 




90 


-3173.8 


-191 


-.36 


1.65 


511.0 


1.02 


3.06 


6-10 


-■• 


105 


-5889.69 


-354 


-.71 


1.72 


S33.9 


1.06 


3.16 


7-17 




120 


-7655.* 


-460 


-.92 


1.83 


566.1 


1.13 


3.39 


0-16 




135 


-6582.2 


-516 


-1.03 


1.90 


589.8 


1.17 


3.51 


9-15 




150 


-6924.2 


-636 


-1.07 


1.95 


605.3 


1.21 


3.63 


10-14 




U6 


-6975.2 


-540 


-1.06 


1.98 


614.6 


1.23 


3.69 


11-13 




180 


-6963.4 


-539 


-1.08 


2.00 


620.0 


1.24 


3.72 


12-12^ 






Fig. 6, Indicator Diagram 

The accelerations of the piston and tlie other 
moving parts of the engine were obtained by Klein's 
construction. Fig. 4. The piston accelerations were 
checked analytically l)y means of eijuation (4). 
Table 2 shows a coiivenient scheme for tabulating 
tlie computations, wliidi makes the location of er- 
rors easy. 

The Inertia forces were now calculated and tal)- 
ulated as sliown in Table 3. The actual directions 
of the ct)nnecting rod inertia forces, Q. were found 
and also tlieir point of application as sliown in Fig. 
4 and as descrilied in connection witii (M|uations (I 
and 7. (Tlie proof of this construction may hi? 
found in Sec. 3, Chap. \'II, "Kinematics and Kinet- 
ics of .Machinery" — .V. (\ Harper and A. J. Dent.) 

The forces of the piston were found by con- 
structing a theoretical indicator-card for the engine. 
Fig. 6. The expansion was assumed to follow the 
law PV ''^ = a constant, and the compression the 
law pv •-'* ^ another constant. The expansion 
curve was ilrawn assuming that the ju'essure at the 
end of e.\]»losion would be four times the pressure at 
the end of compression. This was the basis for the 
calculations of the ordinates to the expansion line, 
because in a theoretical engine this would a])proxi- 
mately be the pressure at end of explosion. However, 
in the actual engine the explosion does not rise much 
ovei- ."^10 pounds per sipiare inch guage, and to mak;' 



10 



TllK TECllMXiUAl'U 



l^^ocvmbcr, lf)20 









,(f£M. J 












CcHPREisioN Curve 1 


So. 




i<vK 


"v^ 


Mlf^ 


lo,P. 


P 


P/so 


PA 


PA/S" 


u 


i.2<e 


.11227 






1.16732 


14.70 


.2940 


112.62 


.225 


10 


1.198 


.07737 


.03490 


.04467 


1.2U99 


16.29 


.3256 


126.02 


.260 


9 


1.09S 


.03941 


.03796 


.04658 


1.26057 


16.22 


.3644 


140.64 


.261 


a 


.999 


1.99762 


.04169 


.05323 


1.31360 


20.60 


.4120 


156.10 


.316 


T 


.099 


1.96162 


.04600 


.06888 


1.37266 


23.58 


.4716 


160.97 


.361 


6 


.795 


1.90037 


.06146 


.06586 


1.43853 


27.45 


.5490 


210.68 


.421 


b 


.695 


i.64198 


.05839 


.07474 


1.51327 


32.60 


.6620 


260.20 


.500 


< 


.696 


i.77462 


.06746 


.06634 


1.69961 


39.77 


.7964 


305.23 


.610 


"3 


.496 


£.69461 


.07991 


.1J226 


1.70169 


50.34 


1.0066 


386.36 


.Tn. 


I 


.395 


i.69660 


.09601 


.12645 


I.S2734 


67.19 


1.3436 


515.66 


1.031 


1 


.195 


1.46962 


.12678 


.16228 


1.98962 


97.64 


1.9628 


749.39 


1.598 








Ei 


JViNnau Curve | 


M. 


w IT 


lcg.y 


109^ 


a3i„t^ 


lo^F 


P 


P/SO 


PA 


?A/xo 


1 


.2S47 


1.4.;276 






2.69169 


390.56 


7.6112 


2997.6 


6.99 


2 


.3647 


i.66194 


1.86061 


1.82879 


2.42048 


263.37 


5.2674 


2021.0 


4.04 


3 


.4447 


1.66717 


1.69477 


1.87056 


2.29104 


191.00 


3.8200 


1600.1 


3.00 


4 


.5647 


1.76182 


1.91535 


1.89566 


2.16692 


153.79 


3.0758 


1177.6 


2.36 


i 


.6647 


1.62263 


i.92919 


1.91290 


2.09982 


125.64 


2.5166 


905.6 


1.93 


6 


.7647 


1.68349 


1.93914 


1.92514 


2.02496 


106.91 


2.1182 


612.9 


1.62 


7 


.6647 


r.93687 


1.94662 


T.9»434 


1 .96930 


91.05 


1.6210 


698.0 


1.39 


e 


.9647 


1.98439 


1.95248 


1.94155 


1.90085 


79.59 


1.6916 


610.8 


1.22 


9 


1.0647 


.02722 


1.95717 


1.94732 


1.84617 


70.50 


1.4100 


641.1 


1.08 


10 


1.16-17 


.06621 


1.96101 


1.95204 


1.60021 


63.12 


1.2624 


464.5 


0.97 


u 


1.2647 


.10199 


1.96422 


1.95599 


1.76620 


67.04 


1.1406 


437.8 


0.67 



the card aiii)r().\iiiiatt'ly f()ri-esi)oud to actual coiidi 
tioiis, the explosion line was cnt oil' at 310 ponnds. 
The actual pressure within the cylinder during the 
variou.s parts of the stroke are tabulated in Table 
1. Another card showing the variation of PA (Fig. 
8) was also constructed. PA was then plotted suc- 
cessively (Fig. 9) upon a horizontal ))ase line whicli 
represents two revolutions of the crank shaft, — and 
as an a.xis is assumed to coincide with the atmos- 
pheric pressure line- l^])on this PA curve (Fig. 9) 
were superimposed the discontinuous curves (Fig. 
10) whose ordinates represent the inertia forces, F, 
of tlie piston as tabulated in Table 3. By graphical 
addition of I'.V and F Ihi' i-esultant forces upon 1iie 
piston were found. In l<'ig. 10 the shaded area is 
bounded Ity the resultant curve. 

Since l'.\ -|- F and Q were now coiinilctcly de 
tiTiiiiiicd for lurty eight crank positions (see Fig. 
4 and 10, and Table :i), it was possible to construcl 
forty eight force polygons similar to Fig. ?> from 
which tlie various bearing and pin ]iressures and otii- 
er forces were scaled, tabulated and ploilcd tor each 
of the foi-ty eight positions of the loui- cycles. 

Explanation of Fig. \\ (from llai-j)ei' and Dent, 
Chait. 7). 

Ill the fullowing discussion the fi'iction at the 
pins is neglected lint account is taken of the sliding 
friction between the piston and cylinder. 

In the case of the connecting rod we know the 



force Q due to the inertia of the rod and we know 
the point x where the line of action crosses the rod. 
The pressure P„ on the wrist pin A arises from two 
forces, (1) the vertical elfective pressure trans- 
mitted by the piston, which is completely known ; 

(2) the reaction of the cylinder, oidy the line of ac- 
tion Y — Y of which is known. From A, Fig. 3, lay 
oir AB to scale equal to the known force PA -(- F 
transmitted by the piston and through B we draw 
Y — Y parallel to the known direction of the side 
thrust of the piston against the cylinder. Evidently 
the end of the vector representing the resultant 
pressure on the pin A must lie on Y — Y. Now we 
divide Q into parallel components at A and C. To 
do this easily, from A lay olf AK equal to but op- 
posite to Q, and draw CK cutting the line of action 
of Q in J ; then XJ = AF, the component at A and 
FK = CU, the component of Q at C. The pin A is 
subject to four forces : 

(1) The force transmitted by the piston = AB 

= I'A -\- F 

(2) The component FA of the resultant Q. 

(3) The thrust of the rod in the direction CA 
(-1) The side thrust of the piston against the 

cylinder. 

Of these (1) and (2) are completely known; 

(3) and (4) are known in direction. Complete the 
force polygon ABLF by drawing BL in the direction 
of the piston's side thrust and FL in the direction 
of the thrust in the connecting rod. Then AL is the 
pin pressure = P^, BL is the side thrust, and FL 
is the longitudinal thrust of the rod. 

The jiressure P„ at pin V is now easily found. 




Uiaqram Of Total Pressirec On P/iton 
Fig. S. Va.iuticn o£ PA. 



November, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



11 



w 



\ 






Fig. 9. Variation of PA. 



'^ 



\ 
\ 




Diaqrom Of Combined forcei On Puton 
Fig. 10. 



Siiice P^, P^ and (I arc in ccjnililiriimi, tlicir vectors 
must form a closed triangle. Now KA == Q, and AL 
= \\; hence LK must represent P,.. Since LK is 
the force exerted on the connecting rod, KL equal 
and opposite must be the force exerted by the rod 
on the crank pin. Resolve KL into components KP 
and PL perpendicular and pai'allel respectively to 
tiie crank OP; then KP is the elfective force at the 
crank pin tending to turn the shaft, or in other 
words, it is the tangential turning effort. 

A knowledge of these forces is of value t<i the 
designer because they enable him to predict the be 
havior of the engine when actually constructed. 
Only as a matter of intere.st, therefore, and not bo- 
cause of any prol)able influence tliey may have u])on 
the balancing problem are the magnitudes of these 



forces tabulated (Table 4) and plotted (Fig. ll-Ki). 
ExplanatidH (if I''igures 11 to Iti: 




l-'ig. 11. 



KP 



I'i 



Figure 11, The Turning KlVurt : (vecti 

.-{ I . 

An 18 inch base line represents two revolutions 
of the crank shaft. The ordinates of the curve rep- 
resent the turning ell'ort for every 15 degree posi- 
tion of the crank during a cdinplete cycle. Ordi- 
nates above the base line represent positive InriiiTig 
efforts, those below, negative efforts. 



IJ 



TMi; Ti;(iiN(KiUArii 



.\ov<tnbt:r, 1<)20 






KiK. 12. 

Fipirc 111, Thi" ctmihiin'tl tnriiiiip ctTort dinfjram 

n'pivst'iits tlu' useful t-lTiirt of six cyliinlfrs. It was 

olitiiiiiftl l>y adding; up tlio turiiinf; ell'iu-ts of all in 

ili\iiiiiMl rxiiinltTs fur every l.'i ile;;ree crauk position 




Fig. 13. 

I'igure \'.'>. 'I'lie siile tlirusi of the ])iston: (vec- 
tor HL). 

The side thrust was plotted on an 18 inch base 
line repre.senting two revolutions of the crank. Pres- 
sures aliove the line rei)resent positive and pressures 
lieliiw the line rejirt'-sent negative thrust. 




Prtavrt On Man Bnrirj 
Kin. 14. 



Figui'e I (. .M;iiii 



( vector 



LI'). 

The hearing pressures wi-re i)l(itte(l on a polar 
diagram. The end of tiie vector marked P was made 
to coincide with the pole. The ends marked L were 
joined by drawing a smooth curve. This curve shows 
the variation of the pressure on the bearing and its 
tendency to concentrate on one side. 



Figun' 1."), Wrist pin pressures: (vector AL). 

The end of the vector marked A was made to 
coincide with the point of intersection of the direc- 
tion line of the vector with the zero circle. The 
points marked L were then joined by a smooth curve. 




Prtii</re On Crank Pin 
l-lg. 16 

Figure Hi, Crank pin pre.ssures: (vector KL). 

Tiie ends of the vectors marked K were made to 
coincide with the pole. The L ends were joined by 
a smooth curve. 

It should be noted how the pressures concen- 
trate on one side of the various pin and bearing 
surfaces. Most rapid wear of course occurs here. 

COMPUTATIONS 

The location of the mass m, of the kinetically 
equivalent connecting rod. If 

r = radius of gyration of the rod about an a.\is 

x-x through m, 
c = distance of x-x from the center of gravity 

of tiie rod, then, K- = r- — c- 
r- may be found from the pendulum formula, 
J.2 ^_ T-yi^/4?r-' where, T is the time in seconds 
for one swing of the rod oscillating about x-x. 
T = 44.1G/50 = 0.8832 sec. 
g is the acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ft/ 

sec.^ 
h, is the distance of the center of gravity of the 

rod from m, ^ 0.r)2.") ft. 
Solving for r- we find its value to be 0.334 ft." 

c= = 0.27r> ft.- 
K=, therefore, is equal to 0.059 ft.'' 
So that from equation (G), h, = 1.35 inches. 
The scale of accelerations was so chosen that 
the length represented by the crank also represents 
its acceleration. It was necessary to do this in order 
that Klein's construction might be applied. The 
scale developed for this iirnhlcm is, 1 inch = 5711.6 
feet per sec. per sec. 

THE SHAKING FORCES. 

The shaking forces wiM-e found by finding llie 
resultant of the centrifugal force, F^, acting on the 
crank, the inertia or 'Q' force on the connecting rod, 
and the total force, PA -J- F on the piston. These 
shaking forces were jilotted on a polar diagram. Tlic 
area of the polar diagram was found by the use of a 
]iliniimeter. A circle was then drawn so that its area 
was equal to that of the shaking force diagram. The 



Xovcmber, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



10 



radius of this circle represents the mean of the 
shaking forces on the engine to a scale of 1 inch = 
500 lbs. This is the force that 7nust ie balanced by 
the introduction of some new force. 




Fig. 5. 

The shield shaped diagram represents the shak- 
ing forces still remaining after the introduction of 
this balancing force. These remaining forces can 
not be eliminated entirely without the introduction 
of new shaking forces which may prove more harm- 
ful than they. 

The centrifugal force acting on the crank is 
equal to F„ = MA^. = rc^-) W/g 

M = mass of crank = W/g = 7.89 Lb/32.2 

r = distance from center of gravity of crank to 
axis of rotation = 1. 228" 

•^ = angular velocity. 2G1.8 rad/sec. 

F„ = 1718.7 lb. 

Vector length used in the diagram = 
F/500 = 3.i37" 

The other two forces were scaled from tlieir 
respective diagrams. 

BALANCE WEIGHT TO BE ATTACHED 
TO CRANK 

If the balance weight is to be so attached that 
its center of mass is at a distance of 1 inch fi-uii 
the axis of rotation, in the line of the crank, and op- 
posite to it, the weight required will be found from 
Fs, the mean sliaking force, which is equal to 500 
times the radius of mean shaking 5.27 X 500 = 
2635 lb. 

Fs = (W/g) rl"-). r = 1/12 ft. 

W^ = 2035 X 32.2 X l^/"" = 14.85 lb. to be 
attached to each crank. 

If the distance to the center of gravity of the 
mass is assumed to be 3 in. 

W^ = 2635 X 32.2 X 12/3"= = 4.95 lb. to be 
attached to each crank. 






Q^r 


0, ./ 


Wrijf 


CjnnptTln^ 


Crank 


Tt/fniiia 


R^uon 


B.'iJt 






VlfiJ 


Cr^inH 


Pl^ 


Roj 


R„ 


Effort or, 


onM:>M 


Bor 






P^^ 


P,>. 


Preisun; 


ThruH 


PrcA5-^/9 


Crcnk 


B^ann^ 


^rffaivn 




No 


AF 


FK 


AL 


FL 


KL 


KP 


LP 


BV 




Make 




1 


50 


535 


875 


930 


1556 


340 


1616 


86 




z 


70 


670 


735 


800 


1310 


545 


1195 


130 




3 


55 


630 


5S0 


580 


985 


485 


656 


150 




4 


40 


500 


315 


326 


685 


350 


685 


110 




6 


40 


470 


70 


60 


475 


65 


470 


60 




6 


20 


490 


175 


180 


680 


210 


640 


36 




7 


15 


515 


335 


350 


785 


370 


690 


76 




6 


5 


660 


470 


480 


980 


430 


875 


100- 




9 





565 


505 


505 


1066 


375 


1000 


100 




10 





606 


535 


635 


U45 


265 


1100 


70 




11 





620 


B3S 


535 


1165 


136 


1145 


40 








Compression ' 




13 


40 


680 


535 


570 


1145 


126 


U35 


40 




14 


30 


675 


535 


560 


1126 


276 


1100 


70 




15 


20 


565 


520 


635 


1076 


385 


1005 


90 




IS 


5 


556 


485 


495 


995 


426 


890 


105 




17 


IB 


515 


400 


415 


835 


430 


710 


90 


5<N 


IS 


20 


490 


260 


266 


640 


290 


666 


60 


^ 


19 


36 


475 


90 


80' 


480 


75 


476 


10 




ao 


45 


495 


110 


120 


555 


160 


530 


60 


^ 


21 


50 


535 


256 


135 


756 


300 


690 


86 


1 


22 ' 


60 


580 


320 


370 


920 


295t 


870 


76 


1 


23 


70 


665 


240 


356 


466 


160 


960 


36 


*. 


Expansion 






1 


1 


65 


620 


1495 


1430 


845 


430 


735 


86 




2 


70 


670 


1310 


1265 


825 


706 


425 


13E 




3 


60 


536 


965 


935 


700 


705 


10 


140 




4 


46 


496 


795 


775 


760 


700 


270 


140 




6 


30 


460 


760 


780 


916 


780 


476 


165 




i 


26 


486 


840 


850 


1U5 


860 


706 


200 




7 


25 


506 


890 


905 


1285 


1340 


976 


UO 




8 


15 


660 


916 


925 


1400 


766 


1136 


200 




9 


5 


680 


920 


926 


1470 


606 


1340 


1«6 




10 





605 


880 


860 


1470 


390 


1415 


116 




11 


30 


690 


776 


605 


1365 


166 


1375 


46 




Exhaust 








13 


60 


615 


660 


660 


1275 


150 


1270 


46 




14 





60S 


665 


586 


1176 


285 


1140 


t6 




ifi 


6 


680 


540 


646 


1100 


390 


1030 


100 




16 


10 


665 


485 


495 


995 


440 


890 


106 




17 


16 


516 


380 


390 


826 


420 


710 


«0 




18 


20 


490 


210 


220 


605 


256 


650 


3S 




19 


26 


466 


40 


35 


466 


40 


485 


80 




20 


40 


600 


275 


285 


660 


310 


, 580 


96 




21 


65 


630 


620 


560 


980 


626 


846 


130 




22 


60 


580 


726 


785 


1315 


640 


1195 


130 




23 


60 


625 


860 


910 


1635 


340 


1600 


70 





'i HE HORSE 



I'OWER DEVELOrED BY THE 
ENGINE 



The horse-power developed was a maxinmm at 
1500 r. p. m. 

This was determined by finding the mean turn- 
ing effort on the engine. To do this the area of the 
combined turning effort diagram was divided by 
the length of the base line. The mean turning ef- 



14 



in: 'n:(iiN(»<;i{Ai'ii 



\orrinhn; IH^O 



fort is till' |>t<iiliul (»f llif iiii-aii nitliiialf tlnis foninl 
anil .">(»(», (which is Ihi' t'i|uivaU'iit force in lli. jiir 
inch iif oiilinati-i. The mean turning elVort iniilii 
plieil by the linear velocity of a |ioiiil on the cir 
ciiniference of the crank circle in II. i>er iiiimilc, 
Kives the mean power in ft. lli. lur iniii. This ili 
■;i\es the iiicaii powi-r ill ft. Hi. per mill. 



ir»t)o X 4.2r> X (i:'T4 X "»;>J) x 



ill' 



:',:;()()ti 



::i7i 11. I'. 



Tai 
la I 



vol. 
(Ill 



exp; 



i:\ri. .\NATi()N OF Tin: tahlks 

le 1. Coiiriliiiales fur Ihe Imlitatdr cards. 

('Dinfinsnioii Curcc, 1»\'' -'" = (.'. 
Clearance vol. = 8.(J;j cu. in. 
Volume compressed = '2'J.2'^ cu. in. 
Clearance = S.(i;{/2D.l»:i = O.^it.") i. e. 2!).57i of 
compres.seil. 

Eiliinis'iDii Ciiiri . i'\'' -■■ ^ C. 
Clearance vol. = 8.(i:{ cu. in. 
N'olume at end of expans. = :!J..">'t7 cii. in. 
Clearance = .'2M~ i. e. Jii. IT', ol' vol. at end oi" 
ansion. (i. e. of stioke vol.i. 



1". is Ihe intensity of jiressMre in tlie cyl.. lli. in.' 

A = area of piston head = T.tiT'i sq. in. 

I'A ^ total press, on ]iiston, li»s. 
Tahji- L'. Analytical check of the piston accelerations. 

.\, accel. of piston, ft/sec/sec. 

\\ throw of crank shaft, ft. 

I, Inintli of connecting; rod, ft. 

" iiaiik's an;;iiiai- |)ositi<»i. 

L' =^ length of vector represent iii}; \^ as de- 
termined by Klein's construction. 

C = scale of accelerations -^ 

This scale was so delermineil tiiat the len^jlh of 

."iTIl.tJ ft./sec./sec. -^-= I in. 

This scale was so deteiniiiied that ilic icnmli ol 
tiie crank represents the acceleration of the crank. 
Taiile ;{. Inertia Forces on tiie ])iston and "Q" forces. 

F = inertia forces on the ]iiston, 
111. = A^ W///, W = weight of )iistuii. lli. <<iiniilete. 

t;( » = Acceleration of the ((iiiiifctinj,' rod, to 
scale from Klein's construction. 

1 in. = 5711. (! ft./sec./sec. 

(i = inertia force on connecting rod = 
(-() ()C| K("=) W/f/ 

()C = Accel, of crank. 
Table 4. Forces and pressures on various parts of the 
engine, as determined from the force polygons. 



O, HERMAN 



Oh, so you're one of those electrical enf;ineers? 
How interesting;- Vcni l<now, electricity always did 
fascinate iiic:iiic| I think iIkiI :i man really must be 
a w<inder to iindcisl:! ml all alioni iiiolors and things, 
and I think all the electrical engineers are so — 

Ah. — er — a — wotild you care to go to College 
Hall ne.xt— etc. 



SO.MK FXI'KHIMKXT 



.\ note accompanying an ex|MTiiiicni which was 
lianded ill late reads: "Owing tn ilic l.icl that I've 
been sick ever since ]pei-l'iiriiii ni; I his cxin'riinciit. I 
am handing it in late." 



I^ 



Xofvmbn; W20 



THE TKCHN<)(5RAPn 



IT) 



Research Problems In Electricity 

l!v ("has- T. Kmit 
I'mfrssur l'.ii)irinir)it<il Klrctrifif if 



OK the various fields of endeavor In pure science there 
is possiliiy none more interesting than the general 
suliject of electricity. Historically, there certainly 
are no more interesting pages written than those that re- 
cord the achievements of the early experimenters in elect- 
rical science. Advancement, both theoretical and .practi 
cal, along this line has been exceedingly rapid. The pres- 
ent generation has witnessed with its own eyes the practi- 
cal development of the dynamo and the incandescent 
lamp, the motor and electric transportation, the telephone, 
and radio-communication — both telegraphic and telephon- 
ic.— and. In the realm of pure science, the discovery of the 
electron, of X-rays and of radio-active substances. 

Remarkable as these latter day developments and dis- 
coveries are. they are, however, no more so than the ac- 
complishments of the men who laid the foundation for 
electrical engineering just one hundred years ago. I refer 
to the two great pioneers in electrical science — Oersted 
and Ampere — -whose hundredth anniversary of a great dis- 
covery was noted in the electrical journals last month. The 
former, a professor of natural philosophy in the University 
of Copenhagen, was the first to notice that an electric 
current flowing in a wire causes a compass needle to de- 
(lect when the latter is brought near It. This, now simple 
though great and far reaching discovery, was made in the 
spring of 1820. On July 21st of that year he published 
his famous paper announcing the details of his discovery. 
On September 11th his experiments were repeated before 
the Academy of Sciences at Paris and were witnessed by 
the eminent French professor Amp&re. Men of science 
were already busy with Oersted's discovery. Amp&re's 
interest was instant. In the short space of one week he 
was able to formulate a complete explanation of the phe- 
nomena observed by Oersted. The theory was so well 
worked out, in spite of the speed of production, that it 
has needed no alterations or additions from that day to 
this. 

Thus with the discovery by Oersted that the magnetic 
field is set up about a conductor carrying a current, and 
with the complete stutenient by Ampere of the fiindanienlal 
electromagnelic laws pertaining to the same, developments 
In the science of electricity followed In rapid succe.ssion. 
Ohm, in Gern-.any. established the relation between volt- 
age, resi-slance. and current; Sturgeon, in England, built 
a powerful electromagnet; and Kuraday, in the same coun- 
try, discovered the laws of induced currents. Joseph 
Henry, in this country, was the first to canceive the cor- 
rect notion of inductions or electrical inertia. Following 
Faraday and Henry we next come to a prominent figure 
in theoretical physics — Maxwell of England — who demon- 
strated from purely theoretical considerations that light 
waves and electrical waves are the same except us regards 
wave-length. 

This brings us to our own generation, a period whicli 
for fruitfulness of ideas and things accomplished in elect- 

of Hertz, of I>orentz, of Roentgen, uf Thompson, and uf 



Rutherford, is making possible the many practicable de- 
velopments in electricity that we are enjoying today. 

In giving this brief historical summary of the workers 
in the science of electricity I am taking the liberty to draw 
from a published statement of Professor R. A. Millikan 
of Chicago University, in which he likens the growth in 
any science from first discoveries to a huge tree. Follow- 
ing from any particular leaf through twig, stem, branch, 
and trunk to top root one can scarcely fail to trace the line 
of development back through either Faraday. Oersted and 
Amp&re to Volta. or else through Joule. Carnot and Rum- 
ford to Watt. We surely all agree that the lop root of our 
modern civilization is to be found in the principle of energy 
and its thermal and electrical application. The latter, the 
electrical applications; all go back to Amp&re and Oer- 
sted. Professor Millikan took at random four fields of 
recent development, two of Immense scientific interest, 
and two of great practical importance, and traced the work- 
ers back, beginning with those now leaders in the field 
on down to the top root or foundation of the tree. They 
follow: 

1. Electronic Amplification. DeForest. Richardson, 
Thompson, Roentgen, Lenard. Hertz, Maxwell. Faraday. 
Ampere, Oersted. 

2. Relativity. Einstein, Ijorenz, Becquerel, Roentgen, 
Lenard, Hertz, Maxwell, Faraday, Ampfere. Oersted. 

3. Radio Therapy. Rutherford. Curie. Roentgen. Len- 
ard, Hertz. M:i.\wi'll. Faraday. Ampere. Oersted. 

4. Subatomic Structure. Sommerfleld, Bohr. Ruther- 
ford, Thomson, Roentgen, Lenard, Hertz. Maxwell. Fara- 
day, Ampere, Oersted. 

Similar lists might be constructed in other fields of 
endeavor. The above show how fundamental the work of 
Oersted and Ampere really was. The lists show also the 
great importance of the work of the pure scientist. Re- 
markable as it may seem with but one single exception 
all of the above names are of men who have devoted their 
whole lives to pure science. This shows the importance 
of stimulating and supporting the investigator in pure 
science. 

Thirty-five years ago the induction coil was used whol- 
ly as a lecture table apparatus for demonstrative purposes. 
Its theory was developed by the worker in pure science 
who had no thought of or interest in commercial affairs. 
The Induction coil at the time seemingly could not possibly 
have a practical application, and engineers were reluctant 
in spending time upon its further development. However, 
with the practical achievement of high potential alternat- 
ing currents the principle underlying the Induction coil 
perfected in the modern transformer has come to be of the 
gieatest importance — has made possible the transmission 
of electrical power to great distances with comparatively 
little loss. Thus, the prlncii)le8 worked out by the pure 
scientist and at the time of no seeming practical import 
ance have become the boon to the engineer in the trans- 
mission of power. Again, the highly exhausted discharge 
tube us first perfected by Crookes of England and tor 



16 



THE Tl'X'HNC )( iKAl'H 



Novcmhrr, 1920 



twenty odd years nothing more than a lecture table dein- 
onstratlon piece for showing electrical discharges in a 
vacuum tube, became suddenly, by the discovery of Flem- 
ing of England of the valve action of such tubes, of the 
greatest importance in radio-communication, and bids fair 
to supplant all other forms of detectors. Numerous in- 
stances like the above might be cited. Clearly the most 
abstract discovery in pure science sooner or later makes 
possible some wonderful engineering development that 
contributes vitally to the welfare of the human race. 

Clerk Maxwell's enunciation in 1865 of the oneness of 
light and electromagnetic waves did not receive its con- 
firmation for some years later, when the brilliant work of 
Hertz, in which he used a simple ring resonator and a 
micro-spark gap as a detector, furnished the first experi- 
mental proof that waves could be created and detected by 
purely electromagnetic methods. This method of com- 
munication was at once seized upon by numerous engineers, 
foremost among whom was Marconi, who invented the 
aerial or wire antenna that enabled electromagnetic waves 
to be detected over distances reckoned in hundreds of 
miles. It was soon evident that the ring resonator of 
Hertz was not sensitive enough to receive the feeble sig- 
nals coming from great distances. The need for a more 
sensitive detector was alike taken up by the pure science 
and by the practical worker. The result to date shows that 
sensitive detectors may be divided into five great types, 
which given in the order of their invention are — first, the 
imperfect contact or coherer type, invented by Brauly and 
Lodge. The second type comprises the magnetic detectors 
of Rutherford and later by Marconi. The third class are 
composed of the electrolytic detectors in which the elect- 
rical oscillations to be detected are caused to alter the con- 
ductivity of an electrolyte. The fourth type of detector, 
which until recently was probably the most extensively 
used of all, are the rectifying contact or crystals. Pierce 
of this country has also contributed to the theory and dis- 
covered new crystals. They depend for their action upon 
a true unilateral conductivity between, say, crystals of 
molybdemite and copper. These detectors are rather 
easily put out of adjustment by strong atmospheric dis- 
charges and hence need frequent adjustment. Neverthe- 
less their sensitiveness, simplicity and cheapness made 
them almost universally used, especially among amateurs. 
Considerable research is still under way on crystal de- 
tectors. The fifth class of detectors comprise those that 
depend for their operation upon the valve action of an 
electric discharge tube, that is, they depend ultimately 
upon the emission from incandescent bodies of ions or 
electrons. The Fleming valve, noted earlier in this paper, 
is the best representative of this class. An immense 
amount of research work has been and is being done on 
the electric valve by such eminent men as Fleming, De- 
Forest, Langmuir, Richardson, and a host of others. 

I have dwelt upon the electromagnetic waves and their 
detection at considerable length because of the extreme 
practical turn that radio communication has taken. The 
wonderful deductions of Maxwell backed by almost unin- 
telligible mathematical equations has found its practical 
application in Hashing intelligence to every corner of the 
earth and which, with comparatively simple receiving sets, 
may be intercepted by every high school boy and the sig- 
nals correctly interpreted. 

No less astonishing is the discovery of X-rays by 
Roentgen of Berlin in 1895. Sir Crookes of England, nearly 
a score of years before, had produced his famous vacuum 



tubes and studied the phenomena of the electric discharge 
within. Almost every physics laboratory in the larger uni- 
versities of this country had a supply of Crookes tubes on 
hand possibly as early as 1S90. When Roetgon's announce- 
ment of his discovery came, and it was once fully under- 
stood. how the X-rays were introduced, these old Crookes 
tubes were sought out from the collection of discharge 
tubes and tested for X-rays. The writer, then a student at 
a neighboring university, recalls that two tubes were thus 
found in that collection to give feeble X-rays. The finding 
of these tubes was made within a month of the time that 
the announcement of Roentgen's discovery first appeared 
in the American press. Possibly no single discovery has 
resulted in setting in motion the wheels of research as this 
one of Roentgen. 

X-rays play a prominent part in the investigations 
relative to the ionzation of gases, the structures of the 
atom, and the ultimate constitution of matter; they en- 
able the surgeon to examine the fractured bone, locate for- 
eign substances imbedded in the tissues of the body, and 
even study the digestive tract; they are used in reducing 
cancerous growths, as well as killing bacteria; indeed, an 
X-ray burn on the surface of the body is almost impossible 
of healing. 

Recent investigations by the Braggs and others are 
clearing up, to some extent, the true nature of X-rays. It 
is now pretty well established that they are ether waves, 
the same as electromagnetic waves and light waves, but 
at least ten thousand times shorter than the shortest ultra- 
violet light wave. As we all know, ordinary light may be 
reflected, refracted and diffracted. Of the above but one, 
the last named, has thus far been found possible in the 
case of X-rays. To diffract light an ordinary grating is 
used, however, in the case of X-rays, the finest ruled grat- 
ing that is possible to construct produced no effect. Final- 
ly it occurred to Lane, a physicist in Munich, that the reg- 
ular grouping of the atoms in a crystal might provide a 
natural grating of suitable spacing tor the experiment. The 
experiment was tried and it proved to be the case. Im- 
mediately experiments were tried for reflection and re- 
fraction but without success. The difficulty no doubt 
lies in the shortness of the X-ray wave length, it being 
comparable with the dimensions of the molecules, and 
hence the finest polished surface must in comparison have 
the appearance of a surface of shot. 

Another most fruitful field of investigation and which 
has enlisted the interest of our best thinkers and most 
successful experimentalists, are those researches in which 
the electron plays the leading role. True, cathode rays 
(electrons in motion) formed a prominent part in Crookes' 
original tubes, however their properties were but little 
understood even as late as 1895. J. J. Thomson, of the 
Cavendish laboratory, England, was the first to success- 
fully investigate the true nature of cathode rays. The Cav- 
endish Laboratory from that day to this, with the excep- 
tion of the interval during the war, was a veritable work- 
shop busy with cathode rays. X-rays, electrons, and rays . 
from radio-active substances. Every possible phase of the 
subject of electric radiation was studied by the score or 
more of workers, and many revolutionizing contributions 
were made. Here it was first demonstrated that cathode 
rays, the electrons that compose them, each carry a neg- 
ative charge; that they are deflected by an electrostatic 
and also by a magnetic field; that the ratio of the charge 
to the mass of the electron has a definite value no matter 
under what conditions the electron is produced; that the 
(Continued on Page 48) 



Honorary and Professional Engineering 
Fraternities 




ETA KAPPA NTT 

Honorary Electrical 
p]iigineering 

I'l TAU SIGMA 
Professional Mechanical 
Engineering 

ALl'HA RHO CHI 

Professional Arcliitectnre 

SCAKAB 

Professional Architeclure 



TAU BETA PI 

Honorary Engineerin;. 



GAHCOVLE 
Honorary Arcliitectnre 



THETA TAT 

Professional l''iii;infcring 

SIGMA TAU 

Honorary I]ngincfring 

TRIANGLE 

I'rofi'ssional Civil Enginecrin;. 

KEIiAMOS 

('(■ramie Kngiiiccring 




A CLOCK T()\', !;i; 



i ~. J-. I.Iauqiis 






Xorrmhn; 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



19 



A Clock Tower 

THE SIXTH SCAKAB COMPETITION 

1919-20 

Siticc li)15, Karnak Clmpter of Scarai Fraternity has awarded a Ironze medal to the 
toinncr of the Annual Scarab Competiiion i7i Architectural Design. The aim of the fra- 
ternity in offering the competition, is to foster a spirit of industry and to encourage 
student architects to nmster the art of architectural design. As a consequence, the 
Scarab problems have brought forth some of the best loork 
executed in the department — Editor. 



THE roj.;iil;ir competiiion for the Medal offered 
by the Scarab Society occurred as usual dur- 
ing tlie second semester 1919-1920. Soplio- 
more and Juniors are privileged to enter this com- 
petition in lieu of one of the regular four week prob- 
lems. The time allowed for completion of the prob- 
lem was one month. 

The preliminary sketch must be executed "en 
loge" without assistance. In the development of the 
problem from the preliminary sketch, instructors 
may give the customary criticisms and assistance, 
but may not give any assistance upon the prepara- 
tion of the final drawings. 

THE PROGRAM 

A clock tower is to stand on the edge of a Col- 
lege Campus, telling the time to the students and 
the people in the adjoining town, for whom it will 
form a land mark. It may if desired contain a chime 
of bells. 

To be visible above the trees, the clock-dials are 
to be centered at least 25 feet- above the ground. 
At the foot of the tower, or forming its base, is an 
open-air loggia, so disposed with relation to tin' 
Campus as to form the nucleus and gatliering place 
for the student activities, open-air meetings and cel- 
ebrations of victories on the athletic field. If the 
loggia is so arranged as to admit of the placing of 
statues, busts, placques and inscriptions, it will in 
time be complete as a memorial to the student life 
of the College. 

This composition, exclusive of terraces is not 
to exceed 12.5 feet in its greatest horizontal dimen- 
sions. 
Required f'lr the Equisse : 

Elevation at the scale of one thirty-second inch 

to the foot. 

Due March 20, 6 P. 31. 
Required for the Project Rendu: 

Main elevation at the scale of one-eighth inch 

to the foot. Plan through base showing loggia, 



at the scale of one-eighth inch to the foot. 
Mount to he used: 

One No. 1 Standard Mount 31 x 40 inches. 

THE AWARD 

The jury ap]>ointed to judge the Competition 
consisted of the regular members of the department- 
al force usually acting. 

The number of drawings entered in the com- 
petition was 29, divided among 12 junior and 17 
sophomores. 

Careful consideration was given to the terms 
of the Program. The jury felt that inasmuch as the 
problem called for a highly monumental solution, 
prime importance should be attached to this consid- 
eration. No preferance was given to one style of 
architecture over another. 

After the usual process of elimination, the 
drawings under consideration were reduced to four 
of approximately equal and superior excellence. A 
vote was then taken which resulted as follows — the 
decision being unanimous in each case. 

The Medal. Marquis, D. E. 

Second Place — Cuppy, R. C. 

Third Place— Cheever, H. C. 

Fourth Place — Foster, G. G. 

CRITICISM OF THE DRAWINGS PLACED 

The Medal — This design which was in the Ro- 
manesque Style was beautifully presented, of fine 
proportions, and historically correct in detail. The 
monumental eft'ect was admirably sustained. In 
fact the jury had no adverse criticism to i-ecord of 
any of the essential features of this presentation. 

Second Place — ■This composition strongly re- 
flected the spirit of classic Greek architecture, with- 
out slavishly or literally copying any of its details. 
It was highly commended for this achievement. In 
spite of its fine proportions delicacy and purity of 
its elements, the jury felt that it was somewhat 
lacking in the sculptural decoration which is as- 



20 



THE Tl-X"HX()(iKArH 



November, 1920 



Kociiitcd with (Jroek iurliitecture at its best. court at the Paiiaiiia-Pacific Intei-natioiial Kxposi 

Third /'/(/rr— Tlic style of tlic Italian Koiiais- ^'"" ^^'"^ H'^' pi-iiicipal inspiration for this foiiiposi 

«ai.r.-. so appropriate for a Canipamle was .-nil.odie.l "•'"•, '^'''^' '^^;"^^''.'^ ";'« commended for his attempt 

ill the eoncej)tion. The tower itself wjis well pro- 



I)ortioned, bnt it was thoufjht that the loggia at its 
base (lid not compose well with the ])rincipal mass. 
The loggia was too small in scale and rather weak 
and delicate in construction. 

Fourth Place — Mullgardt's famous tower and 



which was pleasing in mass but suffered through ;i 
lack of the indication of color, which was regarded 
as essential. The values of the rendering were well 
handled, but the line drawing was rather inaccurate 
and crude. 

Rexford Newcojih, 

Ass't. Prof. Arch. JJisturi/. 



A Course For Metermen 

liy J'^i.i.EUY 15. I'ai.ve 
Projrx.'ior of Electrical Eiujincering 



ANEW opportunity to be of service to an important 
industry of the state came to the department of 
Electrical Engineering in the spring of 1920. The 
Illinois State Electrical Association suggested that a course 
for metermen be given by the University for employees of 
the electrical utility companies of the state who might 
be sent to take the instruction. The Association offered 
to pay the full expense incurred by the University on ac- 
count of the course. 

After a careful study of the problem it was decided 
that it would be possible to teach a class of forty and that 
it would be advisable to continue the work for a period 
of two weeks. On account of the impossibility of carrying 
additional classes during term period, the opening of the 
course tor metermen was set for the Monday following 
commencement. The course was placed under the direc- 
tion of Mr. A. R. Knight who was assisted by Prof. E. H. 
Waldo and Mr. E. A. Reid. In order to make the instruc- 
tion most effective it seemed best to have a teacher for 
each four students, hence the services of six meter experts 
from the electrical utility companies of the state were re- 
quested. Among the experts delegated to act as instruct- 
ors by the Illinois State Electrical Association was Mr. 
W. T. Burnett, Illinois 1905, who has wide meter experience 
with the Illinois Traction System. The meter manufac- 
turers also were asked to send representatives who might 
give lectures on meter problems and make the general 
discussion of more interest and value to all. During the 
two weeks of the course nineteen representatives were 
present from the following companies: Duncan Electric 
Company, General Electric Company, Sangamo Electric 
Company, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Com. 
pany, Weston Electric Instrument Company. The Illinois 
State Public Utilities Commission also sent a meter engi- 
neer. In this manner a large group of especially well 
trained men were assembled so that every phase of elec- 
tric work could be presented to the class by a person 
whose knoweldge of the subject was extensive. 

Thirty four students registered during the first week 
and forty four were present during the second week. 
These students were employed by twenty three electric 
utility companies scattered widely over the state. Ar- 



rangements were made for these young men to live at 
College Hall. This plan gave them an opportunity to be- 
come well acquainted and to discuss their experiences in 
work in meters as well as their lessons. 

A strenuous daily program was followed in order to 
cover the ground in the limited time. Lectures followed by 
three hour labratory periods were given at eight and at 
one o'clock. The instruction during the first week was 
devoted largely to fundamental principles and to direct 
current meters. The second week was given to the study 
of alternating current meters and to the more advanced 
problems of poly-phase metering. At seven each evening 
the class assembled for lectures by the experts from the 
manufacturing companies. 

Special racks were constructed in the dynamo labora- 
tory to support the instruments used by the students in 
their meter experiments. Each ot the meter manufactur. 
ing companies sent five direct current and five alternat- 
ing current meters of their commercial types, as well as 
rotating standard meters. These meters together with 
the equipment owned by the University afforded ample 
opportunities for testing. 

One result of bringing together this group of meter 
workers was the organization of the Illinois Electrical 
Meterman's Association. The aim of this association is 
to give an opportunity for the members to become better 
informed concerning the technical problems connected 
with their work. 

At tlie close of the course all who had anything 
to do with it were enthusiastic over the results achieved. 
The discussion showed clearly the need of such a confer- 
ence. It was evident that the students were stimulated 
by the opportunity to learn more about the engineering 
principles involved in their daily work. On account of 
the large number of meter experts present, the discussions 
of various problems connected with metering were inter- 
esting and valuable to all. The Department of Electrical 
Engineering feels strengthened on account of this contact 
which has been established with the electrical interests 
of the state and it is hoped that similar courses may be 
offered in the future. 



Xorrmhrr, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



21 



A Snow Landing Gear For Airplanes 

By M. K. KiiiDEi.L 
Afifiisiaiit PrafcKsfir of Acroiinutiv IJin/i mrrini/ 



IT luijs bec-ome almost a coiiiiiionplace to remark 
that one of the results of the war has been that 
the art of mechanieal flight has advanced as 
much in the war period as it ordinarily might have 
been expected to do in three or four times as many 
years of peace. While the statement is, perhaps, 
open to question, it is certain that during the war 
period airplanes were used in numbers and under 
conditions which would have been consideiod ini- 
jjossible in the years immediately preceding. 

It is rather amusing when one sees the modern 
airplane safely traversing the regions of the upper 
air at all times of the day and under practically all 
conditions to look back a few years to the time when 
one climbed out of bed at three or four in the morn- 
ing to witness or participate in a flight because 
everyone knew that during the day atmos])l)orio con- 
ditions were too disturbed for safe fiiglit. One 
of these early beliefs with reference t« suitable ily- 
ing conditions was that an airplane could not be 
successfully flown from a surface covered with any 
considerable depth of snow. 

Aiiplane landing gears ai'e usually etuipped 
witii wheels, of a type similar to "wire" wheels used 
on motor cars, fitted with juieumatic tires; a ma- 
chine of the ordinary two passenger or trail ing 
type weighs in flying condition approximately 2!U)0 
jionnds, and the wheels used are about 2C x 4 inches. 
It will readily be seen that a small diameter wheel 
such as this will be serionslj- impeded by any con- 
siderable depth of snow; and as a result tiie plane 
may not be able, witii all its available engine ])ower. 




to attain suflicient ground speed to oiialde it suc- 
cessfully to "take ott'." There is also danger of the 
plane turning over on its nose, which usually means 
at least a smashed propeller. Then again, when 
making a landing, there is always the possibility of 
one of the wheels striking a "soft spot" while the 




other is running on a hard, firm surface, with the 
probable result of a rather badly damaged i)lane. 
not to mention the occupants thereof. No amount 
of care on the part of the pilot would absolutely 
])revent this happening. It is therefore generally 
believed, and probably quite correctly, that an air- 
plane equipped with the ordinary type of landing 
gear could not be successfully or safely flown from 
a snow covered surface, at any rate when the depth 
of snow was at all considerable. 

In accordance with this belief, during the wint- 
er of 1!)17-1!)18, it con.sidered necessary to transfer 
the training sqtmdrons of the K. A. F. operating in 
Canada to Texas, leaving l)ehind only a few machines 
for the i)nrpose of experimenting in winter flying. 

In llie disliicts selected by the K. A. F. in Can- 
ada as locations for the aerodromes the winter cli- 
mate was not very severe, and it was soon found that 
there was nothing in temperature conditions likely 
lo interfere with the successful carrying on of the 
training. But even tliougli the deptii of snow was 
not very great — tlie maximum deptii at Leaside 
Heights or Arnuiur Heights aerodromes, near Toron- 
to, being about three feet — it was found imi)ractic- 
able to keep the surfaces of the aerodromes cleared 
of snow, and more or less trouble was experienced in 



THE TEOHNOGRAPH 



Novcmher, 1920 



takiii}; otl" or hiinliii^'. with llio acfompanying cir- 
(•uinstanccs of some minor "i-raslu's", not serious, 
but causiu'; daniafic to flyiii{; I'liuipiui'iit. It was 
tlieri'fori' IVlf tliat if wiiilcr (iyiii;; in ("aiiada was to 
be success fill, scnnc iiioditical ion ol' llic iamlin^' jjcar 
was necessary. 

In most parts of Canada as soon as winter sets 
in wheeled tratfic. of the liorsedrawn variety at any 
rate, practically disappears, ilie ])lace of the wheels 
being taken by sleigh runners. Following the sug- 
gestion thus oll'ered it was projiosed to lit one of the 
planes with a i)air of snow "shoes" or runners, in- 
stead of wliccls, and note the results. A set of these 
r\inners was therefore designed and constucted at 
Canadian Aeroplane Limited, somewhat on the mod- 
el of the Norwegian ski. These were fitted to ma- 
chine C-318 at the Leaside aerodrome and were found 
to answer perfectly. 

On the occasion of the trial trij) the author wit- 
nessed a rather convincing demonstration of the 
superiority of the snow-shoe landing gear in deep 
snow. Just after C-318, equipped as mentioned 
above, with the shoes, had made a perfect landing, 
another machine fitted with wheels attempted to 
land nearby. The lauding was perfectly made, but 
while still running along at high speed one of the 
wheels struck a "soft spot." What happened in the 
next few seconds was rather difficult to see, but 
when the flying snow subsided the plane was lying 
upside down, resting on the top phines and the tip 
of the rudder. Fortunately no great damage was 
done, and the pilot was uninjured. As a result of 
the test flights made with the experimental pair of 
snow-shoes, it was decided to adopt this form of 
landing gear, and to equip at once a number of ma- 
chines with it. 

The design actually adopted diflered consider- 
ably from that used in the tests. The experimental 
pair had been designed and constructed with due 
regard to aerodynamical properties — in other words 
so as to avoid excessive weight an<l head resistance. 
In the opinion of those responsible for the flying in- 
structions, however, they were somewhat too light 
to stand the wear and tear of instructional use. Tlie 
shoes actually used were of much heavier '•onstiuc- 
tion, and of very crude design fioni an aerodynamic 
point of view. 

Nevertheless a number of macliincs were rapid- 
ly fitted with them and a great deal of flying done 
during the remainder of the winter. The results 
wcic so satisfactory that it was decided that it 
wcnild mil he necessary to move any of the training 
scpiadrons to the south in the following winter, and 
an order was issued for 500 of these snow-shoes to 
eipiip all the machines for Canadian use. These 



were manufactnicd hut owing to the cessation of 
hostilities they were never used. The general ap- 
l)earance of these shoes can be seen from the illustra- 
tions. In both cases they were arranged to be .slip- 
ped on the axles in the places formerly occupied by 
the wheels. They were stayed in the pro])er position 
by means of a shock absorber cord, which allowed a 
certain amount of necessary play. 

As will be noticed the experimental pair were 
of considerably lighter construction than the type 
actually used, and had a stream line casing of fabric 
enclosing the framework so as to reduce the air re- 
sistance as much as possible. The officially adopted 
shoes were somewhat broader and shorter, and were 
without any attempt at streamlining. The con- 
struction was heavy and rugged, and breakages 
were very rare. The supporting area was approx- 
imately liJOO S(iuare inches. As pointed out, the de- 




R A r Cam-Wimter Tlyimg Skids 

sign of the pattern actually adopted for use could 
have been greatly improved from an aerodynamic 
point of view. It is probable, although no tests were 
made with a view of ascertaining the facts of the 
case, that the air resistance of the shoes as used was 
considerably greater than the wheels they replaced. 
The difference, however, was apparently not great 
enough to att'ect the flying qualities of the planes 
to any appreciable extent. No attempt was made, 
as might have been done, by a series of tests to de- 
termine the best area of supporting surface; and it 
is possible that improvement could be effected in 
this respect also. The area used would correspond 
to a load of about one and one-half pounds per 
s(|uai'e inch of snow shoe surface. 

With all their actual and possible defects, how- 
ever, these snow-shoes quite satisfactorily answered 
the purpose intended and enabled a great deal of 
winter flying to be undert;iken that otherwise would 
have been impossible. Pilots have stated to the 
writer that machines so equipped actually took off" 
and landed on a snow surface with greater ease than 
from the ordinary grass surface when fitted with 
wheels. 

From tlu' results of this experience gained at 
(Continued on page 48) 



Nm-rmhcr, li)20 



THE TECHNOdKArH 



23 



Engineering Education 

Hahoi.ii L. rAuit. A. E., 'LM 

This article rccrntUi icon a prize offered bu Tnii Beta Pi. It is rtiliiable, not because it 
Suggests any startliiiii changes in the engineering curriculum, hut because it is repre- 
sentative of the thought of iiianii undergraduate engineers. — and some educators. — Editou 



THE cliit'f i)r()l)U'iii wliic-li confionts the eugi- 
iiceriii" school of today is, without doubt, the 
IirobU'iii of adjusting its curriculum to meet 
the ever increasing needs and demands made upon 
it by the industrial and the engineering world. A 
few years ago, the present curriculum of the College 
of Engineering was, perhaps, in all respects ade- 
quate to meet the needs of its graduates as they 
entered upon their professional engineering careei-. 
But not so today. With the rapid strides with 
which industrialization is advancing, the engineer- 
ing school has attempted to kee]) pace, but with only 
l)artial success. More specialized subjects have been 
added, more courses offered, until the engineering 
curriculum has become overcrowded and the engi- 
neering college of today is being accused of training 
narrow specialists instead of broad minded profes- 
sional men. It shall be the purpose of this essay to 
consider briefly the present curriculum as given in 
the College of Engineering and to suggest a few gen- 
eral modifications by which it may be possible to 
eliminate many of the evils of the jiresciit curri- 
culum. 

In the first place, more real engineering courses 
should be placed earlier in the curriculum. That is, 
the freshmen and the sophomores should be given 
the opportunity to take practical courses with en- 
gineering laboratory work in conjunction, along 
with their present ccmrses of a theoretical and prac- 
tical nature; such as chemistry, mathematics, rhetor- 
ic, etc. Freshmen, who come to college to take en- 
gineering, come invariably with the idea that here 
at least they will get some real practical engineer- 
ing training. When they have entered the College 
of Engineering and find that they are required to 
wade through such subjects as rhetoric, foreign lan- 
guage, chemistry, mathematics, etc., they feel that 
they are receiving no more engineering training than 
they were in high school. And so they naturally be 
come discouraged long before the com])letion of 
their underclassmen years. 

It is a well established fact tliat linl a small 
percentage of those who start in as freshmen in the 
College of Engineering ever graduate with their 



class. Out of every hundred fi'cslniien who enter 
the College of Engineering at Illinois, statistics 
show that there is an average of seventy who fail 
to go through with their course in four years. Even 
after allowance has been made for those who leave 
school because of sickness, financial reasons, etc., 
there remains still a high percentage of elimination. 
AVhy is this? Why is it tliat the mortality rate is 
higher in the College of Engineering than it is in 
tiie other colleges? Why do students change so 
frequently from engineering to commercial and ag- 
ricultural courses during their first two or three 
years in school ? Of course, we must remember that 
there are many attempting to pursue engineering 
who should never be there; namely, those who are 
not temperamentally fitted for an engineering edu- 
cation. For these, no modification or change of the 
curriculum will tend to make them engineers. They 
sliould never have entered the College of Engineer 
ing in the first place. The quicker they leave the 
College of Engineering, tiie better for them as well 
as for those I'cmaining. 

But tliere are a great many men who ai'e temp 
erainenlally lifted to become engineers and who 
have the i)rofession of engineering as their life am- 
bition, who fail in their early college career. Cases 
are on record where freshmen have been "weeded 
out" entirely because of deficiencies in English and 
German. Why, you ask? It is simply because the 
l)resent engineering curriculum does not contain 
enough of the practical in the first half and too 
much, i)erhaps, in the latter half. To some extent, 
the engineering lecture has helped to keep the first 
year man intei-ested in his life work, and the engi- 
neering lecture is indeed a good thing. But it is not 
enough. Practical engineering work is essential for 
the freshman not only liecause it a])[)('als to his pro- 
fessional and)ition, ai-ouses his enthusiasm, and 
gives him training in practice, but also because it 
,iids liiiii to master the theoretical work more fully 
and mine (|iii(kly. Another thing which would tend 
to keep u]) the interest of the first and second yeai 
men is tlie introduction of a course of talks given 
by practicing and successful engineers upon phases 



24 



TlIK TECHXUGKAl'U 



Novcmhcr, 1920 



and experionoos of real eiifjiiiccrinf; life. Tlieso talks 
may or may not lie incoriKH'atcd in with the engi- 
necrini; lectures. Heretofore, tin' eufjineering lect- 
ures at Illinois have lieen jjiven almost entirely by 
faculty Mien and inaelieally none hy ])rofessional 
enj;ineers. Let us ilieii have the enj;ineerinfi- work, 
imre and siniple. distributed among all four years 
of college life as a means toward increasing the 
interest and strengthening the morale of the tVesli- 
men and as a means of keeping the underclassmen 
from getting discouraged and droi)])ing engineering 
for something else less to their tastes and anddtions. 

Ill the second place, courses in industrial train- 
ing should he introduced. "What the engineering 
student today needs is a place in which to apply the 
theoretical knowledge that he has gained. It is 
true that the engineering schools primarily propose 
to give the student the most theoretical knowledge 
possible during his short stay in college and then 
expect him to go out into the professional world and 
apply all this stored up knowledge. This may work 
to a certain degree, but most educators agree that 
the best way to teach is to follow theory with prac- 
tice. One of the most common complaints of em- 
ployers is that college graduates have serious diffi- 
culty in applying their theory in actual practice. 
Hence, we see the utter need of some interrelation 
between the concrete and the abstract throughout 
the entire college course. 

Participation in real industrial work should be- 
gin preferably in the freshman year. It is not neces- 
sary or desirable that all the students should do 
the same type of iudustrial work, provided class 
meetings are held in which the discussion and ex- 
change of experiences take place. From universi- 
ties, such as Cincinnati University, that have used 
the plan of industrial training in connection with 
school work, we receive only favorable rei)orts in re- 
gard to success of the plan. At Cincinnati, the stu- 
dents are divided into two shifts. One shift works 
in the industrial ]dants for two weeks while the 
other receives instruction of a theoretical nature at 
.school. During the two weeks following, the shifts 
are reversed so that the student receives not only 
the theoretical but also the practical. The advant- 
ages of such a plan are self evident. It is real com- 
uiercial i)roduction that succeed or fail on its merits. 
The student is here thrown into personal touch with 
woi-knien, thereby coming to know their point of 
view in a sympathetic way, and securing a concep- 
tion of the human problems of industry and of the 
a]ipraisement of human values and costs, a thing 
sadly lacking in the education of most engineering 
college graduates. 

Such a i)lan may woric tine in Cincinnati, where 



the industrial ]dants are close at hand, but in the 
case of the College of Engineering at Illinois, it 
would take a decidedly different asjiect. Here, the 
student should either be required to sjx'nd" at least 
one sununer in some industrial jdant, or else the 
university shotdd conduct its own industrial shop 
where some useful article could lie Tiiainifactnred by 
the students. 

Moreover, there should be a closer relationship 
between the scientific courses required of the en- 
gineer and his engineering courses. It has been ex- 
pounded that such subjects as mathematics, chem- 
istry, etc., should be taught as pure sciences to en- 
gineering students without the least application to 
engineering itself. It is claimed that these courses 
tend in this way to stock up the student's mind with 
information as a preparation for solving the real 
])roblcms of engineering when they arise and not 
before. And at the present writing, such courses 
are generally taught in this way. When the student 
is given a problem in chemistry, it is not "make 
baking powder and determine whether it is better 
and cheaper than any you can buy'' ; but rather it is, 
"Determine the chemical composition of this powd- 
er." And in physics, it is not, "Test these three 
motors and see which one is the most efficient for 
its cost," but is "Find the efficiency of this motor." 

The scientific courses required of engineers 
should be modified in such a way as to enable the 
student to see and to grasp the ultimate connection 
between science and engineering. More problems 
of any engineering nature should be given in math- 
ematics, physics, and in chemistry. The student 
would then be able to connect up everything he stud- 
ies with engineering applications and would not 
merely get a distracted view of each and every sep- 
arate course. The value of this point cannot be over- 
estimated, for mathematics and science develojied 
systematically in logical order with engineering sub- 
jects furnish a back bone for the course which is, 
indeed, hard to break. 

Lastly, more attention should be placed upon 
the humanistic subjects and that stress sh(ndd be 
laid upon the solving of problems of values and 
costs. Most practicing engineers agree that the en- 
gineer should have some conception of business man- 
agement. There is a widespread agreement among 
professional engineers that the college curriculum 
should aim to give a good and sound training in en- 
gineering science, rather than a highly specialized 
training in some one narrow line. There are two 
types of weakness in engineers — (1) The lack of 
technical faculty in expression, in business, and in 
handling men. (2) The lack of appreciation of and 



Novrmbrr, 1920 



THIO TE(^UN0(;KA1'H 



25 



inti'ivst ill litfi-atiire, economics, aud social philos- 
opiiy. 

How shall we coirect flicse weaknesses? More 
attention must he p;ii(l to I lie humanistic studies in 
connection with the engineering "common core". 
Tlie engineer should take a little English, economics, 
sociology, and history, not merely because of their 
practical value to him, but also because of their 
broad human value to him. Some sort of course in 
the firolilems of human values and costs should be 
introduced into the engineering curriculum, for the 
control of engineering lies in the hands of those who 
judge most accurately what enterprises men value 
sufficiently to be willing to assume the cost. Too 
frequently tlie engineer is employed to do the tech- 
nical woi-k of construction only after a board of 
doctors, lawyers, ])reacliers, bankers, merchants, and 
])oliticians have made the ap])raisement of the val- 
u "!; and costs and have decided which project shall 
go forward and which not. This should in reality 
be the engineer's duty, for he of all persons should 
know best whether an engineering enterprise/ is 
worthy of its cost or not. 

In regard to foreign language and to similar 
courses, when taught as they are chiefly for purposes 
of drill, grammar, etc., I think that they have no 
vital connection with engineering and should be 
eliminated from the course. Three-fourths of 1.^00 
practising engineers agreed that they had never 
found foreign language essential to their profession- 
al careers and over half of them" thought that the 
foreign language requirement in college shoidd be 
dropped. 

In general, it is conceded that specialization 
has gone too far. The attention of the student is 
distracted from the mastery of the subject and he is 
encouraged to seek ways and means of securing 
passing grades with a minimum of effort and thei'e 
results too much of a scramble for credits. Special- 



ized courses should not consist, as many of the sen- 
ior courses now do, of detailed study of the tech- 
nique of such subjects as heating and ventilation, 
roads and pavements, and sewage disposal, and the 
like. Rather, they should deal with the more ab- 
stract and general phases of each subject since they 
are being taken by men who have gone through a 
long process of vocational training. If the student 
has been trained as he should be in methods of at- 
tacking problems and of gathering information, he. 
will probably make better progress in this kind of 
work in the industries than he will in school. 

In modifying the curriculum of the College of 
Engineering as suggested above, it may be necessary, ■ 
especially if industrial work is to be included out- 
side of the sunnner months, to lengthen the course 
to more than four j-ears. But why not? Is there 
any serious objection to doing this? The double 
fold advantages obtained by linking school work 
with industrial more than offsets the disadvantages 
accrued by remaining in college from a half to a 
year longer. However, to those who feel that four 
years is long enough for a man to spend on his col- 
lege education, no matter how professional the char- 
acter of that education may be, it may be said that 
the advantages of industrial education may be se- 
cure(l during the summer mouths by the student 
aiul the four years course still retained intact. 

Let us briefly say then, in summary, that the 
present curriculum might well be modified to such 
an extent so that more engineering courses shall be 
placed earlier in the curriculum, so that cour.ses in 
industrial training and preparation shall be incor- 
porated into the curriculum along with the theoret- 
ical work, so that there will be a closer coordination 
between the sciences and engineering, and so that 
there shall be more humanistic courses and some 
courses in values and costs introduced with a less 
of a catering towards specialization. 



Prof. C. A. Ellis still believes that the engineers 
check their brains outside the door of his class-room. 

We wonder what the chalk box was doing in 
front of his class-room door. 



We haven't any information concerning Engi- 
neeing Open House this year but we suppose some- 
thing like that will be lield. No. Myrtle, the engi- 
neers don't do it to get dates. 



26 



TUK TECHNOdliAl'U 



Novniihn; li)20 



Samuel Wesley Stratton 

This is till- lirst of ii siru's of intimate biogiupliics uf Illini cnninccrs who have made 
a success of their engineering. 



Out oil the northwest si(h' of W'asliingtoii, I). C. 
aliout three and oueliaU' miles ti-oiu the White 
House, lie tlie laboratories of the foremost scientific 
orjianization of this or any other country — the U. S. 
Hureau of Standards. The man who has been direct- 
or of this organization since its beginning and who 
has raised it "from a pup" so to speak, graduated 
from Illinois as a mechanical engineer in 1884. 

Born in Litchfield, 111., (the town afterwards 
made lastingly famous as the birthplace of Ray 
Schalk) in 1861, he came to the University at the 
age of nineteen in spite of the ju-otests of » well-to- 
do father who didn't believe in such things and who 
would not furnish him money. 

In those days the Pi-esident of the University 
lived in the present Alpha Delt house, and his do- 
mestic beasts cropped the long green grasses that 
grew on the site of College Hall and the other houses 
in the block. Young Stratton lived at the house of 
the President and for bed and board was general 
chore-boy around the place. Not a bad position for 
a young engineer; where he could meditate u])()n the 



flow of fluids as the milk-pail filled under his nimble 
fingers and where hatchet and kindling wood dem- 
onstrated every morning the energy of a blow. Mak- 
ing blue-prints was also one of his accomplishments 
and he had charge of the University blue-print room- 
After graduation he stayed at the University 
until 1892, rising in that time from instructor to full 
jjiofessor in ])hysics and electrical engineering. Dur- 
ing this period of Dr. Stratton's life, one of the most 
marked traits of his character began to develop; 
that was his deep interest in men. He was always 
in the midst of a crowd of some kind, preferably of 
his students, in each of whom he took a lively inter- 
est and all of whom he studied as thoroughly as he 
did any ])roposition in physics. He has always con- 
tinued this study of personality, and to it may be 
laid much of his success as Director of the Bureau, 
both in building up its personel and in bi'inging its 
needs before Congres- It seems wonderful that 
any man could go before committees of pussy-foot- 
ing, wind-jamming Congressmen and persuade them 
to appropriate real money for an absolutely legiti- 




Xovember, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



27 



mate purpose. If you know the average Congress- 
man's depth of interest in corona discharges and 
moduli of elasticity you will resilize the extent of 
Dr. Stratton's accomplishment in stealing for his Bu- 
reau before the war over a million dollars a year 
from the pork barrel. The war caused a large ex- 
pansion of the Bureau and the expectation that be- 
tween Edison and Stratton something would be in- 
vented that would blow Germany off the map within 
three weeks. 

In 1892 the new-born University of Chicago at- 
tracted him to its physics department, until he left 
his professorship there, in 1901, to become Director 
of the Bureau of Standards, just then being organ- 
ized from the old Bureau of Weights and Meiisiires. 
To begin with, he was boss of nothing much more 
than some glass cases containing length and mass 



units, but now the Bureau has grown so that it ne- 
cessitates Divisions of Weights and Measin-es, Heat 
and Thermometry, Electricity, Ojjtics, Chemistry, 
Structural Engineering and Miscellaneous Mater- 
ials, Engineering Research, and Metallurgy. The 
Bureau has always maintained close and cordial 
connections with commercial and industrial inter- 
ests, and members of its staff are always in great 
demand for special investigation work in new mater- 
ials and methods, in addition to the routine testing 
and calibration work undertaken. Perhaps the most 
recent important commercial developments are meth- 
ods of measuring by light interference that can be 
used in the shop and methods of producing ultra- 
accurate gage blocks. 

Francis Wkioht 

M. E. '21 



The Body and the Soul 

Tungsten threads. 

Pent in glass ; 

Thither reaching unseen wires, 

Dj'namo-charged with mystery; 

A button pressed : 

Light ; 

A button |)resse(l : 

Darkness I 

Ybnojihuaii Mala 



28 Tin; Ti:('llX(»(iHArH \onnihrr, l!)2n 



EDITORIAL 

(iKdiiCK L. .\. .MK^KU I'.dilar 

WEL( "( )ME HO Jl E( "( )M EKS 

To all lOiigiiiccrinj; (truds, imusinj;; in the midst of a Imsv \v(»rld t(» return to your Alma 
JIater and i-e-live in a tew hurried days four happy j'ears of college life; to you The Techno- 
grupli extends a hearty welcome. The Tcchno(jr(iph, a honieconicr itself after two years ab- 
sence from Illinois, returns to take its place among the campus publications as the represent- 
ative of The College of Engineering. As in the past it aims to be an organ of expression for 
all Illinois I'higineers. Consider it your magazine. 



This Year 



The Tcchn<j(jraph was revived this year with the definite purpose of representing stu- 
dents, faculty and alumni of the College of Engineering, their work primarily, but also their 
lives and thoughts. It hopes to be the bond that will unify all departments of the college 
into one group of student thought and student activity. It wants to serve Illinois engineers 
by helping to maintain the engineering prestige of Illinois- And this can only be done by 
the complete cooperation and support by the alumni and students. All sorts of engineering 
articles are needed, whether by alumni or freshmen. Get busy fellows and keep up the good 
work ! 

While representing the students, TJic Trr-hnor/raph will attempt, editorially, to direct 
their interest in scientific investigation, teclnii al writing, and in the correlation of engineer- 
ing and the social sciences. 

As a campus j)ul)lication The Tcchnoyrnph is candidly iiro-cngineering. It will be the 
weapon of subtle [)ropaganda, dispelling the popular illusions, as to the limitations of en- 
gineering intellect, that are so jii-evalent south of Green Street. When the smoke has 
clcai-ed. we h(i]i(' that the engineer will have emerged from his corduroy-slide rule anonymity 
to take his proper phice in the scheme of things collegiate. 



ON ENGINEERING FKATEKXITIKS 

lOnginccriiig P'ralcrnit ies arc a valuable adjunct to tlie GoUege of I'higineering and its 
departments. They encourage professional endeavor and scholastic distinction. Election is 
usually determined by standards of scholarship, ])rofessi()nal promise, and the ability to know 
and meet men. The badges of the engineering frateriuties at the I'niversity of Illinois are 
illustrated in this issue. 



Xorriiihrr, 1D20 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



20 



SUMMKK \\()KK 

There is no better oi)])(H'tiinity tor the student engineer to combine his 
class room theory with the practical jiroblenis of his profession, than by work- 
ing at it during tlic summer vacation period. Last spring a committee of the 
faculty, coijperiiting with industrial concerns, placed a great many students 
in summer jobs. Just what benefit could be derived by the student depended 
upon the effort expended, and it was in the hopes of encouraging a spirit of 
investigation and enteri)rise, that The Technograph offered a series of prizes 
for the best articles descriptive of summer work. 

A reading of the prize article, pul>lished on other pages, will show that 
in many respects our hopes were quite realized. It received the award by the 
jury because of the "marked evidence of interest, and of experience gained h\ 
the work.'" We extend our congratulations to the winner and to the other 
contestants for the merit siiown in these articles. 



Since the last appearance of The Tcchnograph in 11)18, many changes have taken })lace 
in tlie Oollege of Engineering, as well as in the University as a whole. To those who have not 
Ik'cm in a i)osition to observe closely the new situations created by these swift and tremend- 
ous ciianges, Thr Tirhiioj/rdiih wishes to bring a suggestion of the importance of the oppor- 
tunity ottered each engineering alumnus to be of real help and benefit to his Alma ilater. 

An enrollment nearly double that of three yeai-s ago; a staff smaller than in normal 
times; an inadequate supply of e(juii)meut and class-room space, has exercised the keenest 
anxieties of every member of the staff from Dean of the College to the lowest paid assistant 
as to what the future of this great College of Engineering really is to be. 

"A Straight Talk Aliout Your University'' by President Kinley should be read by every 
Tcchnograph subscriber. 

WHY INSTRUCTORS LEAVE HOME 

E. W. Carrier instructor in civil engineering was paid !|'l,ijOO last year, and was offered 
•11800 this fall. But he accepted an offer from the Illinois Tractioji System for .f;iO00 per 
year, the first three months, .fooOO the second three months, |4000 the next six mouths, and 
(his friends saj) |4500 for a few months thereafter. 

H. H. Edwards, h. c. e. '17, was paid as an instructor in civil engineering last year |125 
a month. Since leaving in May, 191!) to become city engineer of Danville, his salary has 
been |;5000 ])lus an ex])ense allowance. 



A word of tiianks and apjireciation to all who have, by tlieir friendly advice and help- 
fullness, assisted in getting out tliis new Tcohnogrniih- The splendid backing of the engi- 
neering societies and organizations, and particularly tliat of the faculty, has made this re- 
vival of The Tfchiiograpl possible. .Macon Al)bitt. who designed tiic cover and lieadings. is 
the Art Editor of The Technograpli. 



IN MEMORIAM 



It is with tiie deepest regret that we note the 
death of Leslie J. Hiig, Arch. '21, who died of a])- 
pendicitis this summer at his home in Highland, 111. 
He was a mend)er of Al])ha Rho Chi and Sigma Tau. 

The news of the untimely death of Edward 
Milton Ballard, M. E. '21, last July comes with 
much sorrow. His death was due to heart trouble 
which resulted from an attack of flu last winter. 
He was a mciidicr of I'i Tau Sigma. 



30 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Xornnbcr, 1920 



Industrial Boiler Testing 

J{.v 1". F. W'lTTB, M. E. '23 

Bctuw upiMain the arlicle that uinx a Marks' Mechanical Engineer's Handljook as first 
prize in The Tcchnoyraph summer ivork compatition. — Eihtor 



Dl'KIXG the piisi sniiiiiicr, I worked for the 
Henry ^'()}^■t .Machine ('oiii]iiiiiy of l^ouis- 
ville, Kentucky, because I believed that T 
would there secure the most valuable experience in 
practical mechanical engineering, and because I 
was acijuainted there, having worked with that com- 
pany about eight months before entering Illinois. 

Tlie Henry Vogt JIachine Company employs 
ai)pro.\inuitely five hundred men, and the plant cov- 
ers an area of more than fifteen acres. The value of 
its yearly business is figured in millions of dollars. 
The principal manufacturing departments are: the 
boiler sho])s, sheet iron shop, foundry, pipe and ma- 
chine shops, and a drop-forging plant. The most 
important products are: water tube and horizontal 
return tubular boilers, ice making and refrigerating 
machinery, oil refining e(iui])ment, and drop-forged 
steel valves and fittings. 

During the very first week of my employment, 
luck came my way. The installation of a new 540 
horse-power Vogt water tube boiler had just been 
completed in the plant boiler-room. This boiler was 
equipped with a five retort underfeed stoker which 
had been guaranteed by the manufacturer to pro- 
duce a definite minimum combined efficiency with 
the boiler operating at 2007o of its commercial rat- 
ing- In order to substantiate tliis guarantee, the 
stoker manufacturer was sending two representa- 
tives to Louisville to make a confirnuitory test. It 
was my good fortune to be detailed to assist them. 

When the engineers of the stoker company ar- 
rived, they agreed, at the recpiest of the Vogt or- 
ganization, to remain four days longer than origin- 
ally i)lanned to conduct additional tests. The pur- 
pose of these additional tests was to secure more 
complete information regarding the boiler perform- 
ances and to confirm data secured by previous tests 
upon other boilers. The operating ratings were to 
vary api)ro.\imately from 100';^ to 1*50% of the com- 
mercial rating. The conunercial rating of a water- 
tube boiler is not determined by actual experiment; 
it is based simply upon the assumption that ten 
S(]u;ire feet of heating surface are eciual to one boiler 
horse-power. This "heating suiface" consists of all 
surfaces of the boiler whicli eiiww in coulact with 
the hot gases. The actual capacity of a boiler, or 



Ihe hoi'se-i)ower which it is capable of developing, 
is lai-gely dependent upon the method of firing (i. e. 
whether hiind-fired, oil-fired, or by chain grate or 
underfeed stoker), the baffling, design of setting, 
and other factors. The actual horse-power which a 
boiler is developing is determined by the following 
ratio : 

Lbs. water evaporated per hour from and at 212°F. 



34.5 



34.5 pounds being the weight of water evaporated 
per hour from and at 212°F. to make one horse- 
power. 

This 540 H. P. water tube boiler is of the hori- 
zontal type; it has three horizontal steam drums 
and six cross drums for tube headers. All tubes are 
straight; straight tubes facilitate cleaning and also 
replacement because they can be secured from any 
source of supply without the necessity for special 
bending equipment. Where the tubes enter the 
headers, the tube sheets were "bossed'' by the press- 
ing while hot, to secure the flat surfaces perpendic- 
ular to the tubes which are essential to strong joints- 

The feed water is discharged into the boiler at 
tlie rear end of each steam drum; it passes down 
the bank of vertical tubes and then, as it is heated 
and steam is generated, it rises through the three 
banks of horizontally inclined tubes to the steam 
drums, thus completing the circuit. The circidation 
of the water is rapid to minimize the scale forma- 
tion. The flue gas travel is counter current to the 
water circulation; thus the coolest gases come in 
contact with the coldest water in the vertical tubes, 
and the excessive strains, caused by a great ditt'er- 
ence in temperature of water and gases on opposite 
surfaces of the metal, are obviated. The boiler is 
suspended from a structural steel framework entire- 
ly independent of the brickwork and is free to ex- 
])and and contract. Material and construction com- 
ply in every respect with the "Boiler Code" of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

The boiler setting was steel encased ; it consisted 
of IS inch brick walls surrounded by a 2 inch thick 
ness of magnesia insulating material, the whole be- 
ing enclo.sed iu a casing of No. 8 gauge steel. Be- 



November, 1920 



THE TECHNOGEAPH 



31 



cause the brickwork is tightly sealed within the in- 
sulation and the steel casing, it is not subjected to 
the usual expansion and contraction which results 
in cracked brickwork, and the infiltration of cold air 
into the setting is prevented. Cold air that leaks 
tlirough the setting into the furnace tends to chill 
the gases below their ignition temperatures and 
prevent their heat liberation ; cold air admitted to 
the combustion chamber or gas passages reduces the 
temperatures of gases and have burned and thus de- 
creases the quantity of heat available for trans- 
mission or steiim generation. The rate of heat trans- 
mission in a boiler varies directly with the difference 
in temperature between the heat liberating gases and 
heat absorbing water, other conditions remaining 
unchanged. 

The stoker engineers and the Vogt operating en- 
gineers were in complete charge of the tests ; my as 
signment was simply to assist them in any manner 
possible and to familiarize myself with boiler opera- 
tion and testing. These engineers were of the type 
a fellow likes to be associated with; they were ex- 
pert in the erection and operation of i)ower plant 

1 28 Feet 



equiiuiient, also delightful companions. When they 
learned that I was a university student and had a 
real interest in their work, they spared no efforts to 
assist me in every way possible. In order that I 
nught secure a thorough understanding of the test, 
I was at one time or another assigned to practically 
every phase of the work. In each case, a complete 
explanation of the purpose of that particular part 
of the test was made to me. I weighed coal and ash, 
prepared samples for chemical analysis, assisted in 
calibrating the feed pump, and took all readings 
varying from simple draft and temperature readings 
to the more involved determination of furnace tem- 
perature with a Werner optical pyrometer. It was 
impossible to use our electrical pyrometers as they 
register onlj' to 2500°F., while furnace temperatures 
as high as 3820°F. were recorded. 

The tests were conducted in accordance with 
"Kules for Conducting Performance Tests of Power 
I'lant Apparatus'' of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. Operating conditions in the 
plant linnted our tests to nine hours; practically all 
readings were made at fifteen minute intervals 




Sectional view of boiler. 



32 



THE TECUAUUKAl'H 



Xoiiinbir, liUO 



throughout the tests- 
One of the chief purposes of the tests was to 
deteriniue at what rating a boiler of sueh design 
and size, and with its coniph'nientarv e<|ni]inient, 
can be ©iterated to best advantage in commercial 
practice. This is dependent not upon tiie efficiency 
alone; the cost of equipment and maintenance must 
be taken into consideration. A boiler may operate 
more efficiently at 150% of its commercial rating 
than at 200%, yet it would be "good practice" to op- 
erate at the higher rating if the difference in effi- 
ciency is not too great. The following will illust- 
rate. 

An engineer determines tliat to successfully op- 
erate his plant he will re(iuii-e 12000 horse-power. 
If he decides to operate his bt)ilers at 1.50% rating, 
he will recpiire 8000 boiler horse-power, while if he 
operates at 200% only COOO horse-power will be nec- 
essary. The cost of the additional boilers, stokers, 
pumps, building, and other equipment with its sub- 
sequent maintenance would, under conditions simi 
lar to those of our test, more than counterbalance 
the saving during operation. The boiler mauufact 
urer should be prepared to advise the purchaser at 
what ratings under the prevailing conditions the 
increase in cost of equipment is greater than the 
saving due to a higher efficiency. 

In a great many industrial plants, the load or 
steam consumption fluctuates greatly and rapidly 
due to intermittent requirements of drop-forging 
steam hammers and similar equipment. According- 
ly, one phase of our test was to determine how rap- 
idly our boiler would "pick up" from a low rating 
to carry the peak load. It was decided that a severe 
test would be to begin with the fire in the banked 
condition and the boiler carrying no load, and then 
ascertain the time necessary to reach a rating of 
200%. Results indicated that, with our stoker hav- 
ing one square foot of area for each 50.28 square 
feet of boiler heating surface and burning an average 
grade of AVestern Kentucky coal, the time required 
was from three to five minutes. 

At the beginning of each day's test, it is well to 
check all watches against the watch of one man in 
order that the readings which should be taken sim 
ultaneously by several observers be properly made. 
Some conditions of the boiler change so rapidly that 
a variation of only a few minutes in taking readings 
will lead to false results. 

To secure the highest economy of operation the 
boiler baffling must be in good condition and must 
prevent the "short circuiting'' of the hot gases. Be- 
cause of the draft or "pull" of the stack, the gases 
take the shortest path from the furnace to the 
breeching; the purpose of the baffling is to lengthen 



the travel of the gas in the boiler and force it to come 
in contact with the entire heating surface, thus as- 
suring the ma.\imum heat transmission from the 
gases to the water. Due to the extremely high tem 
I)eratures to which it subjected, the baffle tile occa- 
sionally burns out or leaks badly with no outward 
signs of such defects in the setting. 

To determine the conditions of the liaffles in oui' 
test boiler, we made a series of temperature readings 
in the various gas passes. These readings were made 
with 1200°F. thermometers and 2500°F- electrical 
pyrometers, the "l)usiness end" of the instrument 
being inserted through small holes provided for that 
purpose in the sides of the setting. These readings 
were tabulated in the sequence corresponding to the 
travel of the gases from the grate to the breeching. 
Each temperature recorded was lower than the one 
dii-ectly before it, showing that there were no short 
circuits or appreciable leaks. Had the tile against 
the rear double drum in the upper horizontal baffle 
been burned out, this fact would have been indicated 
by the temperature in the second pass lower than 
that of the third which condition is otherwise not 
possible. 

The results obtained by the temperature varia- 
tion were confirmed by a determination of the draft 
loss through the setting. Draft readings were mads 
at each peep-hole and were then tabulated as were 
the temperature readings. The increase of each 
draft reading over the one immediately preceding 
it, again proved the baffles to be tight as the draft 
becomes stronger and more effective as the stack is 
neared. Any reading less than the one immediately 
preceding it would have indicated a leak or a "gas 
pocket" or "dead area." Such a pocket is due to im- 
proper baffling and tends to decrease the effective 
heating surface. It can be eliminated by the proper 
arrangement of baffles. During operation at a uni- 
form rating the development of a defect in the baf- 
fling would be noticeable because of the increase in 
the gas temperature at the breeching frame. It is 
customary to have a thermometer permanently lo- 
cated to indicate the temperature at this point. 

It is essential that all draft gauges be read sim- 
ultaneously Ijecause of the momentary variation in 
draft due to the variations in the stack draft, the 
load, and the operation of the turbo-blower which 
furnishes the forced draft for the stoker. Tlie gauges 
used were of the Ellison type and requii-ed frequent 
adjustment to assure accurate readings. 

Considerable importance is attached to the 
starting and stopping of a test as the accuracy of 
the results obtained is largely dependent thereon. 
Other conditions remaining unchanged, tiie efficien- 
cy will van' with the ratio of the water evaporated 



November^ 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



33 



to the coal burued. Had the water level in the boil- 
er been 4 inches higher at the time of starting than 
at the stopping time, we wonld have been credited 
with approximately five thousand pounds of water 
less than was actually evai>orated and the efficiency 
would have figured correspondingly lower than it 
was in reality. Had thei-e been two thousand pounds 
more coal in the furnace and stoker hopper at the 
start than at the finish, our coal consumption would 
have, been recorded as a ton less than it actually 
was and the ratio of evaporation ])roportioiiately 
increased. 

To make certain that no such inaccuracies 
would enter into our tests, we marked, at the begin- 
ning of each test, the level of the water in the gauge 
glass which indicates the water level in the i/oiler. 
A short time before stopping, the water level was 
allowed to fall slightly below the mark; within the 
last few minutes the pump speed was increased so 
that the mark would be reached exactly at the stop- 
ping time. The pump was tiien shut down and the 
final water reading made. 

Before the test was started the boiler was thor- 
oughly heated and the tire then burned down to the 
low condition for cleaning. When the cleaning had 
been completed, the stoker hopper filled level full, 
and the depth and condition of the coal on the grate 
noted, the time was I'ecorded and the test started. 
As the stopping time approached, the fire was worked 
to its original condition and exactly at that time 
the stoker was shut off, the hopper again filled level, 
and the final determination of the coal consumption 
made. The conditions governing the temperature 
of the furnace and boiler, and the steam pressure 
were also made as nearly as possible the same at 
the end of the test as at the beginning. 

The exhaust steam from the engines was util- 
ized in an open feed water heater to preheat the feed 
water so that it entered the boiler at an average 
temperature of 210°F. The advantage of introduc- 
ing water into the boiler at such high temperature 
is the increase in boiler capacity. At an absolute 
pressure of 150 pounds the evaporation of a pound 
of water would require ap])roximately 1015 B. t. u. 
with a feed water temperature of 210°F., and 1085 
B. t. u. with water at 14:0°F. The increase in capac- 
ity due to the higher feed water temperature would 
be about six percent; in large units this is of con- 
siderable importance. 

At the beginning of the tests the customary feed 
water weighing tanks were not available; the feed 
pump was therefore calibrated to serve temporarily 
as the water meter. This was accomplished by 
weighing the water by-passed from the feed pump 
into the tank on a platform scale for one hundred 



pump revolutions against a pressure equal to that 
of the boiler, and noting the water temperature and 
length of pump stroke. These conditions were as- 
sumed as standard and the weight of water delivered 
per pump revolution was calculated. Throughout 
the test the boiler pressure, water temperature, 
length of pump stroke, and number of revolutions 
was determined every half hour. By converting 
these factors to the assumed standard, the total 
weight of the water fed into the boiler during the 
test was readily calculated. The qvmntity of water 
evaporated was checked by comparison with the 
flow-meter charts of steam production. As these 
flow-meters are guaranteed to be accurate within 
2%, they are of real value as a check. 

The quantitj' of coal burned was determined 
by actual weighing all coal fed to the stoker. A 
platform binlt, temporarily, just above the stoker 
hopper and under the chute from the storage bunk- 
er, was provided with a scale upon which rested a 
box especially constructed to facilitate easy hand- 
ling and rapid dumping. Coal was allowed to dis- 
charge from the chute into this box until the arm 
of the scale was balanced indicating that 250 pounds 
had been collected. The total weight was easily de- 
termined as an accurate record was kept of the 
number of boxes dumped. The weight of the ash 
together with the chemical determination of the 
percentage of ash in the coal served as a rough 
check upon the coal burned. 

A representative sample of the coal must be 
prepared for an analysis or little dependence can 
be placed upon the accuracy of the results obtained. 
Our samples were secured in the following manner. 
Fi'om each box of coal dumped into the stoker hop- 
per, a small quantity — perhaps two pounds — was 
removed ; this continuous sample made it impossible 
for any variation in the gi'ade of coal to occur with- 
out being taken into account in the analysis. These 
samples were placed in a large steel bari'el fitted 
with a tight cover to prevent the escape of the moist- 
ure in the coal which would otherwise have occured 
due to the heat in the boiler room. AVlien a day's 
test had been completed, the sample was thoroughly 
mixed, crushed to lumps approximately -54 inch in 
size, thoroughly mixed again, and (juartered or di- 
vided into four equal parts. Two of these parts were 
rejected ; the other two were fixed, crushed, mixed 
again, and re-quartered. This process of systematic 
mixing, crushing, and reducing in quantity was con- 
tinued until the final sample consisted of about 
twenty pounds of coal the size of a pea. Two quart 
cans were then filled, sealed to make them air-tight, 
dated, and sent to the chemist. The pre[)-iri:tit)n 
of the samples for analysis should be made upon a 



34 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



November, 1920 



hard, smooth, clean surface where the coal will be 
l»rotected from foreign matter and loss or gain in 
moisture. After the first day's lest, one of the work- 
men cleaned a section of the concrete floor with the 
intention of preparing tiie samples there. Due to 
the possibility of getting chips of concrete in the 
coal dui'ing the criishing. we made him secure a 
large boiler plate to work \i])ou. 

Throughout the test a "COj Kecorder" was used 
to assist in regulating the amount of air supplied 
to the furnace. This instrument drew samples of 
the gases from the boiler at the breeching frame, 
analyzed these samples and recorded the percentage 
of carbon-dioxide present. The engineers decided 
that with the existing conditions, the best results 
would be secured with CO^ at about l-i'/, . A per 
centage of CO, greater than 1J:% indicated that the 
boiler was getting an insufficient supply of air. 
while the lower reading called for a reduction in the 
air admitted. It is esseutial that sufl'icieut air be 
admitted to completely oxidize the carbon as the 
heat produced by the formation of CO is less than 
one-third of that liberated by the complete oxidation 
of COo. A large excess should be avoided as it re- 
duces the temperature of the gases and therefore the 
heat available for transmission to the water. 



Calculation of the results of the tests was fully 
as interesting to me as the actual test because it 
maile clear certain relations of various factors to 
the combine<l efficiency which previously I had been 
unable to understand. There the results of changes 
in r>perating conditions were made evident— the 
change in rating due to variation in feed water 
temjierature, steam pressure, and to soot blowing; 
the increase in the percentage of moisture in steam 
at increased ratings. Our results were calculated 
and tabulated in accordance with the form for a 
complete boiler test prepared by the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers and printed in the re- 
port of the Committee on Power Tests. The results 
inilicated a very creditable performance of both 
boiler and stoker; they will soon be published in a 
bulletin now being prepared on Water Tube Boilers. 

I consider my work in connection with these 
tests a very valuable and fortunate experience. In 
addition to being instructive, the work was pleasant 
and agreeable. Should you ever go to Louisville or 
that vicinity, do not fail to visit the Henry Vogt 
Machine Company. I am sure you will receive a 
hearty welcome, and that such a visit will be pleas- 
ant, interesting, and well worth-while. 



HAIL! YOU MATH. SHARKS 

If a hickory log burning in a firepl .ce sings, 
is the tune a log rythm? 



The intelligentia south of (Jreen Street, having 
condescended to allow us temporarily in their midst, 
we would like to respectfully submit a few sug- 
gestions : 

1. One way traffic on the board walk. 

2. Safety zones for co-eds. 

3. Subway or elevated for Frosh going to P. T. 

4. Free refreshments for library and seminar 
dates. 

5. Cushions for seats in 228 N. H. to alleviate 
discomfort in sleeping, incidentally eliminating the 
acconii)anving noises. 



l\Jovvmbrr, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



One Railroad Resumes Construction Work 

By KiRT SiEKE, 0. E. '21 

This article received second prize in tlie summer work competition, a two year sub- 
scription to The Technograph. — Editor. 



THE past year has witnessed an increasing activ- 
ity in railroad construction and maintenance, 
hecause most of the war restrictions on this work 
have been removed. Even so, the high cost of mater- 
ial and labor prevented the resumption of normal 
building, but many structures had deteriorated so 
badly that replacement was necessary. An example 
of work of this nature is the replacement of the 
present Illinois Central bridge over the Rock River 
at Dixon, Hlinois. 

General Situation 

The Rock River is rather a broad stream run- 
ning in a sandy or gravelly bed and at the bridge 
site is not more than fifteen feet deep. On the north 
side of the river, the railroad is located upon hills 
which end rather abruptly about six hundred feet 
from the stream. From this point the track is sup- 
ported by the bridge to the south side of the river, 
and then upon a thirty foot embankment until high 
ground is again encountered about half a mile south 
of the water. The track alignment over the bridge 
itself is a tangent but the approaches are curves of 
between two and three degrees. 

The present structure was built many years 
ago. It is a pin connected dock truss bridge having 
a total length of about 1000 feet. The sub-structure 
is of sand stone masonry, the failure of which is 
principally responsible for the urgent need of re- 
newing the bridge- One of the piers on the north 
bank has been partially out of service for some time, 
tlie load being carried by an arrangement of steel 
I-beams resting on pile bents driven adjacent to the 
weak pier. Two other piers were jacketed with 
concrete several years ago in order to insure their 
safety. 

During the summer mouths, a settlement of one 
of the midstream piers was detected, and a fissure 
became noticeable which soon developed into a crack 
of unknown depth running from the top about ten 
feet vertically down one end of the pier. This re- 
quired the prompt placing of timbers and tie bolts 
to hold the masonry together. Because of this weak 
condition all trains have had to observe reduced 
speed orders. This results in great inconvenience 
both because the traffic is very heavy, and because 



the curves and grade to the north should be taken at 
normal speed. 

The Xeir Structure 

As a result of such conditions, the speedy con- 
struction of a new bridge has become very desirable, 
if not necessary. Tlie plans which were prepared 
call for a steel trestle, 1001 feet G inches long from 
face to face of back walls and consisting of deck 
plate girders, alternating forty and eighty feet long, 
resting on steel towers which in turn are built upon 
concrete piers. The new bridge is being built about 
nineteen feet down stream from the present one and 
parallel to it. In addition, the base of rail of the 
new structure is to be four feet higher than that of 
the old, which will give a better grade line at this 
point. Traffic is being maintained over the present 
structure until the work is completed. 

With a view to rapid work of the best quality, 
the cost-plus system of payment was decided upon. 
The cost-plus system is that used by the government 
during the war, and essentially, it consists of pay- 
ment by the owner for material used and labor per- 
formed with a definite profit to the contractor. Und- 
er present conditions, the choice was no doubt wise 
as also fair to the prospective contractors. The 
Bates and Rogers Company were the successful bid- 
ders and proceeded without delay to assemble equip- 
ment at the site. 

Members of the railroad's engineering corps 
were the first to arrive on the scene, however, and 
proceeded to do the necessary preliminary work of 
placing stakes for the new piers, cross-sectioning to 
determine the earthwork, and running accurate lev- 
els from the government bench mark in Dixou in 
order to place the elevations on forms, piers, and 
bridge seats. 

Material Shortage 

As must always be done, especially on big jobs 
such as this, the ground was carefully examined in 
order to select the best locations for material yards. 
It was decided to place material on both sides of 
the river so as to better distribute the work. The 
north bank of the river immediately adjacent to the 
old bridge was selected for one yard because gravel, 



TUE TECUNOCIHAPU 



Novi mbcr, l'J20 



sand, and tiinhor could 1k> dumped directly from the 
cars- This iiiclJKid entailed a thirty foot drop, so a 
trouf^li was Imiit to transfer cement haj;s from the 
car to tlie cement house near the ground. 

Immediately adjoiiuiig the cement house a mix- 
CI- was set u]) al(ont ten feet above the grouml and 
arran;;ed to iluiii|i into l)uckets on a narrow gauge 
cai'. To supply Iliis mixer, a derrick was erected 
which swnufi ilif Imckels of 1 '/4 yard cai)acity from 
the gravel jiilc lo the ndxer platform and returned 
empties for relilling. Tliis method worked (piitr 
smoothly though it re(piired quite a crew (Ki or 17 
iiicu I in (Miustant attendance. Water was su|>]ilied 
by pnmi)ing dii'ectly from tjie river. 

A tract of about six acres between the river and 
tlie joint industry track of the C. & N. W. and I. C. 
railroads was selected for the material yard on the 
south side of the river. Access to this was obtained 
liy a six hundred foot spur so cars could be left for 
unloading. This work was done by hand in the case 
of lumber, and with a clam shell bucket oiierated by 
derrick in the case of sand and gravel. However, 
instead of merely dumping these latter materials on 
the ground, two elevated bins, each of about thii-ty 
yards ca])acity. were erected to supply the mixer. 
Only when these were tilled were sand and gravel 
piled on the ground. As with the other mixer, the 
one in this yard was elevated in order to dump into 
buckets on cars. Part of the yard was devoted to 
the building of AVaketield sheet piles which were 
used in the coffer dams. 

Because of the emergency nature of this work, 
a large amount of e<iuipment was necessary in order 
that the work ndglit jiroceed at many points simul- 
taneously. The avoidance of delays was of vital im- 
portance, and the arrangement of work and mater- 
ials had to be such as to insure even progress with 
the opportunity for transfer of men and nuiterials 
from one point to another should the unforseen oc- 

CUI-. 

Tcniporari/ Tnstlf Used 

For several reasons it was decided to work frora 
a trestle- The depth of water being only about lif- 
teen feet and the railroad having a supply of ma- 
terial, a trestle was well adapted to the job. Barges, 
besides being unsiitisfactory, could only have been 
used for the half of the bridge over the water. The 
trestle provided easy means of distributing materia! 
and certain means of access to all i>arts of the job. 

The trestle was built about ten feet or more 
above the water and about thirty feet downstream 
from the center line of the new bridge. It consisted 
of four-pile-bents fourteen feet center to center with 
standard ca]>s, sti-ingers, and ties. Track, double 



most of the way, was luid fiom the nuxer in I lie 
north yard to that in tiic soulli. The trestle also car- 
ried a steam main to furnish steam to pile driveis 
and pumps at ea<li pier. Stiff leg derricks were 
erected at the site of several of the piers. These 
were nujved as the work proceeded. 

Concrete structure 

The abutments were built first. They are stand- 
ard V type, and rise fortj' feet above low water. 
Contrary to usual practice where pile foundation is 
used, the base is not below low water. Each abut 
nient recpured about 150 yards of excavation in tlie 
sloiie of the old embankments. 

The |)icrs are built with a square back and a 
cut-water in the shape of the frustrum of a cone. 
The top is about four and a half feet wide and twen- 
ty feet long and the piers are from twenty to thirty 
feet in height above the base, with the sides batter- 
ed V2 inch to 1 foot. 

Two inch planks were used for studding and 
sheeting and (> x 8 timbers for walling on all forms, 
which were bound in addition by twisted iron wire 
passing through from side to side. The reinforcing 
consisted of a lattice of bars inside the entire up- 
right surface. Anchor bolts were placed for steel 
towers and firndy secured before pouring the con- 
crete. 

As previously mentioned, large buckets were 
placed on the narrow gauge cars and received the 
batches of concrete from the mixer- The cars were 
pushed by hand to within reach of the derrick set 
up near the pier being poured, and the buckets were 
lifted over the jiier forms and dumjied. Kather sloji- 
py mixtures of 1-2-4 concrete were used so as to 
bond with the reinforcing steel contained in every 
pier. 

River Piers 

In order to [ilace the foundation for those piers 
situated in the river, it was decided to use coffer 
dams. These were about eighteen by thirty-five feet 
by twenty-five feet deep. The wooden sheet piling 
for their construction was built on the job. A steam 
hammer, suspended from a derrick, was employed 
in driving the sheet piles. After the coffer dam was 
conn)leted, necessary excavation was done with a 
clam shell bucket worked by the same derrick, from 
which the hammer was again slung for driving the 
foundation piles used under each pier. 

Xo ditficulty was encountered except that due 
to rapid infllteration of water through the clean 
gravel bed of the river. A great many of the founda- 
tion piles were therefore cut off' under water, and 



Xorcmhcr, 1920 



THE TECHNOGKAPH 



where this was uot feasible, centrifugal pumps were 
kept running only during the time the men were 
sawing olf the renmining jnles. After all piles were 
cut otf, the bottom was successfully sealed under 
water with a cement grout. When the water was 
again pumped out, the work of building the piers 
in the river was essentially the same as that already 
described for the laud piers. 

Strcl Erection Xot ComincHcvd 

As no steel was erected previous to the middle 
of Septend)er, a description of this work is impos- 
sible. However, it is certain that the work of erec- 
tion will be done by derricks from the old bridge 
aided if necessary by the derricks on the trestle. Xo 
difficulties shotdd be encountered, as the towers are 
comparatively light memliers and the forty foot and 
eighty foot deck girders are not difficult to handle 
with proper facilities, with which both the contract- 
or and the railroad are well provided. 
Jiicidcntdl Changes 

A nund)er of changes are made necessary by the 
change of grade and alignment which will result 
when the new bridge is placed in service. Among 
these are the probable shifting and raising of a 
(date girder span crossing a North Dixon street, the 
realignment and grading of the Borden Coudenseil 
Milk Company s|)ur, and the extension of a masuniy 
culvert over a previously mentioned joint industry 
track in Dixon. Not the least of these extra jobs 
will be tlie building of the embankment and the re- 



alignment and raising of tiie main line under traf- 
fic. This involves the duinge of alignment of about 
nineteen feet at each end of the bridge which woidd 
be simple were it not for the simultaneous raise of 
four feet to reach the deck of the new bridge. 

One not actjuainted with railroad practice nuiy 
suppose that during the prosecution of such work, 
trattic is routed over another line leaving the con- 
struction gangs entirely free to make such changes 
as are necessary. Xot only is this not the case, hut 
the engineer in charge of the work is held respon- 
sible for all delays to trains resulting from the per- 
fornuince of the work- Where traffic is made up of 
trains at hourly intervals or less during the entire 
twenty four hours of the day, it is plain that this 
nuiy result in considerable delay of the work. 
Conclusion 

When one witnesses work of this kiml which is 
taken as hardly more than an incident in the oper- 
ation of a great railroad s.ystem. one better appreci- 
ates the vast power and resources necessary for rail 
way transportation. Similar work done by the pub- 
lic would be widely advertised, whereas it is doubt- 
ful if many of the citizens of Dixon considered it 
worth their while to walk only a short distance to 
watch the progress of the construction. The daily 
progress is so slow as to be almost discouraging to 
the active man, but when viewed at intervals of only 
a i^w weeks the changes are astonishing. A young 
engineer has much to interest him on such work. 




Prof. Ira O. Baker who succeeds Prof. Frederich H. Newell 
as head of the Civil Engineering department. 



(Continued from Page 2) 

of his e(|uii)iiient, but botii of tliese may l)e better ob- 
tained by travel study with sketclibook and measur- 
ing tape, than by giving any very long period dur- 
ing tlie imi)ressional years to a foreign school which 
!ias little in common with the steel-skeleton, ever pi'o- 
gressing American iirohlciu. For the American stu- 
dent, the advice nniy well be to do one's undergrad- 
uate work in a Inmie university but seize every op- 
p<ut unity for as uiuch travel aud as many sketcjiing 
trips as vacations or a year or so of graduate study 
in the old world will pei-nut, thus reaping rich har- 
\ests from the architectural wealth of gothic or 
Iveuaissance France, rather than to depend upon the 
inlluences suggested by the modern tendencies in 
Frnch architecture. 



S8 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



November, 1920 



The Engineering Urge 

By W. M. Wilson 
Axsociaic Professor of tStrKcliintI Engineering 



STATISTICS show tluit approximately 85% of 
the alumni uf the College of Eugiucering of 
the University of Illinois are engaged in some 
line of engineering work. "What does this mean? 
Does it mean that most of our engineering student-; 
selected engineering because tliey were endowed b.\- 
nature to be engineers? Or does it mean that oui- 
alumni have persisted in engineering work, in spite 
of inclinations and native ability along other lines, 
simply because they took an engineering course? 

Xext to selecting good morals, selecting a prop- 
er occupation is the greatest decision in a young 
man's life. Some men look upon daylight as a time 
in which to earn money in order to enjoy themselves 
a few hours at night. Others look upon youth and 
middle age as a time in which- to slave and sav" 
money to enjoy competency iu old age. Both are 
wrong. Daylight is a work time and youth is a time 
to accumulate, but for life to be satisfactory the 
work itself must be a pleasure. Eight hours of 
drudgery paid for two hours of pleasui-e is a bad 
bargain. For every man there is some employment 
in which the labor itself is a pleasure. Every man 
owes it to himself to find that occupation as early 
in life as possible. This is an obligation that many 
a man overlooks. He does not realize that his se- 
lection of an occupation may determine whether he 
is to have forty year.s of unhappy toil ending in fail- 
ure, or forty years of pleasant industry leading to 
abundance and success. Yet the choosing of a right 
or a wrong occupation laaj mean just this. 

A college course is selected at a time when a 
man is not in a position to make an intelligent 
choice. Statistics show that a very small propor- 
tion of our students follow the occupations of their 
fathers. The engineering student come from the 
farms, the students in agriculture come from the 
city, the sons of doctors study to be lawyers and the 
sous of lawyers study to be doctors. Consequently 
the student does not have a first hand every day 
acquaintanceship with his prospective profession at 
tlie time he selects his college course. He does not 
know the kind of ability re(iuired, he does uot know 
the environment in whidi tlie work will be done, he 
know's nothing of the tedious hours of routine, nor 
does he know the remuneration which the average 
man in the profession receives. The city boy, lured 



by the high prices of produce, the independent 
simple life, and the open air, decides to be a farmer. 
Likewise the country boy, lured by high salaries, 
good clothes, absence of manual labor, and the op- 
portunity for social pleasure, goes to the city. If 
a boy is handy at fixing door bells his parents and 
neighbors speak of him as a promising electrical en- 
gineer, not realizing the difference between an elec- 
trician and an engineer. Likewise a boy who plaj's 
with toy engines, and what boy does not, is pre- 
destined to be a mechanical engineer. That is, the 
selections are based upon incidents and not upon 
fundamental principles. 

In selecting an occupation two questions are 
fundamental. What do you w^ant to get ? What do 
you w^ant to become? Life is a long journey. The 
first step in a journey is to select a destination, de- 
cide where you want to go. Where do you w-ant to 
end life? Do you want to be rich? Do you want to 
be famous? Do you want to have power? Do you 
want to render service? Or do you want to wander 
and end where you will? The man in Chicago who 
does not know whether he wants to go to New York 
or San Francisco is not likely to get to either. Like- 
wise the man who vacillates between riches and ser- 
vice is no more likely to get the one than he is to 
render the other. Moreover, the man without a def- 
inite goal is likely to be a tramp on life's higliway, 
following the road of least resistance and arriving 
nowhere. The first question, therefore, is, "AVhat 
ft-ill be your principle aim in life?" Do you want to 
be rich, famous, or powerful, or do you want to rend- 
er service? 

The product of life is character. Character 
forms slowly. It is plastic while forming but once 
set it is hard and resists change. The characterist- 
ics of a young man are many and varied, but iu an 
old man some one characteristic predominates. Be- 
nevolence becomes a habit through a lifetime of 
practice. Selfishness becomes a fixed trait upon 
continually trying to get the lion's share of every 
tiling. A bully is defined as a person who continu- 
ally intimidates others by manner or threat. Some 
metliods, not all, of getting rich requires that one 
disregard the rights of others, or even requires that 
one take wliat morally belongs to another. Souie 
incthods, not all. of attaining power require that one 



Nvrrwbrr, 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



39 



bluff and brow-beat his associates. Some oooupa- 
tions promise great riflies, but onlj- thi-ough the 
destructiou of character, other occupations 'iie in 
compatible with wealth yet develop cl^aracters of 
the highest types. The aim of life has not been lixed 
until, not only a desired acquisition, but also tde 
desired character has been selected For wealtli 
obtained by sharp practice is ns far from wealth 
and beuevoleuce as plenty is from poverty. If you 
want riches and honesty you must not, m your eager- 
ness for riches, do that whicii develops selfishness 
and dishonesty. Likewise if you want power and 
meekness, and they are often found together, you 
must not, in your eagerness for power, become a 
bully. 

Of the two aims of life, ecquisition and char- 
acter, character is the more desirable. Acquisition 
is from without, whereas character is from within. 
Character without acquisition may be victorj', but 
acquisition at the expense of character is defeat. 

Having decided upon the aims to be attained 
you are in a position to study the various occupa- 
tions and select the one which will most easily en- 
able you to attain these aims. Any productive oc- 
cupation industriously and properly practiced by a 
man having ability in that occupation, will result 
in a high type of character and sufficient wealth 
to meet any reasonable wants. The problem, then, 
is to select the occupation in which one has a suft'i- 
cieut interest to make industry and the occupation 
for which he has the peculiar type of ability recpiir- 
ed. The solution of this problem requires consider- 
ation of the following questions : 

1 . What is the nature of the work? If you are 
l)lanning on being a civil engineer you want to know 
what a civil engineer does. What does a civil engi 
necr do the first year, the first five years, and the 
first ten years after graduation? By this is meant, 
not the spectacular thing which he does once a year, 
but the routine of work which he does eight hours 
a day, six days a week and fifty-two weeks a year. 
Is this the woj'k you can do with interest, so indust- 
ry will be a pleasure, or is it work for which the pay 
envelope will contain the whole compensation? 

U. Under what conditions will the work be 
(lone? Will it be indoors or outdoors? Will it per- 
nnt home life? Will location be permanent or will 
it retpiire shifting from place to place? Will it be 
in the city or in the country, in settled or desert 
places? Will there be danger or safety? 

3. AVliat compensation may you expect the first 
year out of college? The first five years out of col- 
lege? The first ten j'ears out of college? What are 
the big prizes for the few highest men in the pro- 
fession in money, in fame, in power? 



4. What will your personal i-elationship to 
other men be? Will your relationship be mutually 
pleasant? Will you have to bull-doze others to get 
ahead? Will you have to keep others from bull- 
dozing you to keep from getting behind? Will you 
be called upon to inflict injustice to others? Will 
you be called upon to promote business activities 
which are questionable? 

5. What are the chances for failure? Do all 
men in the profession succeed in making at least 
a living or are some compelled to give up and siiift 
to other work to make a fair living? 

G. Is the profession looked upon with honor? 
Does the mere fact that you are in the profession 
give you prestige? 

7. What personal attributes are necessary for 
success? Do you have to be a good mathematician"' 
A good speaker? A good writer? A good mixer? 

8. To what extent do you possess the reciuired 
personal attributes? Do you have sufficient inter- 
est in the profession to induce you to overcome any 
natural deficiencies? 

The first reaction in reading these questions is 
that they are extensive and unnecessai-ily formal. 
This is because they are questions which we have 
never considered ; a fact which only increases their 
importance. 

To answer the above questions intelligently re- 
quires an amount of knowledge and a power of self- 
analysis not possessed by the average freshman. 
That is to say, the average student .selects a course 
in college at a time when he is wholly unprepared 
to select the line of endeavor in which he should 
spend his whole life. To expect an intelligent se- 
lection at this time is to expect the impossible. To 
realize the truth of this statement it is only neces- 
sary to talk with freshmen about the factors whicli 
led to the selection of their course. It is true that 
some freshmen have pretty definite reasons for their 
selection, but in many ca.ses the decisions are Ijased 
upon conceptions tluit are preposterous and which 
show a lack of knowledge of true (-(HKlitions wiiich is 
lamentable. 

It is true that luany students do select courses 
preparing them for work which they like and in 
which thej' are successful. This is due in part to 
the fact that a boy's liking for a profession, illogical 
and uuanalj'zed as it may be, develops an industry 
and application which will make him proficient even 
though his greatest native ability may be along some 
other line. Proficiency, in turn, breeds interest and 
enjoyment which overcome some slight misfortune 
in the original selection. Good training may also 
overcome considerable lack of native ability. 

Although the adaptibility of youtli partly over- 



40 



Til 10 TEClIXOi JK APH 



Novrmbrr, J 020 



comes the inisforfiine of a wroug selection, this fact 
should not 1)1' in'iiiiitted to interfere with a later, 
and more intellij^ent selection, if the first is found 
to be illadvised. To persist in trying to be a lawyer 
because one has a law degree is to persist in going 
to the wrong city because one has turne<l onto the 
wrong roail. 

To senior engineering students the selection of 
a i)ernianent occupation is a serious matter. Many 
if you were brought up on a farm, but thought you 
would like to lie an engineer rather than a farmer. 
The decision may have been based upon the idea 
prevailing among youth in most rural communities 
that the city man is in some way superior to the 
farmer, and that to be and)itious is to go to the city. 
Or the decision may have been based on a real and 
very strong dislike for farm life. Or it may have 
been based upon a real longing for the city. But in 
most cases the decision was made without a knowl- 
edge of the nature of the real life and work of the 
engineer. Whatever the reasons for your decision 
four years ago, the important question is, do these 
reasons hold? You are face to face with your first 
job. If a career is really planned, instead of being 
permitted to happen, each job should be a prepara- 
tion for the jobs which follow. The selection of your 
lirst jiib should etfect your whole professional life. 
Certainly before such an important and decisive 
step is taken a man owes it to himself to learn the 
frue ii;itiire of the woi'k which he is about to take 
n]i. No |ii(iblciii in nieclianics is, to you, so import- 
ant as the problem of your carrer, yet you may have 
worked all night on a problem in mechanics to pass 
a course. Should you not sepnd a correspondingly 
greater time selecting your career since it affects 
the success and hapi)iness of your whole life? The 
college course is selected during or before tlic tiesli- 
uian year, but your occupation for life should not 
be finally selected until the senior year or possilily 
a year oi- two after graduation. This implies that 
a i:i:ni ni:iy iii-o]ierly take a technical or professional 
ccuisc and then engage in some otlicr wIkiIIv unre- 
lated activity. 

Can a r\\\\ engineer graduate justify entering 
the njinistry? May a nieclianical engineer go back 
to the larni witliout being a quitter? Both questions 
li;i\c the name answer, yes — uudei' certain conditions. 
If. after graduating as a civil engineer, a man 
tliiironghly convinced that I lie only thing he can do 
and be ha])py is to ])reacli ; if lie knows that he can 
preacii , and if he can be content on a preacher's in- 
come, then. I say, he siionld be a ]ireacher and not 
a civil engineer. Likewise, if after graduating in 
mechanical engineering, a man i.s thoi'onghly con 
vinced that the only tiling he can do and be hapjiy 



is to faiiii; if he knows that he can farm; and if he 
can he conlent in doing a farmer's work and living 
a fanni'i-'s life, then, I say, he should go back to the 
farm and not be a mechanical engineer. And no 
man has a right to call him a (piittei-. 

Will not leaving the profession for which one's 
college cour.se has prepared him be equivalent to 
scrapi)ing his college work? Even if this were so, 
it is better to throw away four years than to spoil 
the renminder of a lifetime. But such a shift does 
not mean scrapping a college course. Preparing for 
a particular profession is only one of many objects 
of a professional or technical course. Every college 
course shauld teach the student to think clearly, 
to write and speak correctly, to learn scientific facts 
and laws, to collect and deduce data, and to apply 
scientific knowledge to the solution of problems. 
These aims are conunon to all college courses and 
they compose the major part of the preparation for 
all professions. A civil engineering course that 
would not help a farmer, a banker, a lawyer or a 
merchant would be of little use to a civil engineer. 
It woidd be folly to argue that to prepare for one 
profession and to follow another curtails no loss, 
but while there is some loss, the loss is small. 

The danger of advising, or even admitting, that 
it may be proper, under certain conditions, to follow 
one profession after having prepared for another, 
is that a man who is really a quitter may use the 
advice to justify jumping from one occupation to 
another. It must be clearly understood that a man 
is advised to change from one profession to another 
only under the following conditions : 

1. That he has studied the new occupation and 
knows that he will be happier in the new than the 
old. 

2. That he knows that he is, or can, become 
liroticient in the new occupation. 

3. That he has studied the new occupation and 
knows that he will be content with the remunera- 
tion, working conditions, environments and per.soual 
relationships incident thereto. 

The advice to change is not ottered to the man 
u ho is disgruntled, to the man who finds his present 
«'oik hard and tedious, or to the man who is a fail 
ure generally. One or more of these disagreeable 
features "Jay be due to a poor selection of the occu- 
pation, but they may also be due to the individual. 
If the latter is true they will follow him wherever 
he goes. 

"\\'liat IS warned is not merely a change "rom onr 

occupation to another, but a change from one oc- 

cii]iation unfortunately chosen in ignorance to an 

occii|iation chosen with the full knowledge of the 

(Continued on Page 47J 



Nfn'cni her, 1920 



TUE TECHNOGRAPH 



41 



RT" 




DEPARTMENTAL 

NOTES 



^^ 



CERAMIC NEWS 

During the war a large amount of work vms 
carried on in the research hiboratories of the Ce- 
ramic Department, especially upon the manufacture 
of optical glass. This work was carried on under 
the personal supervision of Prof. AV. E. Washhiifu. 
Clays of all descriptions were sent to the depart- 
ment to be tested thus enlarging the scope and also 
the utility of the department. 

Dr- E. N. Bunting, Research Associate in the 
Engineering Experiment Station is engaged in the 
])erparation, in quantity, of glass entirely free from 
dissolved gases. The properties of these gases will 
then be studied and then compared with those of 
ordinary glass. Of the graduate students, whose 
major subject is Ceramic Cliemistry, the following 
have undertaken specialized types of work : 

(1) Mr. G. R. Shelton— "The Viscosity and 
Conductivity of Molten Glass and its Dependence 
upon Chemical Composition." 

(2) Mr. E. E. Libman — "Determination of 
the Phase Rule Diagram for the System SiOa— Al, 
O3— ZnO." 

(3) Mr. L. Navais — "A Physical Chemical 
Study of the Form of Silica found in Flint and 
Chalcedony." 

Of the undergraduate students, Mr. Gordon 
Kline is working upon "A Method of Measuring the 
Density of Molten Glass." 

Mr. E. G. Bourne, formerly of Tiie Moon Clay 
Com])any of Trenton, N. J., has recently been ap- 
pointed pottery instructor and laboratory assistant- 

An interesting article "An Approximate De- 
termination of the Melting Point Diagram of the 
System Zirconia-Silica'' was published by Prof. 
Washburn and Jlr. E. E. Libman in the August is- 
sue of the Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 

X. A. R.VIM.ANI). 



The public is realizing more and more the possibilitie.s 
offered in Ceramics, and many prophesy that it will soon 
be one of the great industrial courses offered by all recog 
nized technical schools. 



The problem of getting ceramic graduates is growing 
increasingly difficult, there being at the present time over 
eighty calls on the department that cannot be filled. More- 
over the total enrollment in the ceramic schools of the 
country is small, Illinois having only forty, so that the 
needs of the clay working industry will be impaired by lack 
of properly trained men. 



RAILWAY ENGINEERING NOTES 

On October 7th, under a full head of steam, the 
Railway Club Special pulled out of a tunnel wliicli 
obscured it a part of last semester. 

A new train crew was selected by the stock- 
holders. C. Wm. Cleworth was placed at tlie throl 
tie, with William Overbee as cab-mate. M. M. Good 
was made (lisi)atcher and Mason Leeming, Fare- 
Collector. 

The Si)ecial plans on kee]iing right up to sched- 
ule, with no 'em])ties" in tiie string, and will make 
a short stop the first and tliii-d Thursdays of each 
month at 115 Trans. Bldg. 

Lectures by prominent railroaders, movies of 
construction work, debates and social events are 
])lanned by the Club. Due to the forced paring of 
liailway and Transportation courses. Club meeting.; 
will be of sju'cial interest and value to Railroad stu- 
dents. 

All AI)oard: 

C. A\'. Cm;\voi{tii 



The Illinois Central Railroad has requested the 
Railroad Department I0 make some comparative 
tests for them on two types of valve gear for use on 
Mallet and Small engines. These tests will be made 
with tlie University's Railway Test Car, which is 
equipped with devices for recording automat ically 
the performance of various functions of locomotives. 
The Paxton Hill will i)robably be selected as the 
phice for making the tests. The Department is plan- 
ning on having the Seniors in Railway work carry 
out the tests. 



Now that you have had your share of dtmghnuts, 
apples and cider, better turn over tliat two-si)ot to 
your society treasurer for a year's membership. 
Yes, the Teciinograph is included. 



12 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



November, 1920 



C. E. SOCIETY NOTES 

As a starter of its activities for the year tho 
C. E. Society held its first big mixer in Koom 221. 
Engiueeriiif; Ilall on October 5 with a large number 
of old members and many new men present. Diesel's 
orchestra started the meeting with a few of its pejt- 
py selections, and tlieii A. W. Hinds, i)resident of 
the society, outlined the program for the year, ex- 
plained to the new men just what the society means 
for civil engineering students and invited them to 
join- After more snappy music everybody settled 
down lo hear Professor Baker's jokes and his usual 
valuable advice, and later to a very interesting talk 
by Dean Richards. Following the talks there was 
a mad rush to the 0. E. cafeteria which served cider, 
apples and doughnuts, and then came a half hour 
of mixing and discussing plans for the year. The 
meeting augured well for a very successful year with 
many interesting events ahead, one of which will be 
a r. 10. wiener roast at Crystal Lake Park some time 
tliis fall. Any C. E. attending it is assured that he 
will have the time of his life besides all the wieners 
he can eat, so let's go. 

J. C. Allman. 



ARCHITECTURAL NEWS 

T'lE lirst general assembly of the students and 
the faculty of the architectural department 
took place in the Ricker library on Tuesday 
evening, September 28th. Professor L. H. Provine, 
the head of the department, presided over the meet- 
ing. Three Seniors of the department were called 
upon to give short talks on different projects of the 
coming year and the institution of the old archi- 
tectural club was discussed as the most important 
feature. During the war days at the University, 
the club became inactive and plans for the reorgan- 
ization of the club are now under waj'. A commit- 
tee was appointed by Professor Provine to draw up 
the new constitution and by the end of the week 
definite action will take place at another meeting 
of the students. 

The architectural year book that was edited 
by the architectural club was likewise a sufferer 
during the war days and steps have also been taken 
in the way of organizing a staff to publish the book 
for the coming year. The best and the most repre- 
sentative work of the students will be published in 
the year book which will serve as a record of the 
work of the department. 

^\■(■ all heard of the Egyptian Fete, staged in 
the Spring of last year and we know that it will not 
be the last. It will not be an Egyptian celebration 



this year, so says Mr. J. E. Burgess, the designer of 
the decorations, so it is to be a surprise, as we now 
understand it. 

A number of changes in the faculty of the de- 
partment have been made this year. Some of the 
pre-war instructors have returned and an introduc- 
tion of each member of the teaching staff was made 
by Professor Provine. Mr. Palmer kept up the good 
humor of the meeting by relating a few of the stories 
for which he is noted and "five minute" talks by 
other instructors completed the program of the even- 
ing. We look forward to the next meeting. 

Edgar J. McDonald. 



On October 14 the students of the department of arch- 
itecture met to formulate the final plans of the new Arch- 
itectural Club. At the Smoker on the preceding Tuesday, 
it was decided that the club was to be reorganized after 
the long war period, and accordingly the club went Into 
action at the first meeting in over two years. 

The old constitution was revised by a committee ap- 
pointed by Professor Provine, the head of the department, 
and was read at the meeting. Some new amendments 
were made and the constitution was adopted. Election of 
officers was held and H. C. Cheever was chosen as presi- 
dent. D. E. Marquis was elected as Vice President and 
Virginia Gale was chosen tor the office of Secretary-Treas- 
urer. Professor Newcomb was elected as the faculty rep- 
resentative of the organization. 

The club plans to bring prominent men of the arch- 
itectural world to the university to lecture on subjects of 
interest in the builders' sphere. A committee was ap- 
pointed to find a name for the club to replace the old one 
and also to design a pin. 

A great interest was shown all through the meeting 
and we feel that the new organization will be the big pow- 
er behind all of the future activities of the Department fo 
Architecture. 



MINING enginp:erin(} notes 

The Departmen of Mining Engineering at this Uni- 
versity was established in 1909. A feature of this depart- 
ment is the fine Mining Laboratory. It is a brick building, 
one hundred forty-two by forty-two feet, which is divided 
into five units, as follows: coal washing and preparation; 
ore dressing and hydro-metallurgy; mining; analysis and 
sampling; and finally the ventilation laboratory. 

One half of the main laboratory is given over to coal 
preparation and here is found all machinery needed for 
crushing, pulverizing, screening and otherwise preparing 
coal for market. Coal washing and cleaning machines 
are of such a type and size as to permit the students to 
handlesamples of several tons per day. 

The other half of the main laboratory is occupied by 
the ore dressing machinery. Here are found gyratory 
crushers for initial breaking of ore; gravity stamps for 
gold quartz ore, jigs, sand and slime concentrating tables, 
and various other special appliances. Advanced methods, 
such as cyanidation, amalagmation, oil flotation, and other 
hydrometallurgical operations are carried on with the aid 
of this machinery. 

The mining portion of the laboratory is occupied by a 
number of different types of drills. Some of these are used 
only for soft alluvial earth, while others can be used to 



Xorcmbci; 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



43 



drill the hardest known rock. Of this latter type the 
diamond drill (so called because the bit is equipped with 
black diamonds to give it a cutting edge) is the most in- 
teresting. 

The analytical and sampling department is equipped 
with facilities for the analysis of coal, coke, and mine 
gases. Ores, before being concentrated, are also assayed 
here. Here is also special apparatus with the aid of which 
such important problems, as breakage of coal, are studied. 

The fifth portion of the mining laboratory is occupied 
by equipment designed for study of ventilation in metal 
and coal mines. Every make of safety lamp is represented, 
as well as an apparatus for detecting various inflamable 
and explosive gases in mines. 

About six years ago the University authorized a new 
extension to this building, which will be added as soon 
as funds become available. This addition will permit an 
extension of the present ore dressing and coal washing 
equipment which will be rearranged to occupy about one 
third of the new building. The other two thirds of the 
building will be devoted to th(^ mechanical and electrical 
applications in mining such as haulage, hoisting, boring 
and drilling. 

Special attention will be given to mine ventilation for 
which a fairly large duct will be provided on a mezanine 
gallery. 

H. M. WiLTEN. 



ELECTRICAL EXdINEERING NOTES 

The Electrical Engineering Society, the "live 
wire" engineering club, started out this year with 
its usual amount of pep. As in previous j^ears it 
was one of the first organizations to have a "feed" 
and general get-together meeting. Short talks by 
Dean Richards of the College of Engineering, Prof. 
Paine, head of the Electrical Engineering depart- 
ment, Pres. Jirka of the Electrical Engineering So- 
ciety, and others in the engineering and physics de- 
partments, were features of the evening. A member- 
ship drive during the mixer netted about a hundred 
twenty-five members for the society. The evening's 
entertainment was topped otf with a supply of cider, 
doughnuts and apples- 



The first regular meeting of the Electrical En- 
gineering Society was held in the E. E. Lab. Friday, 
October 8, 1920. An unusiuilly large percentage of 
tlie membership was present. Plans for the year's 
work were discussed, and a program committee was 
appointed to arrange for speakers and motion pic- 
tures. One of the objects of the society is to give 
tlie members practice in the presentation of papers. 
An important part of an engineer's training is the 
ability to get up and talk constructively and con- 
vincingly before a body of men. It was pointed out 
that sometimes an otherwise excellent engineer i.s 
unsuccessful simply because he cannot speak clearly 
and concisely. While the classes in seminar are for 
the purpose of making a speaker feel at ease, oppor- 



tunities come seldom for each man. It is intended 
that any or all members write papers on interesting 
subjects and give them before the society. The com- 
mittee has some celebrated engineers for speakers, 
authorities in their line of work, and an instructive 
series of meetings is promised the members. 

The idea of cooperative buying of various en- 
gineering supplies and possibly books, which was 
discussed last year, was again taken up and the con- 
census of opinion was that some action should be 
taken in conjunction with the other engineering so- 
cieties. President F. J. Jirka would like to meet 
rei^resentatives of other clubs, if they are interested 
in a substantial saving on engineering supplies. 

J. M. Agnew. 



Among the recent additions to the equipment of the 
department of Electrical Engineering is a machine for 
testing electric watthouv meters at various power-factors. 
Many circuits have an inductive load and the meter should 
be calibrated to measure these accurately. The machine 
installed comprises a 230 volt direct current motor of 7.5 
horse power and two alternators mounted on a single shaft 
and base. Ball bearings reduce the friction to a minimum. 
A 250 pound fly-wheel keeps the speed constant. One al- 
ternator generates a voltage which can be varied over a 
wide range, from 100 to 250 volts. The current output is 
18 to 21 amperes. The second alternating current machine 
generates 24 to 28 volts and has a current output up to 
SO amperes. The latter generator has field coils which can 
be shifted mechanically by means of a worm gear and 
handle. This changes the phase position of the current 
from the low voltage generator with respect to that from 
the other genarator, giving any required fractional power, 
factor as well as unity. 

The control apparatus is mounted on a white marbel 
switchboard. It consists of two rheostats, for both coarse 
and fine voltage regulation, for each alternator, and rhe- 
ostats for coarse and fine regulation of the speed of the 
direct current motor. Plugs are arranged so that the set 
can be connected with any part of the laboratory. Single 
phase as well as polyphase meters can be tested with the 
new apparatus. WTiile primarily designed for meter pur- 
poses, the set has proved very useful in other laboratory 
experiments. It is one of the only two of its kind in ex- 
istence, the other having been built for the city of Chicago. 



SOUTH CAMPUS NOTES 
The C. E.'s were out yesterday sighting curves. 




|A/t/>A;iAi^/ia-^-^AA.UAAU.UAAAAXJ.AAAAAAXu/ 



44 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Novcmhcr, 1920 



MHrHANI("AL lONGINEERINC. NEWS 

Till- A. 8. M. E. opciu'd its season's activities 
witli a smoker for all Mechanical Eiif;iiieers held in 
the power lali. This jjet tofjether was for tiie purpose 
of interesting the new men in the organization. 
There were a nnmber of good talks \>y members of 
tiie faculty. Dean Richards gave a short outline of 
the history of the College of Engineering and an ac- 
count of the activities of the A. S. M. E- Profes.sor 
W'iilard, head of the department told what he hoped 
to accomplish during the coming years and urged 
the men to get acijuainted with the faculty and their 
fellow students as soon as possible. He was follow- 
e<l by Professors Goodenough and Leutwiler, and 
Director Benedict of the Shop Laboratories. Music 
was furnished for the occasion by a three piece or- 
chestra. Eats in the form of aitplcs, doughnuts and 
cider were passed out. 

The student branch of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers is organized for the purpose 
of promoting talks on engineering subjects by mem- 
bers of the faculty , outside men, and students- The 
officers for the year are as follows: President, J. R. 
Boyle; Vice President, E. G. Staley; Secretary, A. 
D. Sinden; Treasurer, G. L. Meyer. All M. E. stu- 
dents are eligible to join and the organization of- 
fers a fine opportunity to become acquainted with 
fellow-students. 



R. W. Schroeder has taken the position in the foundry, 
coming from the Western Electric company's plant at 
Hawthorne Station, Chicago. He was one of the foundry 
specialists employed hy that company. 

Charles A. Brooks will report shortly to take up the 
work in the forge department. He comes from the Beth- 
lehem Ship Building corporation at Wilmington, Del. He 
was also at one time instructor in forge shop practice at 
Cornell university. 



GET OUT YOUR SLIDE RULE 

Uhccr leader (e.vplaining yell) : — ''Say, 'br-r-r' 
as 1 am tinning the handsi)ring, and yell, 'boom' as 
I land on my feet." 

A. (). F. I'rosli : "But. Helen, what if he doesn't 
land on his feet".'" 



^^'(• ]ir('sent tlie following adnionilion to Fresh- 
men; or, as I'lof. ('. A. Ellis would have it, wrap 
your skull around this, Frosh. 

How to drink from fountain on third iloor. 

a- Place books on floor. 

b. Apj)ly mouth to orifice. 

c. (irasp hat with left hand. 

d. Press button with right hand. 

e. Have janitor wipe brains off ceiling. 

— Wisconsin Engineer. 



Horace J. Macintire was appointed this year as 
Assistant Professor of Refrigeration, and will en- 
gage in refrigeration research and teach refrigera- 
tion and mechtmical engineering. He comes from the 
University of Idaho where he has served as Profess- 
or of Mechanical engineering. 

Pi-ofessor Macintire graduated from M. I. T. in 
IDOi) and received the degree of Master of Mechanical 
Engineering from Harviird in 1!)11, and then started 
teaching at Carnegie Institute of Technology. He 
was associate Professor at Washington University 
and dni-ing the war was an advisory engineer for 
llic war department- 
One of the most authoritative texts, "Mechanic- 
al Refrigeration", and some si.xty odd magazine ar- 
ticles along mechanical engineering lines have been 
written by Professor Macintire. 

When asked how he liked Illinois, he I'ejilied, 
"There is but one answer — -fine!" 




Additions to the staff of the mechanical laboratories 
have been made to fill the vacancies of assisteiit superin- 
tendent of the forge department and the foundry. 



Prof. Arthur C. Willard wtio has recently been appointed 
head of the department of mechanical engineering 



Xnrrwbrr, 1920 



THE TECHX()(1KAPH 



45 




NOTtS 



i> 



E. iS'. Kcenc, m. e. '90, is now Dean of Mechanic Arts 
at the North Dakota Agricultural College at Far- 
go. 

Russell N. Coltoii, m. & s. e. "Hi, manages the Havana 
branch of the Allied Machinery Co. We believe 
he assumed the office July 1st. 

Edwin Coltoii is chief field engineer of a New Or- 
leans ship canal being constructed by the Goetli- 
als Eng. Coi']). 

Leo P. Kurt, ni. e. "Ki, has charge of storage plants 
and factories of the Standard Oil's North Caro- 
lina department, office at Peking. 

A. B. Loomis, c- e. '9.3, is rustling the structural steel 
sales of Toledo Bridge & Crane Co. 

Kingslcy A. Burnrll, c. e. '10, has forsaken the tran- 
sit for pruning-hook and is orange-ranching at 
Lindsay, California. 

John T. Nolan, c. e. '18, is construction foreman (or 
the Oliver Mining Co., Gilbert, Minn. 

M. L. Dutt, m. e. '11, pilots the Dutt Engineering & 
Mfg. Works at Calcutta, India. 

H. J. Burt, c- e. '90, is manager for Holabii'd & Roelie 
of Chicago, ai'chitects for the Universitj'. 

('. A". Light, c. e. '15, is promoting sales for IT. W. 
Johns-Manville Co. 

Burt T. Anderson, e. e. '07, is assistant signal en- 
gineer for the I). L. & W. K. R. at Majilewood. 
New Jersey. 

E. W- Goldschniidt, m. e. '87, manages the e\'[iort 
department of Wagner Electric Co., N. Y. 

H. H. Henline, e. e. '14, is assistant professor of 
electrical engineering at Stamford University. 

How Lorent:: Schmidt, '13, has come up as an arch- 
itect at AVichita, Kan., is the general angle of an 
article for a near-future (i(jfn. Godfrei/ llurluyU 
is with the same firm. 

Clarence T. Grant, e. e. '16, is working on coil and 
transformer development with the N. Y. Western 
Electric Co. 

John J. Ilarmnn, m. e- "02, is works engineer for the 
Walworth Mfg. Co. of Boston. 

TV. E. Billings, m. e. "09, is chief engineer of the W. 



J. Westaway Co., Ltd., at Ontario. 
Herbert C. Arms, arch. '95, is vice president of tlie 

Central Scientific Co., Chicago. 
Ered T. Bowditch, e. e- '19, is in charge of the elect- 
rical and physical lab of National Carbon Co., 

Cleveland. 
Reynold R. Knift. min. e. '18, is ])romoting sales for 

the (h-aton & Knight Mfg. Co. of Worcester, JIass. 
T. G. Lowry, c. e. '08, is plant engineer of the Holt 

Mfg. Co., Peoria. 
Glen D. Baylcy, e. e. '12, is research engineer for the 

Electro Metallurgical Co-, of Niagara Falls. 
L. C. Heckler, r. e. e. '17, is assistant experimental 

engineer for the Buda Co., Harvey, 111. 

B. E. Davidson, W. C. Miller, and C. H. Grim all c. e. 
'I'O, are employed by the Sullivan Machinery Co., 
Claremont, N. H., and will soon enter the sales 
service of the company. 

G. E- Bevkerley, c. e. '99, is manager and partner of 
the White Haven Ship Bldg. Co. 

C. O. Borronieo, m. e. "15, is with tlie Philippine En- 
gineering Co., 1'. I. 

O. D. Huvard, e. e. "97, is general superintendent of 
mills of the Giant Portland Cement Co., Allen- 
town, Pa. 

M. B. Case, c. e. "00, is resident engineer for the 
Cinn- Southern Bridge being built at Cincinnati. 

D. E. Buyers, m. e. '12, is efficiency man for the In- 
fei-national Harvester Co., Sterling, 111. 

Valentine Duinc, e. e. '17, is methods engineer for 
the AVestern Electric Co., Chicago. 

Carl Hauber, arch. '15, is with Ronneberg, Pierce X; 
Hauber, architects, Chicago. 

Seymour D. Brown, c. e. "04, manages the Paris of- 
fice of the American International Corps. 

/''. R. Eletemeyer , a. e. '16, chief engineers the John 
Bollin Co-, general contractors, Lafayette, Ind. 

Ralph Green, c. e. '15, is hustling sales for the Chi- 
cago Bridge & Iron AA'orks. 

Geo. B. Allen, m. e. '11, is chief engineer of the Lib 
erty Motor Car Co., Detroit. 

John M. Bond, m. e. '05, is assistant superintendent 



iC, 



TIIIO TKCIlNOCKAl'il 



Xarrntbcr, 1920 



of foundries for the Holt Mfg. Co., Stocktou, Calif. 

Mill) S. Kctchifin. c. e. 'i)"), is head of the C. E. de- 
;'art!iieiit a I tlie C'niversity of I'eniia- 

Alfred L. Kuchii, c. e. "00, is vice pres. of tlie Ameri- 
can Creosoting Co.. Chicago. 

Cliax. •/. MitihiU, c. e. "ill, is secretai'v aii<l treas- 
urer of Dicknian & Co.. Eui-eka, 111., ami in charge 
of sales and shipping. 

Kiiiiictli (1. Smith, m. e. '05, is Prof of Trade and 
Industry at Iowa State College. 

Ira L. Rush, arch. 'l.o. is practicing architecture in 
-Minot. N. Dakota. 

Arthur R. Mann, m. e. "97, engineers the j)ostal ser- 
vice at Manuville, Florida. 

Albirt C. Pliclps. arch. '94, is Prof, and secretary of 
faculty of arch, at Cornell. 

Harold R. Sortu^cU, cer. e- '18, has attained the jio- 
sition of assistant ceramic engineer in the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards. 

Alhan. W. Mann, e. e. '11, holds the high position 
of supt. of power of the Cerro de Pasco Copper 
Corp., Oroya, Peru, S. A. His camps are all above 
12,200 feet elevation. 

H. M. May, e. .e '98, is now with the Exchange By- 
Products Co., Corona, Calif, as manager- He is 
extracting citric acid and lemon oil from 100 tons 
of culls a day. 

Boh Fowler, e. e. '99, is general manager of the 
Pierce Oil Co., Ft. Worth, Tex. 

(I. \V. Hubbard, m. e. "99, is consulting engineer for 
irraiiam, Anderson, Probst & White, Architects. 
Chicago. He installed much of the mechanical 
eipiipment of tiie C. S. Governnient explosives 
plant at Xitro. W. Va. 

M. L. Cotta, m. & s- e. '20, is teaching at the Canton 
Christian College, Canton, China. 

JIarr// L. Olscu, e. e. '18, is working on static elim- 
ination for the Radio Corp. of Amei'ica at Long 
Island. 

Frederic W. Richart, m. e. '91, is rustling sales for 
the Oeneral Electric Co. 

llurrii A. Roberts, c. e. '02, is in cliargc of mainten- 
ance of 2100 miles on the Ore. Wash. K. H. & N- 
Co. at Portland. 

John H. Miller, e. .e '15, is designing foi' the Jewell 
Electrical Instr. Co., Chicago. 



Chas. N. iS7o«e, m. e. '04, is (Jen. Supt. of the John 
Deere Harvester Works, Moline, 111. 

Frederic W. Panhorst, c- e. '15, is draftsman of de 
signs on S. American mines for the Onacouda 
("ojjper Mine Co. 

DwUjht L. Smith, e. e. '11, is assistant electrical en- 
gineer in charge of all electrical construction of 
the Chicago Elevated Railroads. 
drover D. Wilsfjn, '17, is an instructor in electric- 
al engineering in the University of Wisconsin this 
yea r. 

Aniiin IJlniendorf, '14, formerly editor of the Tech- 
nograph, later instructor at the University of 
Wisconsin, is now consulting engineer with the 
Haskelite Co., Chicago. An article by Mr. Elmen- 
dorf on the uses of ply-wood will probably appear 
in an early issue. 

/•'. L. Thinnpsoii, c. e. '9<>, is chief engineer of the 
I. C. R. R., Chciago. 



John Kline Tuthill, E. E. "U, has been appoinl 
ed director of the work in Railway Electrical En- 
gineering, replacing Prof. Rood who has gone to the 
University of Wisconsin as Professor of Electrical 
Engineering. Mr. Tuthill has been Superintendent 
of Electrical Properties for the Illinois Traction 
System at Bloomington and during the last two 
years was in charge of a hydro-electric i)lant in 
northern Michigan. He is a member of Acacia and 
Sigma Tau. 



Chester Morton Davison, Arch. '98. has been ap- 
pointed Associate Professor in Architectural De- 
sign this year. Professor Davison studied for three 
years after graduation from Illinois at the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts in Paris. After that he taught both 
in France and this country and has been associated 
with various leading architects, having been identi- 
fied with tlie "City Beautiful Plans" for the City of 
Chicago and was a member of the staff of architects 
for the Paris Exposition. Dviring the last year and 
a half he has been practicing architecture in Jliami, 
Florida. 



J. S. Leibson '18 writes that he is located with the 
General Electric Co.. in Shanghai, China; and that he is 
having a varied amount of experience along industrial lines 
as they exist in that country. He is the only ceramic en- 
gineer in that part of China and at present is prospecting 
in the interior for suitable clay deposits for the manu- 
facture of insulating porcelain. 



N(irn)ib<r. 1920 



THE TECHNOGRAFH 



47 



B. M. Fast, e. e. '1, of Johnstown, Pa., writes: 

"I am operating six coal mines in central Pennsyl- 
vania, so you know I am busier tlian a junior studying tor 
a special exam. 

"What I am particularly interested in at present is 
the problem of rail bonding for coal mines, and the ad- 
visability of using channel pin, comprpssed terminal, acety- 
lene or electric welded bonds, and if electric, whether the 
resistance type of motor-generator set type of welder is 
best. 

Other problems are the use of motor-generator sets 
or rotary converters for mining use, and the storage bat- 
tery locomotive for coal mines. Any one of these might 
make good material for a thesis to be investigated by some 
senior.'' 



(Continued from Page 40) 



occupation and of jour own ability and interest. 

There are round holes and round ])egs, likewise 
square holes and s(|uare pegs. The round pegs .should 
be in the round holes and the square pegs should be 
in the square holes. If you are a square peg in a 
round hole you should change. But before you jump 
out of the round hole be sure that you are really 
square and be sure that the new hole is likewise 
square. Also remember that a square peg often can 
easily be rounded. 



Enrollment in the College of Engineering has reached 
a total of 1585. This is exactly the same as the enrollment 
in 1918, and s somewhat smaller than that of last year. 

The number of students registered in each department 
is as follows: architectural engineering, 254; ceramic en- 
gineering, 39; civil engineering, 308; electrical engineer- 
ing, 420; general engineering physics, 3; mechanical en- 
gineering, 443; mining engineering, 68; ftiunicipal and san- 
itary engineering, 11; railway engineering, 39. 



The following junior engineering students were recent- 
ly awarded preliminary honors. This is the first recogni- 
tion of scholastic honors, and is based upon the grades re- 
ceived in the freshman and sophomore years. 

Virgil Kenneth Haldeman, Jesse Cartlage Porter, Rus. 
sell Marion Kerchner, Lauren Evart Teghtmeyer, Herman 
William Stein, Donald Austin Monroe, Irwin Theodore 
Landhy, Stanley Billings Kitch, Harold Douglas Rosendale. 
Gerhard Herman Bohn, John Phillip Thompson, John Rus- 
sell Green, Lloyd Brown Baker, Philip Jerome Simon, Paul 
rouneller Dusenberry, William Joseph Kingberg, Elmer 
George Krause, Ross Eugene Graig, William Lincoln Man- 
ny, Russell Glenn Cone, Frederic Theodore Mewes, Walter 
Albert Stohrer, Maurice Le Bosquet, Jr., Marion Rose Less- 
ing, Samuel Saul Wolg, Perry Ira Nagle. 

These men are the highest tenth of the junior class. 



Welcome Ye Grads 
and Undergrads- 



THE Illini Publishing Company greets you and hopes 
this Home Coming will revive the old Illini spirit 
in you. 

We extend a cordial invitation to you to visit our new head- 
quarters, 617 East Green Street. See where The Daily 
Illini, The Siren, The Ilhnois Magazine, The 
Technograph and The Illinois Agri- 
culturist are printed. 

The Illini Publishing Company 

"Quality I'rintiiKj at Reasonable Prices" 

617 E. Green street 

CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS 



48 



TIIK THCHNOCKAl'H 



Novnnhcr, 1920 



(Continuetl from Page 22) more researches before the exact structure of matter Is 

.,,.,,,., , completely solved, and before the question "What is elec- 

th.. tiaiMin- acnxln.iiics <.l Hr. K. A. I', in ( aimila j^j^j^y., j^ ^.^^rectly answered. 

Ilu- conclusion can be drawn that, contrary to former i have endeavored to enumerate a few of the research 

opinions, airjilanes can be cpiite satisfactorily flown es in the science of electricity that have been and are still 

from a surface more or less (leejily covered with engaging the attention of scientists. Every great discov- 



snow — a conchisio7i of some im]iortance in connec- 
tion with any {;eneral use of airplanes on this con- 
tinent, a large portion of the surface of which is 
Know covered for several months of the vear. 



Prof. R. M. Riddell wa.s appointed to the mechanical 
engineering faculty as Assistant Professor of Aeronautic 
Engineering in February 1920. He is a graduate of the 
University of Toronto, class of 1906, having majored In 
mechanical and electrical engineering. From 1906 to 1911 
he was Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. From 1911 to 1915 he was engaged in 
commercial and industrial work. He then took the posi- 
tion of chief draftsman of the Curtiss Aeroplanes and Mot- 
ors Ltd. which was the Canadian branch of the Curtiss 
Aeroplane Corporation, and in 1916 he became chief drafts- 
man for the Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd. Later he was Chief 
Engineer. He came directly here to teach aeronautics and 
is also connected with the experiment station. 



Dean C. R. Richards of the College of Engineering has 
received a letter from George Tangye of Birmingham, 
England, expressing his appreciation of the University's 
observance of the 100th anniversary of the death of James 
Watt, inventor of the steam engine. 

The letter also contains a request for copies of the 
official program of the Watt memorial exercises. These 
copies will be placed with the curios which have been col- 
lected in memory of Watt, and his two assistants, Bolton 
and Murdock. 

In commenting on the letter, Dean Richards said that 
so far as he knew, the University of Illinois was the only 
American institution that took any cognizance of the Watt 
centennial anniversary. 



Ao/f-r.S'.sr »( / /(;/ ( '// /:^^)^^ 



The prof, who talccs an hour to explain a mo- 
ment. 



(Continued from Page 16) 



electron has a mass about 1/1800 that of the hydrogen atom 
and that this mass is electrical in its nature. It follows, 
since the charge of the electron is under all conditions the 
same, and that larger charges are always exact multiples 
of it. that electricity is automatic in structure. In fact, the 
electron has entered largely and permanently in all modern 
electrical theory. 

The engaging topic now is the structure of the atom. 
Numerous theories have been advanced by such men as 
Thomson, Rutherford, Moseley, Bohr, and Langmuir. It is 
safe to say that we know more nearly what Is going on 
when electricity passes through a gas than when through 
either metals or liquids. However, it will require many 



ery, no matter how abstract, adds ultimately to the welfare 
of the human race, hence the importance of stimulating 
and supporting the investigator in pure science. 



A French translation of an engineering experiment 
station bulletin has just been received by C. R. Richards, 
dean of the College of Engineering. "The Economical Use 
of Fuel in Hand Fired Power Plants" is the title of the 
pamphlet. 

This bulletin was prepared and published during the 
war, by a committee consisting of Professors A. C. Willard, 
H. H. Stoelt, O. A. Leutwiler, C. S. Sale and A. P. Kratz, 
in an effort to present to owners of power plants methods 
of operation which would be productive of fuel economy. 

It came to the attention of M. Maurice Varinos, en- 
gineer of arts and manufacturers of Paris, who was struck 
by its value and its possible utilization by French manu- 
facturers. He requested permission to translate it so that 
French manufacturers and engineers might make use of 
the material contained in it. He published a complete 
translation of it under the head of "L' Economic de Com- 
bustible." 



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The Technograph 

University of Illinois 

Volume XXXIII .lANFARY, I'.ilM Xiiinber 2 

CONTENTS 

A Kn;ul Test of LocoinotiM' \';il\f (icnis C Wm. ("Icworth .")! 

Siissess and (iradcs Melviii \j. l^iijicr .").■) 

Steady l>oad- liiipacl Load, and Rciieated Sti-ess II. I<\ iloore ~t~t 

Deli)hi and The Oracle • . . Vrilliani il. Stanton .")S 

Engiueer.s and Cliina \V. H. Cliao (il 

Telephone Kepeaters F. H. Chase (>:'. 

Meehanical E(piipiiient of Buildinjis ■...<!. \V. lliilphaid (17 

Sewage Disposal Edwin ('. Ilurd (i!) 

Internal Condiustion I']n_s;ine Indicators ■ . . C. Z. Koseerans 71 

John Angustus Ockerson F. ^I. Wrii^ht 7'> 

Skip Loading in an Arizona Copper Mine ...... .lacoli II. ^^'allace 7(! 

Keokuk Water I'ower l)evelo]nnent Alnion \V. Hinds 78 

Editorial SO 

Slag Brick .Manufacture L. B. Breedlove 82 

The Engineer and the La!)(»r Problem K. L. I'entland 8(i 

Photography A. G. Eldredge 88 

Dei)artmental Xote.s 91 

Alumni Xotes !);■> 

STAFF 

Gkokgk L. N. Mhyiou, '21 Editor 

Li.OYD B. Bakick, '22 . . . . . Assistant Editor 

R.\r,i'H W. IiiENFELivr, '21 .... . Assistant Editor 

M.\co.\ A. Abiutt, '22 ..... . Art Editor 

Friou W. Scheineman, '22 ... . Business Manager 

Reginald P. P.\ckakd. '21 . . . Assistant Business Manager 

Walter A Mueller, '22 . . . Assistant Business Manager 

Ernest A. Nel.son, '23 ..... . . Assistant 

Martin E. Jansson, '23 ..... . Assistant 

Edwi.n C. HiKD, '24 ...... . Assistant 

SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVES 

H. H. OsBORN A. A. E. 

E. J. McDonald ....... Architecture 

J. C. Allman ....... Civil Engineering 

N. A. Ragland ........ Ceramics 

J. M. AoNEw ...... Electrical Engineering 

H. D. RosENDALE ..... Meclianical Engineering 

H. M. WiLTEN ...... Mining Engineering 

C. W. Ci.EWOKTii ...... Railway Engineering 

Published quartrrhj by the lUini Publishing Cotupanii. Application as second-class niaticr pcndinij at the 
postoffice at I'rbana, Illinois. Office 2IJ Ennineerinij Hall. Vrbana. Illinois. Subscriptions $t:2.> per year. 

Sin<jle copies -'/O cents. 




Fig. 1. Railway Test Car 




Fig. 2. Interior of Test Car 




Fig. 3. Recording Apparatus in Test Car 



JaviKiri/. 1P21 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



51 



A Road Test Locomotive Valve Gears 



('. W.M. ('[.K\\ iiinii, Kv. (' 



TIvlSTS of the ii'lutive eHicii'iicv ol' the Youni;' 
valve gear for steam locomotives as compared 
with that of the generally used Walschaert gear 
have recently been condticted for the Illinois Central 
Kailroad Company by the Railway Engineering De- 
partment of the University. These tests were par- 
ticii^ated in by seniors in the Railway Department, 
who manned the Dynamometer Car under tlie di- 
rection of Mr. J. K. Tuthill. 

The Dynamometer Car here described belongs 
jointly to the Railway Department of the University 
of Illinois and the Illinois Central Railroad. It is 
designed for general experimental work on steam 
roads, and is especially adapted for the determina- 
tion of train resistance and for use iu making loco- 
motive road tests. The i)lan of joint ownership has 
proved entirely satisfactory to all concerned, the 
University having unusual facilities for carrying on 
its instructional and research work, while the rail- 
way has available at all times a skilled corps of test 
car operators, who make such tests and reports as 
are described by its officials. The car is operated 
at all times by representatives of the University. 
The car has been used in locomotive tonnage rating 
tests over practically the entire Illinois Central sys- 
tem. It was also used on the New York Central in 
tests which were made in connectiou with the elect- 
riticatiou of its New York terminal, as well as on 
the New Jer.sey Central and the Baltimore and Ohio. 

An outside view of the car is shown in Figure 
1, and an inside view in Figure 2. It was built par- 
ticularly heavy iu order to withstand the usage it 
receives in freight service. It is 40 ft. long exclus" 
ive of platforms; 8 ft- 4 in. wide iuside and IOI/2 ft. 
over the observation windows. The height from the 
rails to the roof is 12 ft. and to the top of the cupola 
is 14 ft. 10 in. About 15 ft. iu the rear end is occu- 
pied by the berths, lockers, closets, cupola and toilet 
room, leaving 25 ft. of working space iu which the 
recording ap])aratus, work benches, etc. are ]ilaced. 
The car is lighted by electricity, suiijilied hy a Kliss 
I'ilectric Car Lighting 8ystem. 

A view of the recording apparatus is shown in 
Figure :>. It provides mean.s for obtaining a con 
tinuous graphical record of the fidlowiug data; 
Curve of draw bar pull, sjieed curve, record of work 
done by htcomotive at tender drawbar, curve of pow- 
er developed by locomotive at tender drawbai-, ciirve 
of journal temperature, record of time, record of po- 



sition of mile posts, stations, curves, etc., record of 
throttle opeuiug, record of reverse lever position, 
record of locomotive boiler pressure, record of air- 
brake application, record of wind direction, and 
record of wind velocity. 

In addition to the above, any dat.i which are of 
interest in special tests, such as time of taking indi- 
cator cards, etc., may be recorded upon the chart 
by means of additional pens provided for the pur- 
pose. All of the above data are recoi-ded in the form 
of curves or lines (Fig- 4) with offsets, ou a contin- 
uous strij) of i^aper ;JG inches wide, which travels 
across the top of the recording table either at cou- 
staut speed by means of a motor, or at a speed pro- 
portional to the speed of the car. In the first case 
tlie records are obtained ou a time base, in the sec- 
ond a distance base. In the latter case the paper is 
driven from the axle of au auxiliary two-wheeled 
truck, which can be lowered to the rails at the be- 
ginning of a test, from within the car. 

The drawbar pull is measured and recorded by 
means of a hydraulic transmission dynamometer. 
The pull is received on the piston of a large cylinder, 
tilled with oil, jdaced below the floor of the test car. 
The oil pressure resulting from the pull is transmit- 
ted through pipes to a small indicator cylinder ou 
the recording table. The jjull is measured by th(! 
accurately calibrated spring of the indicator. 

High speeds are recorded by a centrifugal type 
of recorder, which is accurate for speeds above 15 
nnles per hour. For low speeds a Boyer speed re- 
corder is used. Its uppei- limit is about 25 miles 
per lioiir. 

Tlie work doue by the locomotive at the tender 
drawbar is nu^asured bj' the area under the curve 
drawn l)y the drawbar pull pen, when the paper is 
driven at a rate which is pro])ortional to the car 
travel. 

The time record is made l)y a i)en which is nu)v- 
ed by a cam controlled hy an idectro-magnet. The 
circuit through this electro-nmgnet i.s closed every 
5 seconds by a special clock. The cam is so con- 
structed that the pen is drawn about one-sixteentli 
inch to one side every 5 secoiuls for one minute, 
when it is returned the total distance it has traveled 
during the minute and starts over again. 

The wind direction aud velocity records are 
nuide by a wind vane and anenu)meter, which may 
be seen above the car roof in Figure 1. They give the 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



January, 1921 



direction :m(l vi-iocity irlntivc lo tlic (-ir. Since (lie 
speed and direclion of motion ol' llie car are i^nown. 
the absolnic diieclion and \clocily of liie wind may 
be obtained. 

The record of aii-lii-ai<e apiilicalion is made liy 
a standard steam enuine indicator, to w hicli the 
pressure from tiie ln-aUe cylinder is |pi|ied. It tlins 
<;ives a recoi-d siiowin;; tiie nnndier of applications, 
tlieir iluralioii and intciisit\. Tiie mile post pen, 
w'licli is controllcil i\ an elect ro-maynet, draws a 
ontinnons line, and at mile posts, stations, etc. is 
draw n slij;litly aside by tlie mas;net which is operated 
by the maf;net which is operated by an observer in 
ll'.e observation window. Records of boiler pressure, 
throttle openini;s. re\('ise lever positions, etc., are 
also made by jicns controlled by electromagnets. 
Wires aie run to the locomoiixe cab, and observers 
there make the conlacts which operate the magnets. 
S])ecial codes are used in nniking these records. 

The locomotive road tests were made on the 
Illinois Central grade up to Paxtou with two Mika- 
do, 2-8-2, locomotives. Numbers 1584 and 1710. The 
two engines were practically identical with the ex- 
cei)tion of the valve gears — Number 1584 being 
etjuipped with Walschaert gear gave a valve travel 
of (! in., lead of i/4 in. and lop of ly^ in. The Young 
gear is of the cross-cover type, both valves deriving 
tlieir motion from the same ((mnecting rod. The 
gear on Number 1710 gave a valve travel of 8^/^ 
in., a lead of o-Ki in and a lap of 1% in. The 
mannfacturers claim that the Young gear gives 



greater economy on account of its later release. 
The tests were designed by the Illinois Central 
Railroad in order to verify or disprove this claim. 
.Xumber I54S had the disadvanta.ne of three-six- 
teenths in. larger drivers; hut this was offset by 
its slijihtly greater boiler liealini; surface. The 
crews were eipnilly prolicicnt in the contrcd and tii- 
inji of I heir enj;ines. 

The \dnng e(|nipped locomoli\-e was started 
north fiMtm a stop at mile post No. loti, up a straight: 
gia<le of 28.!) feet in a mile. It was coui)led to a 
strini; of 55 loa<led coal cars, which had ju-eviously 
been accnr.itely weighed. The Illinois Central 
Traveling lOngineer, Mr. K. E- Rosenbaum, rode in 
the cab, and noted the boiler pressure and tempera- 
ture, and position of the throttle. In the Dynamo- 
meter Car, which was coupled in directly beliind the 
engine, a continuous record was m:,de of the time, 
drawbar jnill, journal temperature, speed, i)osition 
of mile ])osts and telegraph poles, air brake a])plica- 
tions, wind direction, and wind velocity. The out- 
siae atmospheric temperature was recorded at inter- 
vals. The locomotive stalled part way up the grade. 
Two cars were then taken off, and the train w'as 
backed down for another start at mile post No. 100. 
That time it reached almost the top of the grade be- 
fore stalling. Two more cars were then discon- 
nected, and the tests repeated. The locomotive 
cleared the hill with a little power to spare. 

Number 1584, with the Walschaert valve gear 
(Concluded on Page S7) 




Fig. 4. Section of Coritinuous Record Made on Actual Road Test 



Jfiinifir!/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



53 



Success and Grades 

Miiriii /,. I\iii/ir, I'nifisxor of Mi ijiaiiirs 
ami It i/dnnilii-x 



Is tlicro a relation between grades in collejie 
and success after graduation? Do men wlio make 
liigii grades usually achieve a iiigli degree of success? 
Or is it true, as is ((uite generally believed, that the 
most successful graduates were usually low in schol- 
aiship? The statement is ofteu made that the qual- 
ities re(inired for success are entirely different from 
those re(|uired for scholarshi]). On the other hand, 
attenlion is diifc-ied to the fact that the names of 
I'lii Beta Kajnia men occur proportionately more 
frequently in Who's Who in America than the names 
of other college graduates. 

In order to get definite information the writer 
has made a stmly of the relative successes and the 
relative grades of the graduates of the College of 
I<]ngineering of the University of Illinois in the clas- 
es from 188fi to 1897 inclusive. The men in these 
classes have been out of college long enough to de- 
termine their relative successes. 

The average grade of each man was calculated 
from the grades in the last two years of lii.s course. 
< »n the basis of these average grades the men were 
]ilaced in five e(pial groups. Men with grades in 
the upper tifth of the class were designated as A, 
the next Hftli as I>, and so on down to the lowest 
fifth which was designated as E. (ironping the men 
according to sclntlarsliip was not as simple a matter 
as might at first be supposed. The classes were small, 
hence it was necessary to compare a man's grades 
with those of men in classes which came before and 
after. It was found that there was a considerable 
differeuce in grading in the different departments, 
and even in the same department as tlie personnel 
of the faculty changed. It was found necessary to 
classify the men by dei)artmeuts, and to have dif- 
ferent scales of grades for the earliei- aiul later 
classes. 

The classification of the men according to suc- 
cess, however, was a much more difficult task. For 
the purpose of this investigation a man's success was 
measured by his standing in the engineering profes- 
sion and by his standing in the community in wliidi 
he lives. There are some men whose success is so 
evident that there can be no (piestion about rating 
them as A. Others can with equal certainty l)e 
rated as E. But in many cases the classification is 
not so evident. There are some men near the border 
lines of groups who may have been assigned to the 



wrong group. There are probably a few who would 
have been classified differently if more information 
had been available. In an investigation of this char- 
acter such dift'iculties are inherent. 

Classilication according to success were made 
idependeutly by Professors Arthur X. Talbot, Ira 
O. Baker, and Thomas Arkle Clark. These men are 
very well (lualified to make classifications because 
they have known the men intimately and have taken 
great interest in their progress siuce graduation. 
Since the classifications were made independently 
there were some differences. The ratings have been 
averaged, the higher rating being used when the 
average falls between two groups. Out of a total of 
o21 graduates in these classes 25:i were classified by 
at least two of the above named, and only these 
are iucluded in the results. The remainder included 
men concerning whom there was insufficient infor- 
mation and some who died shortly after graduation. 
It is believed that the classification represents 
very well the relative successes of this body of men, 
although it is inevital)le that some incorrect classifi- 
cations would be made. It should be noted that, 
even in the lowest group of success, most of the men 
are in no sense failures, but are placed in this group 
by comparison with the other men. It should be re- 
corded that only in the case of two or three is lack 
of success ascribed to the use of liquor, which is a 
remarkably small piMqiortion considering the genera- 
tion to which these men belong. 

The results of the investigation are shown in 
Table 1. The figures represent the number of men 
having various grades who have achieved the variotis 
degrees of success. For example, of the '>'■) men who 
have A grades, 29 have A success, 10 have B success, 
7 have (' success, (i have D success, and 1 has E 
success. 

GRADES 
A B C I) E 

A L'!» i;: (i 4 5 

B 1(1 I!) 9 II U) 

SI'CCESS C 7 14 14 (i :? 

1) (i 11 Hi 17 I'O 

E 1 4 1 5 11 

Table 1. A Compaiison of the Average Grades and 
the Relative Successes, of Graduates of the College of 
Engineering of the University of Illinois in the Classes 
From 1SS6 to 1S97 Inclusive. 



54 



TUIO TECllXOCKAl'U 



January, 1921 



There is a marked correlation hetween grades 
ill college and success aftei- graduation. As a rule, 
men who make high grades achieve a liigh degree of 
success, men who receive low grades in college ach- 
ieve mediocre success. In the .\ groii|) ot sikccss 
there ai'e almost six times ,is iiiniiy A gra(h' men .is 
E-grade men. 

The figures may lie airaiiged in another way, 
using only two grou|)s of success: ahove average and 
lielow average. The results are shown in Table 2. 
The nnnii)ers represent, approximately, the percent- 
ages of men of the various degrees of scholarship 
wlio were found to have above average success or to 
have below average success. About 4 out of 5 A- 
grade men have better than average success; about 
'I out of ;? E-grade men have below average success. 



Above Average Success 
Below Average Success 



BCD E 

58 40 :!8 ;'.2 



42 (iO (i: 



(;s 



Table 2. The Percentage of Men Receiving Various 
Average Grades in College Wlho Have Achieved Above 
Average Sucess and Below Average Sucess. 

To rejjresent the degree of correlation between 
two variables, statisticians make use of the "correla- 
tion coetficient". If there is no correlation the coett'i- 
cient is 0; if the correlation is perfect the coetfic- 
ient is 1. Values of the correlation coefficient be- 
tween 0.0 and 0.2, represent indifferent correlation ; 
between 0.2 and 0.4, present but low correlation ; be- 
tween 0.4 and 0.6, marked correlation; between O.ti 
and 0.7, high correlation; above 0.7, very high cor- 
relation. It is assumed that the number of observa- 
tions on which the coett'icient is based is large. To 
measure the effect of the uund)er of observations, 
the iiroliable en-oi' is also calculated. The correla 



tion coeincieiil Irom llic data in Table 1 is 0.4(), and 
the ])robable error is (».(i:!l. Tiial is, the con-elation 
is marked. In an investigation recently made the 
correla lion cocll irient was found to be O.4.") or about 
I lie same as (he one between gi'ades and success. It 
may lie concluded, Ihererorc, that an A man in the 
upper lillli of llie class in scholarship is as likely to 
acliicve .\ success alter graduation as an .V man in 
Irignomclry is |o lie an .\ man in analytical geom- 
elry. ,1// I' mini in scliiiliirsliiji is: im iinni- likiJij to 
(ii-liii re A fiiici-rss(iflir</r(iiliiatii)ii l]i<iii u mini irhosv 
i/niili's (irr ill llir hiin-st fiflli of tin class in frii/noni- 
I III/ is III liarr a i/railr in llic iiji/n r pflli in aiiah/li- 
lal iji iiiiii I rij. 

Among the (pialitications for success may be 
niiMilioned: intelligence, ability, ai)titude, character, 
integrity, ideals, loyalty, judgment, andjition, vision, 
initiative, purpose, aggressiveness, courage, persever- 
ance, leadership, ])ersonality, address, associations, 
o])portunity, luck. The words in many cases repre- 
sent overlapping ideas. The greatest success comes 
only to those who are willing to i)ay the price; the 
price of hard work, sacrifices of present pleasures, 
and harsh self-discipline. Ability, ambition, pur- 
jiose, perseverance, and willingness to ])ay the price, 
are usually reflected in high grades. Low grades 
may be due to one or more of the following reasons: 
lai-k of ability, laziness, bad company, poor health, 
insufficient time because of attention to student 
activities, or insufficient time because of the neces- 
sity of earning a living. These, with the exceptionOf 
the last two reasons, are liamlica]is which a man nuist 
overcome before he can succeed. It seems, therefore, 
l)Ossil)le to exidain why high gra<les are so often 
followed li\' a high denree success. 




i^ooC.M Tow A/ rVitvO 
*XGlN£XJ^IN<i VHt tnOlUZiP.^ 

Thro thi 6'" GfRnAN CiVT- 



As Skipper's Father Vielws the M. E. Inspection Trip 



■Jdnuarji, J!)21 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



Steady Load, Impact Load, and Repeated Stress 

TllKIIt Kl'KKCT ON THE STRKNtJTlt OF .MATKKIALS 

II. V. JIooKE, /(( cliiirii' . ■ffiiiif I iircxf'H/dlioii of Fiil'n/iii' of .\l< luls 



ALL engineers liave to deal at one time or anotiiei- 
witli pt'oblenis involviiio; tlie properties of ma- 
terials of construction. This article is an endeavor 
to present, as a sort of appendix to the usual form- 
ulas of mechanics, a few general thoughts on the be- 
havior of materials under ditferent kinds of loading. 
In considering the action of materials under 
steady load (or loail repeated not more than a few 
hundred titnesi the usual pi-ocedure developed in 
text-hooks and in hand hooks on the mechanics of 
materials is generally satisfactory. A general man- 
ner of loading is assumed, which fits approximately 
the actual con<li1ions to be met, and the particular 
piece under study for strength is examined to de 
termine the intensity of tension, compression, or 
sliear on the most stressed "fiber" of the piece. The in- 
tensity of stress is then compared with the strength 
of the material used, which, in turn, has been de- 
termined from testing-machine tests of samples of 
similar material. 




fj6 I. 

(Jeiieral engineering experience has proven tlic 
reliability of the common method of stress compu- 
tation fin- slrncliiral or niacliine ])arts siilijected to 
steady load, or to loads rejieated not more than a 
few hundred times. The behavior of the i)iece «.s- a 
whole is the significant thing, and, especially if the 
piece is made of ductile material, a few local dis- 
tortions do not affect the serviceability of the part. 
For example, an I-beam stipporting part of the floor 
of a warehouse does its duty satisfactorily although 
there may be considerable local distortion round the 
rivets connecting the beam to the angle irons su])- 
porting it at each end. Moreover, the >!tninjfh of 
the piece as a whole is not atfected by excess of 
strength at some parts. Again referring to the ex- 
ample of the I-l>eain su])]iorting a portion of a floor 
load (see Fig. 1|, the intensity of tension at X 



would be less than the intensity at (>. This fact does 
influence the (hflcctioii of the beam, but does not 
influence its strength (if the end connections are 
simple angle pieces as shown) ; it is the vui.r'niiuiii 
intensity of tension, compression, or shear in the 
material which deternunes the security of the piece 
against failure. 

The ac(i(Ui of a machine or structural ]iarl und- 
er the impact of a suddenly applied load involves 
somewhat different considerations from those in- 
volved in the action of the part under steady load. 
Im]iact is measured in inch-pounds (or foot-pounds) 
of energy, not in poundH of force, and to resist im- 
pact a structural or machine part must possess en- 
ergy-storing capacity, which, in general, involves 
the product of force (stress in the member) and dif>- 
placenient (stretch, compression, bending, or twist). 
Two examples will illustrate this point : Under 
steady load the strength of a tie rod to resist ten- 
sion depends on the area of its cross-section, but not 
on its length ; under impact a long tie rod will 
stretch more than a short one, and hence will absorb 
more energy, lender steady load the shorter the 
span of a beam the more load it will carry; under 
impact the great increase in deflection with increas- 
ed span makes a long beam ca]iable of absorbing 
more enenjji without ru])ture than will a short beam. 
Of course in the latter case the long beam will be 
much less xtiff than the shorter beam. 

For impact-resisting members uniformity of 
stress throughout the member is an imi)ortant factor 
in determining the strength of the whole member. 
If a high intensity of stress exists over a small por- 
tion of the mend)er (e- g. the stress at the roots of 
the threads of a bolt) then under impact the parts 
carrying low stress will not be greatly stretched 
or compressed, and will absorb very little energij of 
impact, leaving an undue amount to be absorbed at 
the sections of high stress, with consequent danger 
of rupture. 

A most sti'iking illustration of this tendency 
to fail at points of localized stress is furnished by 
the famous case of the bolts in the connecting rod 
head of John Sweet's "straight line" steam engine. 
Made in the usual manner (see Fig. 2a) with full- 
sized shanks and threaded emls the bolts freiiuently 
faile<l under I lie |ionnding impact of the reciprocat- 
ing ]>aits of the engine. Holts with shank turned 
down (see Fig. l-'l)| so that the area of cross-section 



r)<i 



TlllO TlOCllNOCKArn 



Jii iiiiiirj/, I!)! I 



of the shank was enuiil to the area of eross-seclioii 
at the root of the threads aHowed most of tlie eii- 
rv^y of iiii|ia(t lo lie absorbed in Ihe sh:ink, Ihc 
aniouiit absorbed in the material al liic rool of lln' 
threads was diminished, and liie bolls willi liirnc.l 
down shank gave satisfactory service. 



''V///////////^^^^^^^s^::^ J^^ 









nc 2 

In a machine part subjected to many thousands 
of repetitions of load tliere enters still another fact- 
or which affects the strenjith: that is the tendency 
for localized damage to sprcdd under repetition of 
load. A localized stress at a boll hole, a groove, or 
under the edge of a bearing block may start a min- 
ute crack; each repetition of load causes this crack 
to spread and finally under repetition of load the 
cross-section of the piece is so weakened that it can- 
not carry the load and failure occurs, usually (piite 
suddenly. A crude illustrati(ui of (his action is fur 
inslied by a jiower hacksaw cuttini; oil' a l)ar of steel. 
ICach stroke (if the saw blade exteu<ls the c)it into 
the bai-; an oliser\('r watching the end of tlie bar can 
see no niai-ked change in (he dellection of the free 
end until the saw i-iil is iiearl\ tliroiigli the bar, 
when the bar bends (piite suddenly, and after a few 
strokes the end drojis off. The cracks formed under 
repeated stress are like nuuute saw cuts gradually 
extending across the iiiece. 

This progressive fracture under i-epeated load- 
ing explains a phenonieuon rre(|iiently noted in 
springs. A spring is subjected to hard service and 
stands n[) under it : later it fails under light service. 
The exjdanation is that the hard service starts min- 
ute cracks, but does not last long enougli to cause 
them to spread very I'.ii-; however, (uice started, the 
cracks continue to spread under sid>se(iuent light 
loading, and finally the section becomes so w(>akeu- 
ed that failure occurs. 

The consideration <>!' the aclion of sleadN' loads, 



of impact loads, and of rejieated loads affects both 
the design of (he form and dimensions of nmchiu'" 
;iii<l structural parts, .ind also affects the choice of 
material to be used in making them- The ordin:ir\' 
formulas of mechanics of materials form a salisfac- 
toiy basis for designing jiarts to resist steady loads, 
and no special discussion of these formulas will be 
gi\'eu here. 

l>"or designing im]iact-resisting members of ma- 
chines and structures comparatively few formulas 
have been developed. It seems to be a general cust- 
om to estimate the effect of impact as ecpiivalent to 
a certain pei-ceutage of surplus steady load, and the:! 
to proceed as in designing structures ami machines 
to resist steady load. ^Vhere feasible, it is a better 
])lau to figure riirr(/i/ of impact and internal energy 
of the mendier which has to resist it. In any event 
an elfort should be made to design impact-resisting 
l>arts so that the distribution of stress will be as 
uniform as possible, thus insuring a good distrilm- 
tion of energy throughout the whole piece. Sudden 
changes of section should be avoided. 

In designing parts to resist repeated loading it 
is customary to reduce the allowable intensity of 
tension, compression, or shear in the parts to one- 
half or one-third the value allowed under steady 
load. This is a move in the right direction, but in 
addition especial care should be taken to avoid high 
localized stress on any portion of the piece. Riveted 
joints under repeated stress are very weak; at the 
bottom of sharp notches in pieces or at a shar]) 
shoulder there may exist localized stresses seven or 
eight times as high as stresses for a point a fraction 
of an inch away. A shaft left rough turned will fail 
under lower repeated stress than a shaft with a pol- 
ished surface — the tool marks on the rough turned 
shaft form a series of grooves, and high localized 
stress exists at the bottom of each groove. A shaft 
subjected to repeated torsion is much weakened by 
a keyway cut into it, while under steady load a key- 
way weakens a shaft only slightly. Three general 
rules should always be borne in mind by the design- 
er of machine ])arts to resist repeated stress: 



^ 



■irr 



\.' 



Good practice 
Fill&tat S' 
T^our/ded qrcoie aT (]' 



^Sod practice 
ihctrp btioulder at S 
Sttarp groove at g 

Fig 3 

1. Avoid sharp I'eeutrant angles an<l notches. 
1'. rro\ ide tillets of generous radius at shoidd- 

;!. Avoid rough surface finish. 

I'Mgure :> illustrates the first two of these rules. 

Ill choosing material foi' structural members 



January, 1921 



THE TECHNOGKAPH 



57 



to resist steady load Iiii;li sdciiiilli is a in-iiiic rcipii 
site. For rolled ductile material the cliistic limit is 
probably the best eritei-ion of load-earrying capacity 
if the cld.stii- limit liax Ixcit carvjuUij (IctcniiiiKd 
for the material in (|nesti(>ii. All too frequently tlii.s 
determination is not carefnlly made. If the stand- 
ard method of the American Society for Testing ila- 
terials is followed in makinsi; tests the elastic limit 
is a reliable criterion of the capacity of a material to 
resist steady load. For brittle materials — cast iron, 
other non-ductile metals, and non-metals the ulti- 
mate tensile strength if jtrobably the best critei-ion 
of the capacity of a material to resist steady load. 
It must always be borne in mind that the results of 
a testing-machine test of samples of a material give 
comparative values between different materials, and 
that, in general, higher stresses will be developed 
in s])ecimens than can lie developed before rujitnre 
in full-size membei's. 

In choosing material for impact-resisting mem- 
bers of structures and machines the capacity to ab 
sorb energy without damage is a prime recpiisite. 
In Fig. 4 OP is the ordinary stress-strain diagram 
for a given material up to a point slightly beyond 
the elastic limit, which is re])resented by the stress 
PM. The energy-absorbing elastic capacity for this 
material is measured by the area OPM. If OR is 
the stress-strain diagram for a second material with 
an elastic limit HK, eipial to I'M, but with a lowei- 
modulus of elacticitv (as sliown hv the relative 




O M N 

JJcforrrjaJ-ioq ^ 
i^trc tc hj CO rvprebbio^i 
deflect/on J or twist) 

rie -f 



slo|H's of the lines (»!' and (»R| llien the second 
material exceeds the tirsi in energy-absorbing elas- 
tic capacity in the ratio ol' area OKK to area 
OPM, or, since HK is e.inal lo I'M. in tlie ratio of 
( »K to OM- 

If ()Q is the stress-strain diagram for a third 
material with the same modulus of elacticity as the 
first material, but a higher elastic limit QN then 
the energy-absorbing elastic capacity exceeds that 
of the first material in the ratio of area OQN to area 
OPM, or since triangle OQN is similar to triangle 
OPM, in ratio QN- to PM^ The elastic resisting 
power of a material to impact is, then, proportional 
to the square of its elastic limit stress, and inversely 
proportional to its inodulus of elasticity. This ex- 
plains the high impact resisting capacity of oak. 
which, with a fairly high elastic limit has a very low 
modulus of elasticity. Rubber with a low elastic 
limit has such a very low modulus of elasticity that 
it is an excellent impact-resisting material. All 
grades of the steel have about the same nnnlulns of 
elasticity, and their relative capacities for elastic 
resistance to impact are proportional to the squares 
of the values for elastic limit ; this makes clear the 
great advantage of high-strength steel over low- 
strength steel for material for springs, whose func- 
tion is to take up the shock of impact loading. 

For members to resist steady load, and to a still 
higher degree for members to resist im])act, it is of 
advantage to use material which, if the elastic limit 
is passed due to accidental overload, there remains 
a high degree of capacity for absorbing impact by 
plastic action before complete collapse occurs. The 
function of ductility in metals is largely to fnrnisli 
such a reserve of impact-resisting capacity under 
plastic action. Fnder a steady load ductility of nui- 
terials allows the setting up of localized stresses 
beyond the elastic limit without a general distortion 
of the piece as a whole — for example, a chain link 
stretches appreciably under an overload, but it does 
not break, nor allow any \ery great motion of what- 
ever is suspended from the chain. Under impact- 
loading ductility of material furnishes a large sur- 
l)lus of jilastic capacity for energy absorption with- 
out actual rupture of the piece. The desirability of 
insurance against shattering collapse under over- 
load, caused either by steady load or by impact, 
makes cast iron and other brittle materials undesir- 
able for use in jiai'ts whose failure wotild cau.se dan- 
ger to life an<l linili, or complete desi i-uction of the 
usefulness of llit- entire niacliine or structure. 

Ill general, materials with a liigh elastic limit 

give high values for resistance to repeated stress. 

However, if the internal structure of a material, as 

shown by the microscope, is non-homogeneous, or if, 

(Concluded on Page 90) 



58 



Till-: TEOHNOCJKAl'H 



J it II liar If, Ul.iJ 



Delphi and the Oracle 

William Macy Stanton 
As.sistiinl I'lofinsor of Archihcl iinil Dcsii/n 



The stars shone hrisjlit throiif-h the clear Medi- 
teraueaii air as we sat in the littk' ojuMi square of 
I'atras, the westei-ii jjate of the I'eloiioiuiesus one 
summer ni<;lit in 11)14. We hail tickets lor the nlj^ht 
boat across the (iulf of Corinth and were making; use 
of nature's well aiipointed waiting room while the 
hours ol' lateness of the ari-i\al of our boat increased : 
hilc; liccause some shepherd's flock had bolted when 
it cinie to the i^anj* plank at a previous port or an 
inrincntal (Ireek had delayed the boat while he 
turnetl one inoi-e business deal and had one more 
fflass of ihcii- rosin tastins; wine. Time was of no 
consecpience to the ca])taln of this many burdened 
ship, for he waited with eipial ])atience for the 
frightened shee]» as for thi' political leader of his 
modern country. 

The crowd in the square became smaller as the 
hour grew later until only a few remained to hear the 
village trolley car bump its pei-iodical way from one 
edge of the town to the other or to listen to the wat- 
er's endless splashing on the single wharf. In this 
midnight (luietnde one longed to ttirn back the 
wheels of time and to live again in those days when 
(ireece was the centre of the world, and to feel that 
the little liand full of fellow [)a'ssengers were men of 
the golden days. Why not'^ and there at tlie table 
next sat Phidias who had left his work at Bassae 
and was retui-ning to Athens, who had come over- 
laij<l by the \\a.\' of Olympia and now wailed for a 
good wind to sail across to Cirrlia on his way to 
Alliens, or here Praxiteles iniglit have stoiqieil to re- 
fresh iiimself on his way fioni liis liiial work on the 
Hermes in the Temple of Ileia to consult the Pyth- 
ian Oracle oi' to take up a new coTiimission in the 
embellishment of the shrine at l)(dphi. Perhaps 
neither J'hidias noi- I'raxiielcs but one of those un- 
known artists of Hellenic ci\ ili/,ati<m whose cunning 
Iiand wrought for ns some fragnieiit of llial pure art 
that inspires with its very beauty. 

The whistle of a steamship met oni- ears and 
not the fla|)]iing of sails nor the sjilash of oars, and 
we realized the (ii-eeks gathei-eil ;ironnil ns li.-iil lost 
all the relinenienl. cultm-e anil skill thai einelopeil 
their forefathers and we stood in the iniilsi of petty 
merdiants, shepherds and money chaiigeis who. sym- 
bolic of the present race, with a serene and sterling 
inheritance, showed nothing today lint the solidi- 
tied art of their ancestors that has stood two thou- 



sand years and now sjieaks to the world of the .Mod 
erns failure. 

After a dangerous and uncertain trip in a row 
boat from the shore to the steamship in the outer 
harbor we found our tirst class acconiada I ions con- 
sisteil of a hard wooden bench in the stern of the 
Itoat while freight and sleek and well fattened sheep 
occii|iied the midship sections. 

In the early morning hours we found oniselves 
at Itea the modern sea])ort for Delphi. The little 
town is almost lost in large olive orchards that 
cluster around the foot hills of the I'hidriades. A 
modern niacadain road leads from Itea to Archova 
and |)ro\iiles the only access to the mountains and 
Deliihi. During the ride up the winding mountain 
road many small hamlets and farm houses are passed 
with their respective quota of large ferocious, wolf 
like dogs that make foot travel in (Ireece botli dan- 
gerous and uncomfortable. After .seven miles of 
steady climb we reach modern Delphi with its two 
or three hotels and few scattering houses all of 
which were built by the French expedition in 18!):! 
when they moved the town from the site of the sacred 
precint to allow the excavations to be carried on un- 
impeded. 

There is nothing about this sleepy little village 
that gives the imiiression that yoii are standing less 
than half a mile from the site of the nuist sacred 
shrine of (Ireek antiquity; but rather you are struck 
with Ihe stuiiiilily of the jieiqjle and the complete 
alianiloiinieiit of the whole place — chiblren. chickens 
and goats intermingle as members of one family; 
men basking in the sun or sitting in the shade of a 
tree smoking the great water cooled pipe of their 
own contrivance, and nowhere a sign of industry 
or of and)ition. 

The eai-ly liistory of ancient Delphi is shrouded 
in the mysterious iiucertainty of niimerons legeud.s 
and it is not until the beginning of the Gth Cent. B. 
C- that we are able to trace its history with any 
degree of accuracy. Tlii' generally accepted legend 
tells ns that in this fold of the Phedriades there was 
a lissure or caxc in the rock from which issued a 
gas, a breath of which caused a person to give forth 
inspiring exaltations, but tliat Earth had jjlaced a 
tierce dragon there to protect the cave and allow only 
the oracle, ])ersonitied tirst by a priestess from Crete, 
to e.\|ierience the magic ins])iration and through her 



JaiiiHiri/, 1921 



THE TECHXOGRAPH 



59 



tlic woild was to be toUl of the future. In the course 
of time Apollo the god of the Ideal Arts fought the 
dragon and slew it and to purify jiiniself ran to the 
valley of the Tempe and returned crowned with a 
wreath of the sacred laurel, and from that time on 
it was Apollo wiio was the ]>rotecting diety of the 
sH red prccint. A legend furtlier says that Celaeno 
had a son by Apollo and called his name Delphus, 
Jience the name Delphi. But Del])hus had a son 
Pythes who became king and called the town Pytho. 
These two names Delphi and Pytho are used through- 
out anti(piity for tliis home of the oracle and in tiie 
Illiad and Odyssey the only mention is to the "Kocky 
Pvtho". 




llif TlieHiie of Delphi 

Whatever llie origin of the place or name, the 
fact remains that if you walk a little way fnmi the 
modern village- the road leads you around a project- 
ing craig of the mountain and there ojjens up before 
you the ruins of ancient Delphi. No artist can paint 
the picture and no poet sing the praise of the real 
beauty of this time honored vista in the snow cajiped 
mountains of Xortlieiii (!reece. When the afternoon 
sun throws the shadows of the taller i)eaks across 
the precint and lightens uj) the purple of the bare 
slo])ed mountains across the valley, a i)icture is 
wrought that is soul inspiring and points again to 
the une(pialled grandeur of the sites of the (ireek 
cities of olden times. 

This is one's first impression on reaching Del- 
phi but the impression will be deepened and ei:riched 



when the ruins are studied in detail and a liistory 
of the shrine as it grew and flourished, produced 
an atni()si)her(> around the present reminder of a 
glorious past. So let us ]ianse foi- a moment and 
see the development of the liome of the Pythian 
oracle. 

I'ansnnias, who iraxcled through (!i-eece in the 
2nd Century of our era, iiictures tlu' lirsl teni])le of 
Apollo as a wooden one built of olive branches car- 
ried from the valley of Tempe. This first crude hut 
was replaced by one built of wax and wings of bees, 
to be later rejdaced by a temple of Inass. Whether 
these legends are true or not is of very little impor- 
tance but we do know that a stone temide preceeded 
the one now in luins. 

In .'573 B. C. an earthquake destroyed the temple 
and layed low many of the other l)uildings and sta- 
tues, but the (xreek world at that time was firmly 
held together by the common faith and the power 
and sacredness of the Delphic oracle was so wide 
s])read that contributions were sent in from all the 
Colonies on the border of the Mediterranean until 
a great fortune was available to rebuild the temple. 

Spentharus, a Corinthian was employed as the 
architect and there was erected one of the finest Dor- 
ic temples of antiquity built of white nuirble over the 
foundations of the earlier structtirc. This temi)le 
dedicated to Ajjollo was the largest but by no means 
the only edifice in the sacred jtrecint. 

Individuals, cities and states consnlled tlie or- 




The Luwer Temple Group 



60 



THIO TK('IlN(Mil{Al'H 



■](i)iuarji, 1D21 



acle previous to ;ill Ilicir iiii|i(n-t;in( iiii(lerf'akiiij;s 
ami I'ollowcil willi a religious cxacliicss cvciv detail 
of iis cDiniiiaiiil. When Idrtiine favored ilieiii in 
Ilieir various pui-siiils lliey fell <lnl\ hound lo send 
to Deliilii ail ollcriiij; to Apollo. I'or exaniiile when 
AtluMis won tlie victory al Maiathoii liie Athenians 
linill a li-easnry at Delphi, hecaiise tliey felt Ajiollo 
jiad deli\ci-ed llieni from llieif enemies and aller 
tlie hattle of riataea llie (ireeks in common made a 
votive offei-ini; of a jjold di-ajion standing on a hron/,e 
tiipod. In some cases, states or cities wei-e told hy 
the oracle (hat they must either pay a certain pail of 
all tiie plunder from the enemies to Apollo or turn 
over a tenth pail of iheir earnings or else the pro- 
tecting hand of Apollo wonld be withdrawn. So the 
treasury of the Sicyoiiians was built aud into this 
treasuiy was placed each year one tenth of the gold 
mine on the island of Siphnos, but we are told they 



statues and small edifices, making the wliole enclos- 
ure a liiilliant mass of form and color. 

The pi-eeini of Deli.hi had belonged to all of the 
stales and been considered a common sanctuary but 
jealousy arose and we liiid the states tighting a long, 
sacred war for the |)ossession of the sacred precint, 
looting the treasury of gold to carry on the war but 
all willing to unite again against a common enemy, 
the Celts, .\pollo showed again a i>rotecting hand- 
we are told by Pausaiiias, and an eartlnpiake shook 
stones loose on the iiiouutains. These avalanches 
killed many of the enemy and there was snch thunder 
that the orders of the officers could not be heard. 
That night after the Greeks had driven the enemy 
back, a great snow fell and many thousands of the 
Celts perished. The history from this time on re- 
cords almost continuous sacking and pillaging of the 
temple but it remained for the Komans to do the 




grew tired and left olV the tribute and the s<'a en- 
croached and swept away their mines. 

It was this almost pagan fear of the wrath of 
the gods that ludd the i)eople and the stales to iheir 
vows, and as a result there accumulated at Delphi 
a wealth of gold and beautiful works (d' art nn- 
jiaralled in history for all the tlreek world sent to 
its favorite diety the riches of the land. 

During the festivals which occured at Deljihi at 
regular intervals for many years, athletic contests 
similar to the Olyiiiiiian games were held. It \\as 
a custom lor the winning athletes to erect in their 
own memory a statue as an oti'ering to Apollo and 
for the victorious i)articipant in the musical c(mi 
tests to leave his pri/.e lo adorn Ihe house of the 

god. With all ll iVeriiigs from so many sour<-es. 

it is ii(d dilficnlt to picture Ihis great natural onl- 
door museum Idled to oxcrflowing wit h niiuiumenls. 



of Smallei- Temples 

most devastating part aud their wrecking of the 
shrine was culminated when Nero carried away five 
hnndi-ed bronze statues. What destruction man was 
not able to accomplish landslides and earthquakes 
did leaving the marble building in ruins. Through 
the middle ages these ruins were used as stone quar- 
ries and lime kilns and the final debris was com- 
jiletely covered by land slides until the entire site 
was buried and there gi-ew nji a miserable village 
of dilapidated one story huts. These are the condi- 
tions that Frencii ex])edition from the school in Ath- 
ens found when they started to excavate in 1893. 

As we stroll today through the ruins we see 
only a vestage <d' Delphi's ancient glory, only a 
gi-onnd |dau of the citadel that was so dear to the 
art loxing <;reek. (»nly one building stands now 
and Ih.it is Ihe ••Treasure House of the Athenians." 
There is remaining however enough to thrill the 



Janvarij, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



61 



visitor ;iii(] diaw liiiii (in to sci'k if but from some 
small detail, tlie retiiiemeiits of the Greelc and tlie 
exactness of his workmanship. V\> a steep incline 
the way leads flanked ou either side by walls and 
bases of statues, by curves and flights of steps, past 
tlie foundations of treasuries to the open space in 
front of the temple of AjjoIIo. Not a stone stands 
of tliis noble edifice, l)ut strewn all about ai'e frag- 
ments of column diiims, capitals and the Doric 
cornice, grown about with weeds and overrun with 
lizards. Above tlie temple ou the upper terrace 
still more fragments tell of the beauty of the single 
statiies or the offerings in large groups. 

The theatre is readied by a long flight of marl)le 
b\.eps flanked on either side by honey combed walls 
of tlie Greek. The theatre seats are well preserved 
and the whole contour of the theatre is easily 
traceable. The site of the tlieatre is one of the 
most magnificent pails of ail Delphi cut as it 
is in the natural slope of the rock, one looks out 
over the temple of Apollo and tlie other buildings 
and sees the valley of the river Plitus with olive 
oi-chards and the mountains bej'ond rising in suc- 
ceeding ranges. Xo scenery was needed in this 
tlieatre seat in the world. This transcending beauty 
of the landscape brings the visitor (o better realize 



the place Delphi lu']<l in the hearts of the pcojile at 
the time of its splciidoi- and won their siipitort and 
])rotection throiigii so many centuries. 

The stadium is on a shelf like formation further 
up the side of the mountain but is of little interest 
becau.se the Romans rebuilt it, adding arch construc- 
tion of its former Greek simplicity. In many phices 
so much is lost of the (ireek feeling by the additions 
by the Romans who defied the sturdy and frank con- 
struction of the (ireeks by tlieir ornate and \eiieered 
architecture. 

A little distance below the. sacred precint is 
another group of smaller temples, in complete ruin, 
having been crushed by large masses of rock falling 
from the mountain above. 

The more interesting details and precious ob- 
jects found during the excavating have been placed 
in a museum built by the French near the site of the 
temple of Apollo. This collection of sculpture and 
votive ott'erings is our heritage of all the grandeur 
and splendor that once existed at Deli)lii and though 
located in an out-of-the-way part of the world there 
is still a message of inspiration to the interested who 
will be well repaid for their pilgrimage to the shrine 
of the ancient oracle at Del|)lii. 



Engineers and China 



W. H. Chao, m. e. 'L'l' 



There is no nalion in the world where so many 
engineers of all branches are so urgently needed at 
the present time as in China. China has been famous 
as an agricultural country for more than three thou- 
sand years; and since the Chinese are endowed with 
vast tracts of fertile plains and abundant wealth, 
they are rather contented with their farm produc- 
tion and satisfied with their old ways of doing things. 
It is the most notorious of the Chinese defects and 
the very stumbling block to rapid progress in science 
and industry. I should say that the standstill was 
brought about by the gift of too much wealth. Now 
China is coming into contact and communication 
with the whole world, but she cannot contend with 
the so called great powers in any kind of att^^airs. 

The Chinese realize that they have to wake up 
and struggle for power aud existence. Every possi- 
ble measure toward increasing Chinas strength and 
wealth has been tried in order to contend with the 
world. The change has been great. China has the 
uiii(|ue gift of natural resources and she has started 
to develop herself into an industrial country. Rail- 



ways have been constructed; telephone and tele- 
graph have been set up in the leading cities; many 
electrical and manufacturing plants have been built; 
great mines have been opened and nearly every civi- 
lized measure existing in America exists in China. 
But China has her own troubles. She does not have 
enough engineers, good, honest, and etticieiit engin- 
eers. Not much has been done for Ciiiiia along in- 
dustrial lines by her past engineers. China now 
needs more engineers to dig her mines, imjirove her 
highways, and build more plants and railways. Now 
I will consider the great opportunities in China for 
engineers of difierent denominations. 

Cliiii.i needs to excavate her enormous deposits 
of ricji Miiiies. Indeed there are but very few in- 
stances where modern methods of mining have been 
employed, and so many failures have sprung up in 
her early history of mining that many Chinese have 
cold eyes niion niining eiiter])rises. 

I'rom ex]iert estimation, the coal mines in the 
lirovince of Sliausi, which is not larger in area than 
the state of Illinois, can furnish the whole world 



TIIK TKCilNOCKAI'lI 



■hniuari), 1921 



for about 1. ■)()() years. Also you cnu liiid jilcuty of 
coal mines in nearly every pi-oviiuc. es|ii'(i:iliy Siian 
si, Slieusi. Cliili. Ilu]icli. N'uuan, ami all jiarls iil' 
.Mancliura. Almi^ ilic iippfi- ^■aIll/(■ coal nils ami 
natural gases ran easily lie loiiml. Cliiiia lias liccii 
exjiorlinj; cast irons to America, ami this shows 
clearly her wealth in iron ore: it can he Conml all 
over China. These mines and many others need im 
mediate excavation and indeed a very lai-j;c ninnhcr 
of mininf; eujjineers is ueetled to excavate them. 

The mininj: in China is yi'eatly handicapped by 
the lack of transportation facilities. China, with a 
]»opulation 4llO,t)(U),t)l)l( occu])yinji an area of ::J2,G4r),- 
liGti .s(iuare li or about :',.()OI)l»,()(t(l scp miles, has only, 
according to recent report. (i,0OI) miles of railroad. 
There are only (i:>S loconujtives, l.Tili passenger cars, 
and H),.")!»4 freight cars with a carrying capacity of 
240,l)t)(l tons. This is far from being enough, (^hina 
cannot Improve her industry at all unless an elab 
orate system of transportation is set up. The wel- 
fare of the Chinese people is greatly handicapped 
and endangered by the lack of railways. If there 
hail been a good and adeipiate transjjortation system 
in Chiini, she could not sjK'ud the i-ecent years in 
civil wars, and above all, 4l),()(»(t,t)()() of her people 
would not have to sutfer in the present terrible 
famine, for as transitortatiou becomes more conven- 
ient, emmigration of foodless people and the flow 
of food would become bandy. China needs nn)re 
railways. Hut just imagine how many engineers art' 
required along this line of work. The slow rate of 
railway building in China is caused by many evils. 
China, in building her railways, has been exploitecl 
hy the Knglish and other countries' engineers and 
contractors. \'ou will lie surprised to know that it 
cost onr govei-nment for sst),()(t0 to |!)r),()()tl a mih- 
for such railroads as have been constructed in 
China. Hut don't yon remember that the railroads 
that brought pros])erity to the middle and western 
states of America were built at a first cost that never 
exceeded .'?1. "),()()!) a mile, and fri^puMitly did not ex- 
ceed |8,()0I) a nule? And we have clieaii labor too. 
If we had not been cheated we would have built 
(•>l».()(»(t miles of railroads instead of (;,()l)t) miles, and 
China would have become by this time one of the 
gT-catest markets of the world. So we want railway 
and ci\il engineei's, honest engineers, loyal sniijects 
of Cod. and real friends to the Kepniilic of China. 

Till' rivers in China ha\e nexer been properly 
utilized yet. The Yellow l\i\er has been a great 
trouble and danger to China since the beginning of 
onr history and has cost China ndllious of dollars 
and thousands of lives, but now it is not safeguardf'd 
from fi-eipient overflow yet. If we cannot utilize this 
liver, we got to keej) it from flood trouble anyway. 
The ^ angtse RivcT' renders some na\igation service. 



but a lot of water i)ower from its falls along the 
iippei- ^■,■lngtse is now in waste. l"'or instance, from 
I ('h.iiig to Chnu Chin along the river with a dis 
lance of 100 miles there is a dillVrence of 47(1 ft. in 
elc\ation. and the rivei' often forces -its path between 
two monntains right (dose together thus giving a 
iinmlier of useful waterfalls. Some estimate that 
from scM'u localities along the ujjper Vangtse ;'>1.- 
(1(1(1,0(111 II. r. -an be developed from the waterfalls 
if properly utilized. Tiiis ])ower is about one-sixth 
of the waterpowers in the world. I am sure that we 
can build electrical plants to utilize this power. 
Besides China needs an aile(|uate system of irriga- 
tion, the very lack of which causes the present 
famine in North China. No doubt a number of elec- 
trical engineers are al.so needed. 

Thei'e is no ijuestion about the urgent need of 
mechanical engineers all over China. Practically 
every kind of industry is in its early stage of develop- 
ment ; and both industrial and military manufactur- 
ing i)lants are very scarce. We have enough raw 
uuiterial, ideuty of cheap labor, and what we need 
are jilants to produce machines and commercial pro- 
ducts; and we need engineers to handle or even to 
start these kinds of plants. 

China al.so wants a nundier of architectural, 
municipal, chemical, and agricultural engineers for 
jironipt improvement. Of course at jiresent she has 
a number of engineers at work, but they are not 
enough. I am sure that American engineers are 
welcome in China as these two nations have been 
very good friends with mutual trust for so long a 
time, i am also suie that the American engineers 
are willing to helii us in develo])ing our industry. 
Anu'rica is already overcrowded with engineers, 
while China just gave birth to them. But if you in- 
tend to do some engineering work in China, you 
must beai- in mind that we expect much more from 
you than from those engineers from other lands who 
cheated and exploited us. We want you to give us 
some help in such a great undertaking; but as to 
the jirosjterity and stability of Chinese industry T 
dare say that the Chinese themselves will ])rove to 
work out their own salvation. 



A dexice for continuously removing sand from 
water in hydro-electric woi ks, to prevent the serious 
weai- which is caused by its ]iassage through the 
turbines, was recently described in Lr Gin'w Civil. 
The appaiatns consists of a series of jiarallel com- 
partments furnished with batlle plates to jirevent 
rapid motion of the water, which enters at one end 
at the boliom. and after Iraxcrsing the compart- 
ments, escapes at the othei- eml at the to|). The sand 
and gravel fall to the boiiom of each com|iart ment, 
which is funnel shaped. 



Jaiiuan/. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



63 



Telephone Repeaters 

F. Harold Chase, e. e. '21 



In spite of all of the advantages that aecoiniiany 
high tension transmission of electrical energy, opei*- 
ating companies have not attempted to "ship"' power 
from New York to San Francisco. In telephony 
where a potential of 200 volts is prohibitive, one of 
the important links in onr dream of world wide, 
universal service was the transcontinental toll line. 

Telephone engineers have recognized for years 
that long distance communication, such as that re- 
quired in transcontinental connections, was possible 
only through the application of some local source 
of energy at intermediate points on the liue. Since 
the telephone is an invention of the present genera- 
tion, it is not strange that most of the improvements 
on it have been applications of principles found suc- 
cessful in telegraph practice. The telephone repeater 
element, or relay, is no exception to this rule for its 
telegraph counter part is found in the electi'o-mag- 
netic relay of Morse. Like the Morse relay it is uni- 
lateral in its action. That is, each element will re- 
peat only in one direction. Therefore, in commercial 
applications of this relay, it is necessarj^ to use two 
elements and a balanced duplex circuit- This circuit 
is similar to the Morse repeater circuit and requires 
a balauce of the actual lines used In transmission 
against an artificial line of similiar characteristics. 

The solution of the teleplione repeater problem 
is, in fact, so nearly similiar, in its simplified <mi- 
line, to the telegraph repeater that one wonders why 
it took fifty years to develop it. The only answer to 
this question lies in the fundamental difference be- 
tween the operation of the telephones and the tele 
graph. 

In telegraphy we use a series of uni-directional 
electrical impulses, while the telephone transmits 
a very comjilicated, constantly changing, alternat- 
ing current wave. It is this relation between the 
direct and alternating currents found in these two 
modern methods of communication that have conr 
plicated the telephone repeater problem and led to 
a separate study of it. 

Repeating FJemiiit 

In the development of the telegraph repeating 
element, a simple electro-magnetic law was applied ; 
the result is a very simple electro-magnetic device, 
rnfortunately, the electro-magnetic relay is useful 
only in the repetition of constant current impulses. 
There seems to be no practical method of using these 
magnetic principles for amplifying complex alternat- 



ing current wa\-es. For this reason the telephone 
engineers were compelled to turn to another form of 
electrical phenomena. They fouud in the audion 
or pilotron, developed by the radio engineers, a 
device that would serve their purpose. It is this 
audion principle on wliicli modern repeater elements 
are built. 

To explain the operation of the audion in tele 
phone repeater practice it is necessary to discuss 
the principles on which it operates. The history of 
the experiments that led to the repeater tube pre- 
sents this material in the logical order. 

-In 1884 Edison discovered that if a plate were 
inclosed in the bulb of an incandescent lamp a cur- 
rent would flow from the hot filament to (he plate 
provided the plate was connected to the positive 
terminal of the battery- It was many yeai-s before 
any satisfactory theory was advanced to explain 
this phenomena. However, iu 1002 and 1903 Profes- 
sor O. W. Richardson published his theory of ther- 
mionic emission of electrous which is the accepted, 
scientific explanation of this and other similar ef- 
fects. 

According to this the(U-y metals and conductors 
of electricity contain within their bounding surfaces 
inmiense numbers of free electrons which behave 
like the molecules of a perfect gas. When the metal 
is heated the kinetic eiu'rgy of the electrons is in- 
crea.sed and the nundjer escaping across tiu' Itouiid 
ing surface is likewise increased. 




Fig. 



Audion 



In I'.lUl ^VellneIt showed that an oxide coating 
on tiie hot cathode greatly increased its lliermionic 
emission. In 190(1 Dr. De Forest discovered that the 
electron stream could be controlled by the interposi- 
tion of a third electrode, a grid, between the anode 
and cathrotle. This is the audion ov pilotron. A 



fi4 



Till': Ti':("iiN()(;KAi'ii 



Jatiuarj/. 1fi?.l 



pli<>t(ij;rjiph of tin- tcli']i|i(in(' lorin of I lie nudioii is 
slidwii in Fifi. 1'. 

i>r. I..in^iiiuii-. ill liis |i,i|i('i- licrurc liic Aiiicri- 
raii liistitiili' i)f K:i<li(i llnyiiiccis. A|iril. l'.)l."( ex 
phinieil the action uf iJit- piloiroii :is follows: "Tlii' 
clectrou stream betwrcii Ilic :inoilc :iiiii llic cntliodc 
coiisiiiiites an electric clinrp' in ilic intcrvciiiiii; 
s|i:iic Tliis clinr>;(> itjx'Is tlic ('jccli-oiis cscapinji from 
tIic lilaiiicnl and causes some of I licm to return to 

llie callio<le In a |iiire electron discliariic 

as Ihe leiiiperaliire of llie lilaiiieiil is raised, a point 
is always reaclieil wiiere tlie current hecomcs limited 
by the space charge between llie electi'odes. ITnder 
these conditions only a small fi-actioii of the 
electrons escaping from the callioile reach the 
anode. From this view point it is evident that, 
if a negatively charged body is bronght into the si)ace 
between tiie filament and tlie plate, tlie nnmber of 
electrons which return to the cathode will increase, 
so the current to the anode will decrease. On the 
other hand, if a jxisitively charged body is bronght 
near the cathode, it will jiartially neutralize the 
negative charges on the electrons in s])ace and will, 
therefore, allow a lai-gcr current to flow from the 
tiliiment. In this way it is |)ossihle to control the 
cui-l-ent flowing lielween the anode and catliode liy 











tf . __„ 


//// 

r //// 






an electric potential on a third electrode between 
I lie otlier two." The curves of Fig. ;> sjiow the efl'ect 
of a urid polenlial on llie |ila1e current in a repeatei' 
Inlie- 

'i'lie lirsi rule for tiie developmeiil of all tele- 
phone apparalns requires that it musi iioi produce 
a disloriioii of I lie "voice currents." Applying this 
rule to the lelephoiie re])eater it is eviilent tJiat Ihe 
pei-fect re]iealing element ninsi aiii|iliry tlie funda- 
mental wave and all of its c(uiiplicaie<l eoniliina- 
tioiis of overtones in tiieir correct proi)ortion. Wince 
the frecpiency of telei)hone voice currents vary from 
one hundred cycles to two thousand cycles pei- sec- 
ond, il is necessary for a telephone relay to have 
practically no mechanical inertia. The audion ful- 
fills this condition. There must also be a linear re 
lation between the inpnt voltage and tlie output cur 
rent. The impedance of both the input and the out- 
put circnits must be independent of the amplitude 
and freqnency of the impressed voltage. 

The audion itself does not comply with all of 
these re(piirements; but, by the proper adaptation 
of it to its associated circnit it is possible to elim- 
inate distortion in so far as we can recognize snch 
effects. 

The principal deficiency of the audion tube is 
apiiarent in tlie curves of Fig. 3. Tliere is not a lin- 
ear relation between the input voltage and the out- 
put current. The plate voltages indicated in these 
cuives were measured at the terminals of the tube 
and are jiractically those which exist between the 
anode and cathode. Tf, however, there is an exter- 
nal resistance in the plate circnit, then the effective 
plate voltage in the tube will not remain constant 
as in Fig. '.i but will vary with varying current liy 
an amount ecpial to tlie I R drop in the resistance. 
The result is shown in Fig- 4 From these curves it 
is e\i(lent that a resistance of about 8,000 ohms 
would produce a curve which is essentially linear 
o\er a wide range of input voltages. 

Another limitation of the audion ai-ises through 
the uni lateral conductivity of the input, oi- grid, 
circnit. W'c have seen from the experiments of Edi- 
son tiiat there is no current flow in the plate circuit 
as long as it is charged negatively with res])ect to 
the lilameiit. Tlie same i)rinci])le applies to the grid 
ciicnit. When fjiere is a negative potential applied 
lo il, no current flows in the input circuit; but as 
soon as il liecoiues positive a current will flow. In 
impressing an alternating current, such as the "voice 
cnri-enls." on the input circuit it is evident that 
there would be discontinuous variation of tlie im- 
peilance, of fiiis circuit, from infinity to some con- 
slanl linile x.iliu', 'I'liis violates one of the funda* 
ineiii.il rei|nirenienls of a telephone repeater men- 
lioned above. 



JiunKin/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 




To avert this ilifficiilty a batter.y "C is inserted 
in the grid circuit. This battery is arranged so that 
the grid never becomes positive in tlie cycle of tlie 
impressed voltage. Tlien the ini])edunce ol' the ininit 
is constant, but infinite. In order to give some finite 
value to this impedance, it is customary to shunt 
the input with a high resistance. Fig. 5 is the "re- 
peater element"' circuit, showing the plate resis- 
tance, "K'", llie in]mt resistance, "r", and I he ••('" 
battery- The injiut and output transfornicrs are 
used to get the telephone currents to and from the 
tube. 

The curves of I'^ig. :'. show that the amplifications 
possible with the audion are practically infinite. The 
tube itself, when the '"C" battery is used, gives an 
energy expenditure in the output circuit with a watt- 
less variation of the input voltage. It is the value 
of the resistance, r, that limits the values of ampli- 
ficatiou obtained. In practice an amplification of 
2(ifl times the injiut energy is all that has been found 
Itractical with our present iiicthods of line construc- 
tiou. 

Rijiciil iHfi Circuit 

Since the aiidion tube is niii-lalei-al in its action, 
it is necessary, in reiteater operation, to ari-ange a 
duplex circuit for two way oiieralion. As I have 



pointed o\it aliove this practice is analogous to tlie 
telegraph repeater circuit. 

Telegraph repeater circnils may be divided into 
ihi-ee classes the booster circuit, the dill'erential du])- 
lex circuit, and the bridge circuii. Of these three 
lypes of circTiifs the bridge princiiile has been found 
the most useful in tele])hone repeater work. Fig. (i 
sliows the relation of the simple Wheatstone bridge 
lo the telephone and telegraph repeater networks. 

From this cii'cuit it is evident that, if "Z" is 
tM|nal to "X" and "M" is equal to "N", then there 
will be no difference of potential at "C" and "D", 
no deflection of the galvanometer, no magnetism of 
I lie sounder, and no resulting current in the input 
lircuit of the telephone repeater. Fig- 7 shows both 
ends of the telephone repeater bridge. 

You will notice that this circuit consists of two 
bridge circuits, similar to those shown in Fig. 0, with 
I lie input branch of each circuit connected to the out- 
put branch of the other, through the repeating ele- 
ment. Let us follow the flow of curi'ent through this 
network assuming that it is flowing from west to 
east. 

Part of the current passes directly through the 
initimt transformer into the artificial line and is dis- 
sipated. But, since the impedance of the artificial 
line is equal to the impedance of the actual line the 
percent of the energy that flows into it, is very 
small. Half of the current is transformed, in the out- 
put transformer, to the output circuit of repeater 
No. 2 and is dissipated. The remaining current flows 




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JaniKin/. 1921 



into tlie ini)ut of repe:iter No. 1, is niiiplilicd, and 
impressed on the output tr;iiisl'oiiucr ol the line east. 
Ilcic it (li\iilcs. Iiall' lliiwiug into tlie ai-tilieial line 
and half dut on ilic line cast. This is the aniplilied 
energy. 

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our- for r/f/iNs^o/fM£in 



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<>nmfWFinr^ 





sM3M&Mj- 



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our-pur rffftNsroffME/f 

If the line east is perfectly balanced by its arti 
ficial line, then no potential will be impressed on the 
input circuit of repeater No- 2. But in practice it 
is never possible to perfectly balance a line, so a 
small portion of the output currents will flow into 
the input of repeater JS'o. 2. This will be amplified 
and impressed on the ontpnt transformer of the line 
west. Here, again, if there is a perfect balance of 
line against its artificial line no i)oteutial will be im- 
pressed on the niput circuit. But if the degree of 
unbalance of both lines is sufficiently great, then 
part of the output current will return to the inpiit 
circuits, be amplified, and repeat the process. 

Under these conditions the repeater circuit be- 
comes an oscillator circuit and the rei)eater will sing. 



However, since this type of network requires the 
simultaneous unbalance of both lines, it is after all, 
a rather stable circuit and (piite applicable to com 
mercial telephone lines. 

ApplxcaHon of liciHutrrs 

As an example of the fuuction of the repeater, 
its use on the transcontinental toll line from New 
York to San Francisco, has been cited. There are 
si.\ repeaters on this line spaced about equal dis- 
tances a])art, between the two cities. These operate 
in tandem, eacli intermediate station amplifying the 
attenuated currents received from the preceding sta- 
tion. 

This tandem application of repeaters has led 
to the operation of many circuits that wcudd have 
been otherwi.se impractical. Probably the longest 
line, electrically, is the Boston-Washington cable. 
This cable serves all of the larger circuits along the 
eastern coast- By use of cable, lines are placed un- 
derground where they are not exposed to extreme 
weather conditions and a continuity of service is as- 
sured. 

The repeater has also made commercial marine 
telephony an advent of the near future. At the pre- 
sent date a Key-West — Havana telephone cable is 
being laid. This is the first step toward a transat- 
lantic phone cable. I believe that I am safe in pre- 
dicting that it will not be many years before we can 
pick up the telephone in our own homes and speak 
to anyone located anywhere in the civilized world. 

The telephone repeater is one of the important 
links that have brought the realization of this dream 
one step out of the future toward the present. 

The material included in this article is by no 
means original. The observations of three years of 
teleplione engineering practice, has been added to 
material obtained from several published articles on 
the subject. The curves are a record of a series of 
experiments performed at the University this fall. 
The outline for this paper was taken bodily from the 
article by Bancroft Gherardi and Frank B. Jewett. 

I have also used an article, "\^acuum Tubes.'" 
printed in the "Electrician Transmission," and "Ra- 
dio Pami)hlet No. 40" by the United States Bureau 
of Standards- 



Slic isoniriilly at 11:e .\g. Dance") •'Onr spirits 
ai'c in liai-niony. I can sense an aura alxuit yon." 

Hai-d Moiled Ag. — That aiut an aura (Jeraldine 
lliafs hair Ionic". 



Januarii, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



67 



Mechanical Equipment of Buildings 



G. AV. Hrnr-.Aun '!l!». M. E. 



"How linicli iMi'c!i;iiiic;il ('(|iiipiiiciil sIhmiIiI he in- 
stalled in this biiildinj;?" 

That is the question tliat must be answered at 
Ihe very outset of tlie design of any strueture. Ev- 
ery building, no matter how small it is, must, at 
least, be lighted and in this climate it must be heat- 
ed also. Closely following the first question are oth- 
ers — "What is to be the source of electricity and 
heat?"' "Shall there be a genei'ating plant in the 
building or will it be more economical to purchase 
electricity?"' "If the electricity is to be purchased, 
will it be economical to purchase steam also?"' These 
and manj' others must be settled before tlie main 
question can be answered satisfactorily. 

There was a time when almost every building 
of fair size contained its own electric power plant 
and it was unnecessary to go outside for any service 
except gas, water supply and sewer connections, 
lint with the recent rapid developments of public 
service companies supi)lying electric current, in- 
volving the ever increasing use of larger and more 
economical generating units, and improved methods 
of distribution, the service lias reached such a point 
that a .serious shut-down is au almost unheard of 
occurrence, and the cost has been so reduced that it 
is impossible to ignore this feature. So as it is, it 
is necessary to carefully analyze the situation from 
all angles. But whether there is to be a generating 
plant cannot be determined without taking into ac- 
count, also, all the other items of mechanical ecpiip- 
ment. 

The most logical ]>oiut to start is with the steam 
supply system — "Should the boilers be of the water 
tube, horizontal tubular or tirebo.v type, and should 
the^- be operated at high or low pressure?"' On ac- 
count of their compactness, occupying less space for 
a given horse power, water tube boilers will usually 
he found preferable though they require somewhat 
greater height of boiler room. Increased height, 
however, is more easily obtained than increa.sed 
floor space, for the latter is always at a premium, 
even in the largest buildings — this may seem strange 
l)ut it is a fact, nevertheless : If there is a probabil- 
ity that a generating plant will be installed either 
at the time the building is erected, or later, or if 
high pressure steam is retpiired for cooking or for 
other purposes, there is no further question as to 
high or low pressure operation — it is answered auto- 
matically. Kut if there is no use for high pressure 



sicain it is ;i matter for consideration. The heating 
systeui is usually operated at a pressure not to ex- 
ceed three pounds above atmosphere, and the same 
pressure can be used for the lieaters of the ventilat- 
ing system and those for heating the domestic water 
supply. If, however, the heating system is of the 
vacuum steam type or of the forced circulation hot 
water type, requiring the operation of pumps, these 
can usually be operated more economically if steam 
driven, for all the steam used in the pumps, (ex- 
cept a small loss) can later be used in the form of 
exhaust steam, in the heating and ventilating sys- 
tems. This consideration will usually i-esult in the 
adoption of a high pressure operated boiler plant 
witli connections from the boilers to a high pressure 
supplj' header and a connection from this header 
through a pressure reducing valve to a low pi-essure 
header, from which the lines for supjilying steam to 
the radiators and heaters are taken. The exhaust 
pil)ing from pumps and other steam driven equip- 
ment is then connected to the low^ pressure header 
with a free exhaust to atmosphere through the back 
]n-essure valve in the line beyond the lieader connec- 
tion. The operation of the boilers at high pressure 
is of further advantage as it provides a reserve suii- 
ply of steam in the boiler wliicli, due to its power 
of expansion, will quickly till the low pressure heat- 
ing system in case of any sudden increase iu demand 
for steam. Xaturally, the boilei- feed jtumiis shoulil 
be steam di-ixcn witli cxlunist to tlie low pressure 
header and by-pass to atmosphere the same as the 
pumps previously described. A further refinement, 
and one which is almost a necessity in the case of 
a generating plant, where every precaution must be 
taken to avoid any interruption in service, is to pro- 
vide a dotdjle system of steam supply piping to the 
boiler feed pumps and a double system of boiler feed 
piping between the pumps and boilers. The latter 
should be so cross-connected at the pumps that only 
the breaking of both lines or all the pumps could 
cause failure to supply water to tlie boilers. 

As to whether the boilers shall be equipped with 
stokers, this is usually determined by the capacity 
of the boilers, for there is a fairly well delined i)oint 
at which satisfactory hand tiring reaches its limit. 
Beyond this, stokers are almost a necessity. 

In oidy a \ery few cases are the boilers so lo- 
cated that coal can be delivered to the stokers or 
furnace without a svstem of convevors, and so it is 



fiS 



THK TE('HN()(iHAriI 



January, Wit 



(li;it nc;ii-ly every boiler |il:iiil lias some t\\n' nf cuir 
\('vor tor liriiifjing in (0:11 ;inil for takiii'; oiil aslics. 
tilt' ty])e si'h'cttMl (leiioiidiiif; on the aiiioiint oT liu'l 
to he handled and the relative location of coal recei\ 
iiij; holes, stovajje and lioilcrs. In sonic cases, ashes 
ai-e removed h.v means of an air or sicani snclioii 
system, takin<; them directly from the ash pits to :i 
receivinj; ho])]ter from which they can tlow liy gia\ 
ity into a car lp\ which they are taken away from the 

plant. I any instances, such an arrangemenl re 

duces the handling of ashes to a inininmm, hut its 
scope is somewhat limitecl, and it is therefore not 
adaptable to all installations. 

Havin.ii determined the t,\iie of boilers to be 
used it then becomes necessary to decide upon the 
cajiacity and luunber of units. As the tirst step, 
the kind of heating system should be selected 
and the amount of radiating surface calculated. 
With this should he included the fan heaters of the 
ventilating system, which require a much greater 
supply of steam per square foot of radiating sur- 
face than the direct radiation on account of the 
greater circulation of air at lower temperature 
around them. 

The ventilation sj'stem should include the sup 
ply of fresh air mechanically to those portions of 
tlie building which are not provided with means for 
obtaining this supply naturally. It should also pro- 
vide an adequate exhaust system for removing the 
foul air. The points of entrance for fresh air and 
exit for foul sluudd be distributed so as to give the 
most uniform conditions, and special attention 
should be given such roiuiLs as kitchens and laundries 
where there is an excessive amount of heat and 
steam in the rooms. Means shouhl always be pro- 
vided for heating the air supply to any room, and 
for removing from it as much as possible of the dust 
particles in sus])ensiou. The latter is usually ac- 
complishe<i by means of filters or air washers. Filt- 
ers are not as good as washers as they quickly be- 
come clogged with dirt and retpiire fretpient clean- 
ing: furthermore, due to this clogging, the quantity 
of air passing through the filters varies greatly, so 
that a system which depends on filters for cleaning 
the air is not as etticient or reliable as one which de- 
pends on air washers. I''ans are usually motor driv 
en and are designed for a variation in speed from 
ap]iroximately one-half that reipiired to deliver the 
calcidated (luantity of air to full speed, giving an 
opiiortuiuty to vary tlie ipiantity of air handled. 

The phunbing system reqnires certain niechan 
ical equipment such as filters to i-emovc suspended 
matter from the water supply to llu' l)nilding, house 
jiumps to deliver the suiq>ly to storage tanks or to 
the su])ply system, heaters for warming the water 
snjiplied to ]ilninbing lixtnres. etc.. ami ejectors to 



recei\(' the discharge fi-om fixtures and drains below 
the le\cl of the sewer in the street and to deliver it 
to the sewer. Often, too. thi're is a tire pumi) de- 
signed to snjiply watei- at high pressure to a series 
of standiii]ies distributed tln-ongli(pnl the building 
with hose e(pii])meiit in each story. 

Air compressoi's are usnally installed to provide 
a snjiply of comjiressed aii- for vai-ions purposes, 
inclndiiig tenipei-at ni-e regulation of i-adiators and 
fan heaters, if a regulation system is installed; 
cleaning electric motors, and the operation of the 
ejectors, if these are of the pneumatic type. 

If tlieie is lo lie a drinking water system in the 
building, it will be necessary to install a refrigerat- 
ing jilaut to cool the water ami to circulate it 
through the system of piping to the fountains. If 
there is a kitchen it will probably be of advantage 
to increase the capacity of the plant and to add such 
e(|uipment as may be uecessai-y to circulate brine 
through coils in the refrigerators. It may even be 
desirable in certain classes of buildings to cool the 
air supplied by the ventilating system, involving a 
gieat inci'ease in the ca^iacity of the refrigerating 
plant. 

The above covers the mechanical equipment us- 
ually required, though it is sometimes increased to 
include a vacuum cleaning system, conveyors, pneu- 
matic tube system, and other branches more or less 
special. 

Having determined the equipment needed it be- 
comes a matter of calculation to deternnue whether 
there should be a generating plant in the building. 
If it can be shown that it is less expensive to install 
engines and generators, utilizing the exhaust steam 
from the engines to heat the building, than to sup- 
ply steam directly from the boilers for this purpose, 
a plant would be a good investment. In order to de- 
cide this point it is necessary to ])repare an estimate 
of the electrical requirements of the building for a 
year and from this to calculate the steam required 
for producing this amount of electric current. An 
estimate should also be made showing the steam re- 
quired for heating the building, domestic hot water 
supply, etc. Inasmuch as the heating requirements 
during the winter months will probably be greater 
than the electrical requirements, rtnhicing during 
the spring until the electrical requirements are great- 
er during the sumnu'r. and increasing again in the 
autumn, it is obvious that the total amount of steam 
rei|nired for the heating and generating jilant dur- 
ing the year must lie the sum of the maximum 
amounts calculated for the several months. The 
comi)aris(in of the cost of uuiinteiiance of a generat- 
ing iilaut including cost of coal, ash removal, water. 
supplies, repairs, labor, interest, depreciation, taxes 
(Concluded on Page 90) 



■JaiiKdri/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



69 



Sewage Disposal 

nOiiwix (\ Ilrui) c. t>. ''24: 



Aiiiuiig the great engiiieeiiiig pidlilciiis of iikmI- 
ei'u times, oue of the most pei-jilexing, as well as im- 
portant, is that of tha efficient and economical dis- 
posal of domestic sewage and trade wastes. The 
method employed bj' the average city and town is 
to empty sewage and wastes into rivers or nearby 
bodies of water, depending npon dilntion, and con- 
tact with the air, for jjnritication. The frequency of 
typhoid epedemics and the ijrevalence of other intes- 
tinal diseases, throughout the country, is ample 
proof that this method is inadequate. Typhoid is 
recognized by the medical profession as a disease 
which is transmitted by the excrement of the human 
intestinal tract. Its most common medium or trans- 
mitting agent is di-iuking water, although shelltish, 
ice and milk are in the same general class. A few 
years ago a considerable area of the central west was 
afflicted with an epidemic of typhoid, which was 
finally traced to a certain eastern seaport where 
oysters are "farmed" near the outlet of the city's 
sewers. More common than this, however, is the case 
of the town which discharges its sewage into a 
stream, which the next town below uses for its water 
su|)ply. It has been estimated that more than I..">()Oi),- 
00(1, ()()() gallons of sewage is discharged into the 
Mississippi Itiver each day. According to a recent re- 
port by the city of Boston, Mass., 4r),0()0,0()0 people 
in the United States are served by sewer systems, 
but of this vast amount, less than one tentli of the 
sewage undergoes treatment of any kind. 

Up to the present time many sewage treatment 
processes have been tried, but without marked suc- 
cess. European cities have led the world in sewage 
pui'itication, due largely to their greater density of 
])()pulation, which has made such treatment neces- 
sary. Of the many methods tried in Europe, sewage 
farms, seiitic tanks and Imhotf tanks have been most 
universally used. In the former, sewage is flooded 
over the land, usually municipally owned, and Ihi' 
liquor is removed by filtration and evaporation. Th"' 
suspended soliils remain in the ground furnishing 
fertilizer for growing crops. This system has not 
l)een a success ;iii(l il is grMdinilly being abiuidoncd. 

Se]itic tanks ai'e simply large settling l.-iiiks, in 
wliich tlie susjjended solids are deposited on I lie 
bottom and allowed to decom]iose and ])uril'y by tlic 
action of anaerobic bacteria. They are usually clean- 
ed intermittently, lint they ditler from the oi-dinary 
cessiiool. in that they liave tight Imttonis, and the 



ellfnent is discliai'ged by ilisplacement into nearby 
streams. These tanks have been found to be of practi- 
cal value in small communities but are inadequate 
and unsatisfactory where the volume of sewage to be 
handled is considerable. With proper balfling and 
skimming they have been found to deliver a fairly 
pure but usually an unstable effluent. 

Imhotf tanks oi)erate on the same |irinci](le as 
X)lain Septic tanks, but they are provided with a 
special lower chand)er to receive sludge. In a |)ro|i 
erly operating Imhoff, the sludge is partially liqui- 
fied in the digestion chamlier and drawn off at in- 
frequent intervals. Owing to excessive foaming, bub- 
bling and the emission of disagreeable gases, they 
are not, as a i-ule, satisfactory where domestic sew- 
age is condiined with trade wastes, hnhotfs are 
u.sed with success where partial purification only, 
is necessary, and may be followed by sprinkling fil- 
ters for final treatment. Rochester, N. Y. and At- 
lanta, (la. are operating hnhofl's satisfactorily. The 
tanks have been used with such success at Rochester, 
that the point of discharge of the effluent, located 
three miles from the shore of Lake Ontario, is not 
even percei>tible to the eye. 

In spite of the success of many jilants of the 
various types, the ]>roblem of sewage disposal is 
considered to he more ov less in an experimental 
stage. t^Miite a large nnndier of American cities, 
where purification is immediately necessary, are 
hesitating to invest in disposal plants until I he me- 
thod, most efficient under their conditions has been 
determined and more definite data, as to sizes, costs 
and efficiency, has been obtained. In \iew of this 
fact several corporations and nniuicipalities :nc now 
conducting ex])eriments along this line- Among the 
cities which are oi)erating testing stations at pre 
sent, are Milwaidvce, (Irand Rapids. Cliicngo. Ind- 
ianapolis, Cleveland, and Syracuse, X. ^■., :i.s well 
as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 
the Univei'sity of Illinois. 

Xo one can ever liirnisli a uni\<'rs:il solution of 
the (|Uesti(Mi, for sewage (lis])((sal is a new and sepa- 
r:ite iii-olileiu in each conuininity. X<i two cities have 
I lie same conditions or reciuirements. Some have a 
fresh sewage, others are very stale, and souie sew- 
ages are solely <lomestic, while others are coiiiiiosed 
largely of trade wastes; sonu^ contain hard watiM-. 
others, soft. .VIso the degree of ])Ui-ili(at ion rei|uire(l, 
is a coiilrolling factor. And so, it is seen that each 



70 



TUJO TECHNOGKAPH 



January, 1921 



c'diiiiininity's coiulitions :iii(l if([iiii'('iiK'iits iiui.st be 
studii'd ciircfully and a ticatmciit ])laiit designed 
especially to meet its needs. There are however a lew 
essential preliminary operations without whieh a 
sewage plant would be scarcely comidele. These are 
roughing racks, grit clunnbers, grease skimming de- 
vices and screens. 

Koughing racks are usually coarse gratings, 
made of iron bars, spaced about two inches apart. 
They are designed to remove floating debris and all 
large objects which lind their way into the sewer. 
Directly following the racks are the grit chandlers. 
These are wide, deep channels through which the 
sewage is passed at reduced velocity, depositing the 
heavy solids, principally sand and gravel, which have 
been washed along the bottom of the sewer. The 
surface of the water in the grit chambers is the 
natural location of skimnrnig boards to remove float- 
ing oils and greases. 

Fine screening is almost universally agreed 
among engineer.s, as being the most practical means 
of removing the inert, or coarser suspended particles 
before linal treatment. However, there is a wide 
difference iu the amount of screening which is be- 
ing carried on at the various disposal works. At 
the exi)erimeutal plant at Indianapolis tine screen- 
ing has been developed to a higher degree than has 
heretofore been attempted. This plant is now operat- 
ing two screening laboratories, and results as high 
as 43% removal of I lie susiieudcd solids, have been 
recorded. 

There are two generally accepted methods of 
final treatment of sewage both in American and 
European practice. They are, the activated sludge 
method, and sprinkling filters. Both of these depend 
ii|>oii the action of aerobic bacteria as purification 
factors. In the operation of the intermittent sprink- 
ling filters, the sewage is first aerated by being 
sprinkled into the air from numerous nozzles locat- 
ed at regular intervals on the surface of the stone 
bed; then trickles through the broken rock, varying 
iu thickness from G to 10 feet, to tile underdrains. 
The surfaces of the rock in the stone beds, become 
coated with a thin gelatinous deposit, which iu 
turn ''.seeds'' the sprinkled sewage with aerobic bac- 
teria. The inters unload themselves seasonally, large- 
ly through the action of worms, and hence do not 
need cleaning. At these periods the gelatinous coat 
iiigs of the rocks are loosened and carried along llic 
course with llic [}iirili('(l erfluenl. Some plants iiaxc 
made provisions for removing these liimy particles 
in settling tanks, before turning the effluent into 
the watercourse. 

E.\1ensive experiments in a(ti\aled simlue li:i\e 
been carrie(l on at Milwaukee and also at tiie small 



University experimental station in Urbana. Activat- 
ed sludge tanks at the Urbana plant are built in 
two stories, forming an aerating chamber below, and 
a settling chand)er above. The .sewage is first passed 
into the lower compartment where it is violently 
agitated and aerated by passing compressed air 
through it; then into the upper chamber, where it 
is allowed to remain practically (juiet, and the sus- 
pended matter is settled to the bottom. The settled 
sludge at the bottom of the upper tank, is swept 
into sludge wells at the side of the tank, by mechani- 
cal means. From these wells a part of the sludge 
is returned to the lower chamber for "seeding" the 
fresh sludge, while the rest is removed to the lower 
chamber for sludge dewatering treatment. The clear 
effluent flows from the top of the tank to the stream 
iu practically a pure state. The chief advantages of 
the activated sludge method are, its compactness, 
and the completeness of its purilication, although 
the cost of opera tiou is extremely high, even taking 
into account the value of fertilizer recovered. 

The treatment and disposal of sludge, is consid- 
ered the big present day problem in the sewage dis- 
posal processes- The success of the activated sludge 
system depends almost entirely upon the finding of 
an economic means of dewatering sludge. The fact 
that activated sludge contains only about 2 percent 
solids, and these iu more or less of a colloidal state 
make this problem difficult. 

Two methods are available for dewateriug acti- 
vated sludge; the use of presses, and centrifugals. 
By means of these, the amount of water may be 
reduced from 98 to about 80 or 85 percent. Plain, 
settled sliulge or the sludge from humus tanks, may 
be dried in addition to the above process on sand 
drying beds. Wheu sludge is prepared for the fertili- 
zer trade, it is necessary to reduce it to a moisture 
content of about 10%, and this is usually accomp- 
lished by direct heat dryers. It is then in the form 
of fertilizer tankage, and contains sufficient nitro- 
gen for use as a fertilizer base. 

The benefits derived from sewage disposal are 
two-fold. First, the sewage is purified, and second, 
a vast amount of grease and plant food, foi'merly 
wasted, is recovered for industrial and agricultural 
use. With the installation of a purification plant, 
disagreeable odoi's from sewage-laden streams are 
eliminated. Bathing and fishing are made possible 
and the proldem of a pure water suiii)ly is simplified. 

Act i\i ties are being renewi'd at the various ex- 
perimental plants and testing stations, and it is to 
be expected, that purification will be developed ami 
plants will be built, which will give a maximum de- 
gree purilication with a minimum expenditure of 
material and lab<ir. 



Jaiiuanj. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



71 



Internal Combustion Engine Indicators 

C. Z. KosECRANS, 111. e. 'U) 

Rcficarcli Graduate As.sistanf in Mrcliaiiicdl 

Engim'crivfj 



TIk' iii't'il for a rclialile iuslruiiK'iit fur iiulicat- 
iug the various types of internal combustion enffines 
is clearly recognized, and many more or less success- 
ful attempts have been made to produce a good indi- 
cator. It is the purpose of this article to discuss 
briefly the necessary jiroperties of a good internal 
combustion engine indicator, and to describe var- 
ious forms of instruments alreadj' in use, together 
with their advantages and disadvantages. 

It is jiresupposed that any instrument construc- 
ted for the above purpose must have all the essen- 
tials of a good steam engine indicator, and furtlicr, 
if it is to be used with engines running at high 
speeds now common, it must fulfill certain addi- 
tional requirements.' Tliese can best be illustrated 
by considei-ing the shortcomings of the common 
steam engine tyiie of indicator wlieii used for gas 
engine work. 

1 1 The inertia of tiie relatively heavy piston, 
spring, and pencil meclianism of the steam engine 
type of indicator prevents the instrument from 
indicating trutlifully the [iressure in tlie engine 
cylinder at any instant, or from following the rajiid 
variations of jiressure due to the explosions witli 
any degree of accuracy. On account of tliese inertia 
effects the recorded maximum pressure will gener 
ally be higher tlian the actual, due to the moving 
parts overshooting the correct distance to indicate 
the real pressure. Tlie occurence of tlie maximuin 
pressure in relation to the events of the stroke will 
also be changed. 

Tliese inertia elfects also give rise to violent 
vibrations of tlie mechanism when the period of the 
series of explosions ajiproaclies that of the indica- 
tor. Tliis effect is often very noticeable, even in 
comparatively slow speed engines. 

1' I Tlie friction entailed in the cylinder and 
tlie pencil mechanism, and tlie friction of the jiencil 
against the paper causes furtlier vitiation of the 
pressure readings. 

?>) Backlash and lost motion in the linkages, 
which even in the itest mechanical indicators 
amounts to 0.01 or 0.02 inches, causes a considerable 
error in tlie resulting mean pressure. 

4) The inertia of the relatively heavy paper 
drum, together with the stretching and vibrating of 
the indicator cord when used at high speeds, furtlier 



distorts tlie diagrams, and sometimes renders them 
altogether useless. 

On the whole, the ordinary steam engine type 
of indicator is entirely uusuited for internal com- 
bustion engine work, even at speeds as low as 500 
r. p. m. It is possible to obtain a total error of 10% 
in the mean pressure at this speed, even with an 
indicator in good condition, due to the cumulative 
effects of all the above mentioned errors. The in- 
ertia error is, however, by far the greatest. 

It is evident that a good internal combustion 
engine indicator for use at high speeds should i)os- 
sess the following qualifications :- 

al weigiit of all moving parts reduced to an 
alisolutc minimum. 

b) motion of all parts restricted as imich as 
jiossible. 

c) all possilile frictional forces eliniinated. 

d) no heavy paper drum should be used. 

e) any long cord or rod for transmitting the 
jihase motion to tlie indicator should be eliminated 

In addition to these (lualifications, it is desir- 
able that the iiistrnnieiit sliould have the f<dowing 
details: — 

ft small total volume inside tlie instrument 
itself, to avoid increasing the engine clearance. 

g) parts exposed to the hot gases designed to 
avoid corrosion or alteration. 

hi t lie spring (whether helical, diaphragm, or 
liar) should be protected from tlie liot gases, and 
designed so as not to change calibration when heated. 

i) provision for cooling the body of tlie instru- 
ment. 

j) provision for connecting direct to I lie engine 
cylinder, with no intervening pipe or tubes. 

k) convenient and accurate means of trans- 
mitting the phase motion of the engine piston to the 
indicator, and l-crpiiif/ the iiisfriniiciit in phase at 
all speeds. 

The greatest source of error in all indicators 
is file inertia effect, which prevents tlie instruments 
from following a rapid change of ])ressure. To de- 
termine whether an indicator witli a given period of 
vibration will correctly follow a variation of pres- 
sure occuring in a given time, we have recourse to 
the dynamical equations involved in the motion of 
the parts of the instrument. For a more detailed 



72 



Tiiio TKciiN«»(;i:Arii 



■fainiary, 1921 



(liscMissioii ret'erciicc Mi:iy lie iii.hIi" to •■Tlu> Iiitornnl 
(^)nlllustinll Kiij^iiie" liv II. Iv Wiiiiiicris. A <;oiu'ral 
tlirtViviitial filiation t'<ii' ilic mot ion of the |i:irls of 
a piston indicator is ilicrc (iciivcd. 

ir we let X represent tiie ilistanee tlic |iision 
lias nio\cil npwards from its zero position: t lli"' 
time; a the piston area: and s^ the motion of the 
piston for one pound per sijuare inch presstire and 
assume that the pressure actually rises from zero 
to a value given by a/n in a time of 1/n seconds, 
then 

d-'x a a 

dt'- s^m m 

whcic Ml is tlie mass of the pisloii and recipiocatinji 
parts. Let h be the height to which the piston 
would rise under a slow ap|)lication of the pressure 
al/ii. Then, after integration and simplification 

1 



h 



1 — sill L'"!'! 

I'Tft 



where f is the natural freipU'iicy of vibration of tlie 
indicator. If x/h is less than 1, the indicator is 
lagging behind the pressure. If x/h is greater than 
1, the indicator has pas.sed the true pressure, and is 
going ahead. The maximum lag or lead is evidently 
1 



By determining the natural frecpiencv of the indi- 
cator, we are thus able to ascertain whether or not 
the in.structor will correctly follow a rise of pres- 
sure taking place in any given time. Thus if f = 
;{()0 as in the Hopkinson indicator, we find that for 
an explosion taking place in 0.001 sec, x/h = 0.5. 
and the instrument is considerably behind the true 
pressure. For an explosion taking place in 0.01 sec, 
however, the ratio x/h becomes nearly unity, and 
the instrument is capable of correctly indicating 
such explosions. 

This method of caiciilat ion, witli sonic niodilica- 
tions can be ajipiied to diaiiliragm indicators, as 
well as the piston type instruments. 

Some of the standard types of internal coiiihiis- 
tion engine indicators will now lie desciilicd, witli 
some discussion of their adai>tability. 

1. 'I'hrJIopkhisoii Indicator. This instriiineiit 
was designed by the late Prof. Hopkinson of ("ani- 
bridge I'niversity; Although it is of the piston type, 
on account of the stiff sjiring and the small motion 
of the reciprocating jiarts, it is adaptable to engines 
running at (juite high speeds. 

The "sj)ring'" is a flat beam of steel il> in 
Fig 1). The piston works against this s]iriiig, ami 



the motion is (•ommnnicatcd to a rocking mirror M. 
The i-eciprocating motion of ijic engine jiiston is 
transferreil lo the diagiani liy rotating the whole 
upper body of I he iiidicaloi-. iiiciiiding the spring, 
piston, and niirior. Suitable linkages connect the 
indicator willi a reciprocating part of the engine 
foi- this |ini|iose. A beam of light, from a point 
source ( nsnally an arc light) is focussed on the 
mirror M and from there reflected to a ground glass 
screen for observing the diagram as the engine runs. 
The sci-een may be replaced by a small camera for 
taking diagrams on photographic paper. The motion 
of the mirror in one plane, under control of the 
piston, and the oscillating motion of the whole in- 
strument is a place at right angles to the first, com- 
bine to produce the ordinary pressure-volume dia- 




Fig. 1. Tlie Hopkinson Indicator 

The instrument is easy to calibrate, and the 
sjiring, being otit of contact with the hot gages, is 
not liable to charge its elastic properties. The in- 
stinment has several disadvantages, however. The 
heavy piston increases the inertia effects. Leakage 
is apt to occur around the piston, and at the rota- 
ting joint in the body of the indicator. Considerable 
friction is cau.sed by the piston rubbing the cylinder 
walls, and also by the joints of the mirror supjiort. 
The linkages giving the phase motion of the engine 
])iston are liable to bend, or otherwise distort, throw- 
ing the instrument out of ]ihase, and rendering the 
diagram worthless. This is a common fanlh of 
nearly all optical indicators. However, this iiistrn- 
iiieiit gives very good results for speeds not higher 
iliaii 7(1(1 r. p. in., above which the inertia effects 
are more .st-rions. In an improved form, a diaphragm 



Jim 1(11 ri/. 1921 



THE TECHNOGKAPH 



takes tln' place of the iiislim ami sprinsi-. 

2. The Hospitalicr-Vhiirpcntirr Maiiof/raiih. 
This instrument is of the diaphragm type, and is 
much like the Hopkinson, except with regard to the 
mirror arrangements. A single spherical mirror is 
used, resting on three points A, B, and C The 
point A is fixed ; point B is connected by a short 
rod to the diaphragm, giving the pressure indica- 
tions; and point f is given a partial rotation or 
oscillation, p7-oportional to the motion of the engine 
piston, communicated by long rods with universal 
joints. The points A, B, and C are so arranged that 
the lines CA and BA for a right angle, thus giving 
the P-V diagram on rectangular coordinates. The 
other optical arrangements are much tlie same as in 
the Hojikinson indicator. Connection to the engine 
cylinder is made by a tube about 100 cm. long, and 
5 mm bore. This indicator is rather unsatisfactory 
for a numl)er of reasons. ''Bore'' waves originate in 
the small connecting tube, which distort the dia- 
gram. The phase gear, with the small rod connec- 
tions and universal joints, is deflected torsionally, 
and as the deflections vary widely with the speed, 
it is almost impossible to keep the instrument in 
phase with the engine. It is found that the pressure 
and phase motions of the single mirror, which should 
be separate and distinct, affect one another, and 
give rise to erroneous pressure indications. Further- 
more, the diaphragm, in this particular design, evi 
dently cannot be clamped tightly enough, as tlie 
calibration varies considerably from time to time. 

:?. The Watson fiidieator. This instrument is 
probably the best of the oi)tical indicators, Tt greatly 
resembles the Hojikinson indicator in its optical 
arrangements. A silvered corrugated diaphragm T) 
is clamjied in tlie body of the indicator, and a siii.ill 
rod R communicates the pressure indications of the 
diaphram to the small pivoted beam ab on which 
the mirror M is fastened (See Fig. 2.). A .second 
mirror, X, is o-scillated by a phase motion, connected 
with the engine, in a plane perpendicular to the 
plane of motion of the mirror M. The two mirrors 
are entirely sejiarate, and thus the complex effects 
of a single mirror witli two motions (as in the Mano- 
graph) are eliminated. A very ingenious phase 
gear, readily and accurately adjustable, Ls inter- 
posed between the instrument and the engine. Water 
cooling space is provided above the diaphragm. 

The Watson indicator has several other advan- 
tages in addition tu those ('nnnicrat('<l aliove. 
namely : — 

a) straight line calibration. 

b) small clearance. 

c) short connecting tube to the engine cylinder. 

d) convenient arrangements for taking plioto- 
graphic cards. 



4. The Midf/fh/ I iidicittur. Tliis indicator is 
somewhat similar to Hopkinson's, in that a piston is 
employed. A helical spring, situated as in the ordi- 
nary "inside spring"' indicator, controls the motion 
of the piston. A mirror, actuated by a linkage from 
the piston, reflects the recording beam of light, giv- 
ing the pressure indications. A hexagonal prism, 
with the faces composed of plane mirrors, receives 
the beam of light, and is oscillated or revolved, ac- 
cording to whether a pressure- volume or pressure- 
time card is desired. The phase motion of the pres- 
sure volume cards is secured by a long wire connect- 
ing tlie instrument with the engine. This arrange- 
ment is, of cour.se, subject to all the criticisms of 
the ordinary card and drum motion. The piston and 
its attendant linlcage is heavj-, and it is probable that 
the inertia effect is very pronounced. No data on 
tiie actual fretpiency of vibration of the instrument 
is available, hence no calculations can be made as 
to its ability to follow any given pressure variation. 
Its principal advantages are its convenience and 
portability, and the ease with which i1 may lie at- 
tached to any engine. 



W^ 




Watson Indicator 



u. The Petavel Indicator. This instrument re- 
sembles the Hopkinson in all details except the con- 
struction of the piston and spring. The spring is 
siniiily a tube of steel, closed at one end, and so ar- 
ranged that tiie pressure of the explosion in the 
engine cylinder loads it longitudinally. The motion 
of the closed end of tlie tube, which takes the place 
'■>{ the piston is communicated to the usual plane 
iiiiiTdr by a suitable linkage. As such a spring is 
\eiy stilf. it is evident that a high multiplication 



74 



TlllO TK(lHN()(iI{AI'lI 



Jan liar !J, 1921 



ratio is necessary let secure a reasonable (leriec(ii>ii 
of the beam of U'^Ui. Since there is no heavy piston, 
«ilh its :iitcii(l:ini friction and leakafje, and as tlic 
nidtiuii of the parts is very slight, it is certain that 
file instrument would follow the most rapid pressure 
variations. This indicatoi' has not been widely adni)t 
eil for iiitcriiMJ cond)Usli()n engine work, being used 
mostly for researches on varions S(did ex|>losives, 
but with some modifications of design from the ori 
ginal i)affern employed by I'etavel, it could be made 
iiit<i .'111 cxlicmcly (■onveniciit and accurate gas en- 
gine indicator. 

(i. Till Mml( r M irin-l iiiUciiliir. This instrument 
is merely an oidiuary steam engine tyiH' indicator 
in nuniafure form, with a very stiff lielical spring. 
The diagrams ai-e traced on smoked glass and nnist 
then be enlarged, as their total lengtli is originally 
only about 5 mm. The instrument is not accurate, 
as the lines traceil arc relatively thick in compari- 
son with the size of the diagrams. The instrument 
has the further disadvantage that the diagrams can- 
not be observed while the engine is running. The 
makers, of course, have resorted to this plan in order 
to restrict the motion of the parts as much as possi- 
ble, and in order that liie indicator will follow the 
rajiid \ariations of pressure. 

7. 'I'll! liiinini of Shniihinls I iiiUcdtnr. This 
instrument, made by the American Instrument Com- 
pany, is radically different in its design and opera 
tiou from any one of the iibove-described. A cross 
section of the indicator itself is shown in Fig. IJ. 

The diaphragm I) is clamped between two per- 
forated grids G, which allow it a motion of only 
0.00") inch in either direction. On the upper side is 
placed an electrical contact C, which is set at about 
0.004 inch, from the dia])liragm. A source of current, 
a set of telejihone receivei-s, and a contactor, (to 
be described later) is connected in series with the 
body of the instrument and this contact. A sonrco 
of high pressure air is connected, throngh suitable 
valves and acc(>m|)anied by ordinary pressure gages, 
to the part of the indicator above the diaphragm. 
The above mentioned "contactor" is a timing de- 
vice, clamped to the main engine shaft or lay shaft, 
and which makes an electrical contact at a ceitain 
jioiMl of the i-evolntion of the engine crank, which 
may lie set as desired. If the dia])hragm is deflected 
npwards li\ the jjressnre in the engine cylinder so 
as to touch the contact C at the time the contactor 
closes the circnil, a sliar]) click will be heai-d in tin' 
telephone receivers. The pressure in the clnnuber 
above the dia])hragm is then increased, by admitting 
high pre.ssure air, \intil the clicks cease. The pres- 
sures on both sides of the diaphragm are then e(pial 
(at the instant the revolving timer makes contact i 
;ind by reading the pressure gage attached to the 



air line, the actmil pressure at that jiartictdar part 
of the stroke is deternuned. The timer is then moved 

ar 1 .") or 10 degrees and (lie process j'epeated. The 

oidinaiy i)ressu7-e-volume indicator card is then jdot- 
led from the data obtained as alioxc. 

It is obvious, thiit while the instrument is 
handicap])ed in that the cards cannot be directly 
observed while the engine is rnnning, the advantage 
of being able to study any particular region of the 
cNcle as closely as desired by taking ])oints very 
closed together far offsets this disadvantage. The 
pi'cssnre gages are fairly constant, and can be call 
brated at any time by dead weight testers, without 
"disturbing the indicator itself. The dia])hragni, as 
it nu)ves very slightl.v, is able to follow the pressure 
variations easily and accurately. No complicated 
and unreliable phase motion is necessary, as the 
electrical timer guarantees absolute certainty as to 
the position of the jjiston at the time the pressure 
reading taken. y<^^ 




Bureau of Standards Indicator 



All in all, this instrument is probtibly the best 
adapted to rigorous (piiintittitive investiga1i(Ui of ttny 
heretofore described. 

In concltision, if may be said that there are a 
nund)er of other indicators constructed along the 
same lines as those described iibove, and each one 
undonlitedly possesses sonu' good features. The in- 
struments hei-e describeil, however, are fairly repre- 
sentative of all attempts to constrnct a good internal 
cond)tistion engine imlictitor. 



.hi)} liar }i, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



John Augustus Ockerson 



V. Jl. WuKniT. 111. ('. 'I'l 



•Toliu Aiij;iisitu.s Ockei-soii was borii in Skaiic, 
Sweden, JIarch 4, 1S4S. In 1851 both his parents 
(lied, witliiu a few days of each other, and the young 
.Tolui was bronglit to America. Coining to this conn- 
try at such an early age he fused the more readily 
in the Melting I'ot and soon became typically Ameri- 
can which meant more then than it does now — in all 
fundamental characteristics. He soon changed his 
original name of Akerson to its American equivalent, 
Ockerson, and served in the lo2nd Illinois Infantry 
and 1st Minnesota artillery during tlie Inst two years 
of the Civil War. If you are unusually clever at 
uiatliematics you may be able to tigurc (Hit jusi h(i\v 
old he was. 

After being in the milling business in Minnesota 
lidui 18(1") to 18(>8, young Ockerson moved out east 
lo Illinois, graduated from the high school at Elm- 
wood and matriculated in the University of Illinois 
from which he graduated in Civil Engineering in 
187;?. He was active in school affairs, being presi- 
dent of the Adelphic Society and president of the 
College (Sovernment — student Soviets, in those days- 
The University conferred n|)on him the title of C. 
E. and in IDO:! ma<le him a Doctor of Engineering. 
He is a member of Tan Beta I'i. 

Leaving college, his first engineering job was as 
a transitnuui for the Santa Fe Railway, after which 
he become an Assistant Engineer with the U. S. Lake 
Survey. In 1876 came his first connection with the 
work that has taken the greater part of his life and 
which will always stand as his monument — the sub- 
jugation of the Mississii)iii River — when he was made 
an assistant engineer u])on tlie Eads jetties under 
the Mississippi River Commission. After several 
years of this, he became Engineer and Manager of 
the Silver Age JMining Company, but was called 
back to work on the Mississip])i by an appointment 
as Principal Assistant Engineer for the Commis- 
sion after a successful experience in the mining 
game. By ai)pointment of the President of the Unit- 
ed States, Ockerson in 1898 became a member of the 
[\iver Conniiission, under which he had been solving 
]iroblems and accpiiring experience for twenty years. 
He has filled this position with distinction for many 
years, and although distracted by presnre of other 
work continues to give the larger ])ai't of his tliouglil 
and time to the Mississi|ipi and lis \agaii<'s. In 
1!)I() Ockerson was jdaced in cliarge of tlic work on 
the Ciilorado Kivcr and ihis now uccuiiies the time 



that can he s))ared from the Mississippi. 

In 1880 he liecame a member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, of which he has been 
President and Vice-President. Inl !)()(), he was sent 
by the United States as delegate to the International 
Congress of Merchant Marine in Paris, and he was 
on the Jury of Awards at the Paris Exposition in 
that year. He was Chief of the Department of Lib- 
eral Arts at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 
St. Louis from 1902 to 1905, mend)er of the Supei-- 
ior Jury of Awards, and Resident Commissioner for 
Sweden in 190:!. He was delegate from the United 




States to the International" Congress of Navigation 
at Milan, Italy in 1905, and at Petrograd in 1908. He 
has received weiglitj' honors and decorations from 
Belgium, France Italy, Sweden, China and (Jermany 
which may mean anything or nothing. His publica- 
tions include, beside official reports, many pa])ers 
to the Engineering Journal, the Transactions of the 
American Society of C'ivil Engineers, the lounial of 
the Associated I'^ngineering Societies, t-ic. 

A\'lieii a man is \\\\ against a real problem 
like the Jlississippi J{iver, he has little time to de 
(Concluded on Page 90) 



76 



THE TKCHXOCKAl'U 



Jouuary, 1921 



Skip Loading in an Arizona Copper Mine 



WaI.I.ACK. III. 



I''i(iiii llic liiMiliiij; stations, at the various work- 
ing levels of the iiiiiie, two skips carrv the ore to the 
single unloading station at the surface. The skips 
operate in balance; i.e. while one is going up loaded 
the other is going down empty. With this arrange- 
ment the power requirc<l hy tlic hoist is only that 
necessary to life the oic ami to ovcrconic iiiaciiiiiery 
friction. 

Two adjacent shaft coinpartincnts are proviiled 
for the skips for the full depth of the mine. Jiast 
below the various levels these open to receive the 
ore from the ore pockets. 

The ore pockets are chamliers blasted out of the 
solid rock for ore storage. The ore is brought from 
the stopes in trains of tram cars hauled by electric 
locomotives and dumped into the ore pockets. 

From the ore pockets the ore is led by gravity 
on a 60" slope through the loading equipment to the 
skips. A single ore pocket supplies ore for loading 
the skips at each level. The loading machinery, how- 
ever, is arranged in duplicate iudepeiident units. 

Each loading unit consists of two gates with a 
measuring bin between them. The gates are operated 
by compressed air in jjivoted double acting cylinders. 
The long piston rods connect directly to the gates. 
The gates swing on solid shafts which are supported 
in adjustable pillow block bearings. The upper gate 
has cast iron sides and a curved steel plate bottom. 
The lower gate has cast iron sides and a flat plate 
and structural steel bottom. 

The measuring bin is 2 ft. G in. wide, built of 
steel plate and structural shapes, and lined with re- 
newable steel plate liners. The bin is hung on heavy 
structural shapes — 15 incli l"s. 

The upper gate (see illustration) opens by 
swinging down and back; the lower gate opens by 
swinging u]) and forwai'd. 

With the lower gate closed and tlic iipixT opened 
the ore flow^s from the ore pocket into tlie measuring 
bin. The upper gate is then closed, cutting through 
the ore as it closes. Now with the skip properly lo- 
cated and the lower gate opened the measured ore 
I'uslics into the skip. The closing of the lower gate 
and the opening of the upper gate refills the bin, 
and witli tlie closing of the ujijier gate all is ready 
for the ne.xt charge of the skip. 

The time recpiired for a cycle of the (>])erati(Mis 
is scarcely twenty seconds and one attendant takes 
care of the units alternately. Most of the time ic 
quired is for hoisting, especially when hoisting from 
1lie lower levels. 



In the designs, installation and operation of 
equipment of this kind, very often the only pi-eced- 
ent is the e.vperience of the men in charge of the 
work — men who are familiar with the other phases 
of ore handling and other installations for ore load- 
ing. 

\\'hile planning the design the items which fol- 
low were kept well in mind ; the construction, steel 
and concrete; the forms for the concrete, simple and 
plain as possible; no anchor bolts set in the forms; 
carry bins on steel members; emplace steel members 
in pockets or on shelves of the concrete walls, after 
forms are removed; support all machinery directly 
on the steel; all parts of bins, spouts and machinery, 
accessible and easily renewable; make the gates un- 
usually strong and simple as possible. 

The lower gate received special attention to 
meet the severe conditions imposed upon it. The air 
cylinders actuate the gates quickly. Thus when the 
upper gate opens seven tons of ore drop ten feet upon 
the lower gate. 

Some of the requirements are as follows : 

1. Gate actuated from one side only — no room for 

bridle. 

2. Solid gate shaft hung on steel of bin. 

3. Sides of gate cast iron, keyed to shaft. 

4. Bottom of gate, built of structural shapes and 
padded with hard wood.- 

5. No bolts or rivets of gate to be stressed by the 
impact of ore. 

6. Gate must not pinch, but move away from the 

ore while opening. 

7. Gate must rest on a seat, and not hang on gate 

shaft when impact takels place. 

8. Gate must take and leave seat without binding. 
Most of these items are apparent in the illustra- 
tion and small sketches. Item (4) is shown by 
sketch; item (5) is secured by shaping a hook on 
the gate side; item (6) is obtained by placing the 
gate bottom on the line AB so that a perpendicular 
let fall from the shaft center C upon AB falls on the 
opening side of the gate at B; item (7) is obtained 
by casting a lip on the gate side which will rest on 
a seat, when the gate is closed, which is supported 
on the nuiin steel franung (see small sketch) ; item 
(8) is secured by the same principle as item (6). 
When the gate is closed, the lip on the gate and the 
supporting seat are together and are shown in the 
illustration by the line AD. The line AD receives 
a perpendicular let fall from V, on the closing side 
of the gate at A. The actual lip and seat do not 
extend to the foot of this perpendicular. If they 
did. |iincliing could take place. 

The loading station described may be seen in 
o|iei-;ition liy anyone visiting the mine. 



.Tanuanj, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



77 



S/f/F LOADING STATION 




CR055 SECTION OF 
LOWER &A TE BOTTOM 



THE TECHNOCKArn 



January, 192t 



Keokuk Water Power Development 



Ai.Mox W. JIiNDs, v. e. '21. 



Betwt't'ii -Aloiitrosc and KcnkiiU, l(>\v;i, a (lis 
tauce of 25 miles, the .Mississiinti Hivei- has a fall 
of about 23 feet, and forms the JJes Moines Kapids. 
As long ago as 1S4S a comijany was formed for the 
purpose of installing a water-power plant at the foot 
of these rai)ids. However, no success was Iiad by the 
early company. In July, 1899, some citizens of Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, and Hamilton, Illinois, formed a company 
with capital stock of •'S2,r)00. In 1901 this company 
obtained from Congress the right to build a dam and 
jKiwer canal on the east side of the rapids. This 
dam was to extend out into the river only about 
500 feet. A survey of the ground was made with a 
wing dam in view. The engineer making the survey 
reported to the coiiipany that the plan was inadvis- 
able, but recomnu'uded that a dam be built clear 
across the river. The company decided to adopt this 
recommendation, and l»y application to Congress the 
Keokuk and Hamilton ^^'ater I'ower Company was 
granted permission t<» build a dam, provided they 
re-placed the old ship canal, wliicii the dam would 
make unlit for use, by a new canal to j)ass naviga- 
tion, and also provided tiiere be built a drv' dock 
where boats could be repaired. These conditions 
were agreed to and in 1907 the company secured the 
services of Hugh L. Coitper to take charge of the 
entire work of financing and managing the construc- 
tion of the dam and power plant. 

Hugh 1j. Cooper was exceptionally well litted 
to take charge of this huge undertaking. He is a 
hydraulic engineer with practical experience in 
handling the engineering side of nuiny large water- 
power developments both in the United States and 
in Mexico and South Amei'ica. As a boy he showed 
decided interest in the operation of his father's 
water-wheel null in Minnesota, and ever since then 
he has been connected with water-power projects. 
Besides being an engineer Mr. trooper showed great 
ability as a promoter of the financial end of the 
Keokuk development. In securing the backing of 
ca])italists he showed persistence little less than 
marvelous. Fifty-eight capitalists showeil liini the 
door before he could find one that would back him 
in this project. The entire plan for the construction 
of tlie dam and power-plant would liavc fallen 
through at several different times, if ("oDpcr had noi 
personally been so interested in it. and if he IkhI imt 
have been so conlident that it ((nihl he put tliioiii;li 
lu-olitably. Of the cajiital tinally secured (i5' , was 



from I'^ugland, France, Canada, and Helginiu, and 
the remaining ',>T)[i from the United States. 

The stone and Web.ster Construction Company, 
Boston, Mass., furnished a large part of the actual 
money necessary to start construction work. This 
start was nnide in .lanuary, 1910. ami work went 
on continuously until the whole ]ilanl was com- 
jjleted. The ])lan of the work is shown in Fig. 1. 

SPILLWAY DAM 

The dam proper is 1278 feet long. The first step 
in the construction of the dam was to build a coffer 
dam from the east shore to about the middle of the 
river. This coffer dam enclosed an area of about 15 
acres. It was made by sinking cribs about 12 feet 
scpiare, 10 or 12 feet apart. The cribs were built of 
10 in. by 12 in. timbers drift bolted together. Due 
of tlie interesting features of the coffer dam construc- 
tion was the method of determining the shape which 
the bottom of the crib should have in order to make 
it tit the bed rock. The method was as follows : A 
raft about twelve feet square was floated to the 
spot where the crib was to be sunk, and soundings 
were taken from its four corners. The bottom part of 
the crib was then constructed on shore to conform 
to the irregularities found by the soundings, and 
was then floated to its location in the coffer dam. 
The crib was then com])leted, filled with loose stone, 
and stmk into position. The space between the cribs 
were closed by vertical sheeting fastened to heavy 
timbers which were placed between the cribs hori- 
zontally. Finally the cofferdam was sealed by dum})- 
ing earth and stone along the outside against the 
sheeting. By means of an IS iu. (cutrifngal pump 
working steadily for sixty hours all the water in 
the eiclosed area was pumped out. After the water 
wa.s jjiimped out, ]iractically no water got thru the 
coff'er dam. 

After the water had been pumped from within 
the coffer dam a concrete arch-viaduct was built out 
from the east bank of the river. Steel forms with 
interchangeable parts were u.sed. While this work 
was l)eiug done from the east side of the river, coffer 
daiu construction was going on from the west side 
so that ffnally a concrete viaduct consisting of 119 
a relics spanned the rivei-. The siniu (»f each of these 
arches was 30 feet, an deach rested on piers six 
feet thick. The top of the viaduct was 29 feet wide 
and 25 feet above bed rock. Bed rock was of good 



JdiiKari/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGEAPH 



quality limestone whk-li fiu-iiislied almost an ideal 
foiiiulation for the heavy load put upon it. 

After the viaduct was completed, a spillway 
was built by putting a dam across the front of these 
arches. The height of the water above the top of 
the sj)illway can be controlled by means of steel 
gates wliich can be raised or lowered in front of the 
arch opening by means of cranes which run ou a 
trade laid on the top of the viaduct. This track was 
laid as the dam was being built and carried travel- 
ing cranes and hoists which materially faciliated 
construction. A dam 4278 feet long was formed hav- 
ing a spillway length of o570 feet. 

rOWEK HOUSE 

The power house is located at the west end of 
the dam. It is 120 feet wide and extends down the 
river a distance of 1700 feet. Provision has been 
made in the power house for thirty generators. How- 
ever, up to the present time only enough power has 
been sold to re(pure the use of ten or twelve tur- 
bines, so only about one half of the number of tur- 
bines provided for have been installed. These tur- 
bines ore of the single-runner vertical-shaft type. Tlie 
diameter of the turbine wheels is thirty-one feet. The 
large diameter is necessary because of the large out- 
put recpiired and the low head obtainable. The head 
varies from 29 to 39 feet, the usual head maintained 
being about 32 feet. The scroll chamber, or conduit 
delivering the water to the turbines, is forty feet in 
diameter and molded in concrete. At a speed of r)8 
RPM the turbines geiu^rate 7200 K. W. each. 

LOCK 

Along the west side of the power house is the 
lock for passing boats from the upper side of the 
dam to the lower. The lock is notable for its size, 
being 100 feet long and 110 feet wide, and has a 
single lift of 40 feet. The depth of this lock from the 
top of the walls to the floor is r)2 feet. To build the 
lock the area to be occupied was inclosed by a coffer 
dam and the water pumped out. The oulj- work nec- 
essary ou the floor of the lock was to level off the 
limestone surface. The walls of the lock are concrete 
monoliths, 608 feet in lengtii and thirty feet wide at 
the base. At the upstream end of the canal a speci- 
ally designed type of lift gate was installed, and at 
the lower end the usual type of mitered swing gates 
was u.sed. The lift gate work.s by means of tanks 
filled with compressed air, these tanks moving in 
guides in the walls of the lock. The gates, the lock 
valves, and the pumps are controlled from a bridge 
ou the wall of the lock somewhat like an interlock- 
ing tower. These controls are all interlocking. Elec- 
tric indicators show at all times the positions of 



the valves, gates, and turntal)les which oiierate tlie 
miter gates. 

DKYDOCK 

Between the west wall of the canal lock and the 
west bank of the river, the di'y dock is located. The 
dry dock is formed by the west wall of the canal 
lock, bj' a heavy concrete wall closing its lower end, 
reaching from the canal wall over to the west bank 
of the river, by the bank of the river paved with con- 
crete along the leugth of the dry dock, and by the 
wall with mitered gates in it across the upper end. 
This dock is 130 feet long, 140 feet wide on the 
floor, and has a depth of 1!) feet below the top of 
the wall. A forebay about 500 feet wide and a half 
mile long is formed above the lock and dry dock by 
a concrete sea-wall which is built from the west 
bank of the river. This sea-wall, or ice-fender, as it 
is called also, is 2000 feet long, and has an opening 
through it to allow boats to enter the forebay in 
order to get into the dry dock or lock. This opening 
is closed during the time of ice in the river iiy float- 
ing a timber boom across it. 

The foregoing has co\ered in a general way the 
construction of the dam, power-house, etc., however 
there is oue other featui-e which shoidd be mentioned, 
the labor factor of the construction work. The jobs 
on the work calling for special skill, were nearly all 
tilled by American workmen ; and nearly all the jobs 
re(piiring unskilled labor were tilled by foreigners. 
The reason given for employing the foreign element 
was that it did not become dissatisfied so quickly 
with the rather disagreeable nature of the work, and 
that it did not come on the job drunk as often as 
American labor of the same class would do. Speed 
in construction was greatly desired, and in order to 
keep tlie laborers going at top speed tasks were 
separated as much as possible, and the bonus system 
inaugurated. It was found that this bonus system 
secured as good results as could be hoped for. 

The work w-as completed on 3Iay 31, 1013, and 
tlie formal opening of the plant tt)ok place in Aug- 
ust of that year. 

The plant is capable of developing 300,000 H P, 
but as stated before it is running at only about one 
half capacity at the present time. A 110,000-voit 
transmission line was built to St. Louis, Missouri 
a distance of 111 mih's, two circuits being carried 
ou steel towers. Tlic length of span of tlie line be- 
tween the towers is 800 feet. 

At Niagra Falls i)ower is sold at about f 13.00 
per liorsepower, and tlie contracts cover a long jier- 
iod of years, usually 99 years. It cau be seen that 
conti-acts made ten years ago when prices of labor 
and material were comparatively low, do not yield 
(Concluded on Page 90) 



so THIC TECHNOORAPH January, 1921 



EDITORIAL 



DEPARTMENTAL SOCIETIES 

After a most promising; slart at the begiuning of the year, the activities of the various 
(lepartiueiital organizations liave slowed up to an alarming degree, and in some cases have 
stoi)ped altogether. Of course tliere are one or two exceptions, where live programs have 
been given, but even then the attendance has been very poor. Something must be done at 
oiuc to stir up intei-est in tliese organizations so that students will have a connnon meeting 
ground to discuss the problems of their profession and to become better acquainted with each 
other. 

It has been the custom for most of the organizations to meet every fortnight. The press 
of studies and the great number of other meetings and lectures, has no doubt been one cause 
for the poor attendance and lack of interest. At one time it was suggested that all the depart- 
mental societies should be combined into one central organization of the whole engineering 
college. It was claimed that a better esprit de corps among engineering students would re- 
sult and that association of different engineers would broaden students. Since that time 
the American Association of Engineers embracing all departments has been established in 
addition to the older departmental societies, but since it is independent of them, it often con- 
flicts with the dates of other meetings. 

The student engineering council should investigate tliis problem and devise, some sure lire 
method of maintaining student interest iu these activities. It is suggested that the depart- 
mental societies meet only once a month, and at some other time in the month a combined 
meeting of all the societies be held. Highly technical subjects could be discussed at the de- 
partmental meeting, while subjects of a general nature and tallvs by professional men coidd 
be given at the coud)ined meeting. In this way the advantages of both the snuiller depart- 
mental society, could be condjined with the fine esprit de corps that would result from the 
larger organization. Perhaps the A. A. E. can assume tlie function of a unifying organiza- 
tions witli some cliange iu its constitution. At any rate the departmental organizations nuist 
he made to can-y <)n the good woi-k that lias made tlicm historic at Illinois. 

THE HONOR SYSTEM AND THE HONOR FRATERNITY 

The hiniDiaiy fraternity should be and is synonomous with hcuior in scholastic achieve- 
ments and ia collegia activities. The responsibility to uphold and work for the honor system 
of examinations rests upon the members of the engineering fraternities to a greater degree 
than otlier students. The high ideals of the engineering profession can admit of nothing but 
the most scrupuh)us honesty iu examinations, and those who have been pledged to those ideals 
iiiiisi work to make tlie honor system one of the finest traditions of Illinois. 

.\ niiglity line mi'lhod. by means of wliieh the lionorary engineering frateiaiity can work 
I'oi- I hi- lionor system, lias been initiated by Beta (lannna Signui, the conunerce fraternity. It 
is no attempt to act as a police organization, but whenever a member sees what appears to be 
cheating, he is jiledged to rise in the class and announce that as a member of Beta Gamma 
Sigma it is his duty to announce that someone is giving the appearance of cheating, ami that 
unless it ceases at once he shall be forced to report the matter to the honor commission. This 
is a movement that will ajjpeal to every well wisher of the honor system and one that is per- 
fectly in accord with its principle. It is hoped that the engineering fraternities will be eager 
to ado])t this, or a better method to be of service to Illinois by helping undergraduates to 
sqmire tln'ir actions with tlieii' ideals. 



Januari), 1921 THE TECHNOGRAFH 81 

THE LABOR FIGHT 

At a time when a hitter nation-wide finlit for tlie open shop is just startinj;'. tlie article 
"Tlie Engineer and the Lahor I'rohlem", printed on another page, is most timely. It is typi- 
cal of the general attitnde of engineers towards this prol)lem, and of the editorials that ap- 
pear from time to time in the trade jonrnals. The same platitudes, "a series of compromises" 
between labor and cai)ital, "improved working conditions", "fairness is the watchword", are 
given as a solution of the labor prol)leni. This is as far from a scientific analysis as an en- 
gineer should ever get, even on a uon-teclmical subject. 

The Tinions t<tday are facing a struggle for existence, for w'ith the event of the universal 
open shop, collective bargaining, would cease and with it necessity for unions. The associated 
manufacturers are attempting to put labor back to the place it held prior to the war. They 
pay no heed to the fact that labor has become cognizant of its power, and that wliile revolu- 
tion stalks in Italy, France and England, oppression of any sort is likely to add to the ranks 
of radicals here. 

Collective bargaining on the other hand presupposes that the interests of labor and cap- 
ital are diametrically op]»osite. This is not necessarily true because only through the coop- 
eration of both are profits in industi-y possible. 

The solution of the labor problem demands something more fundamental than mere com- 
promise and the existing system. We have tried that for seventy five years. Some method of 
getting capital and labor to cooperate completely must be found. The most promising experi- 
ment is cooperation in ownership and management as practiced by Proctor & (Jamble (^o., or 
some method similar to the Plumb ])lan of railroad operation. 



INSPECTION TRIPS 

The general concensus of the senior engineers shows that they consider the inspection 
trip well worth while. And if the trips are valuable to seniors why would they not be just 
as valuable to freshmen, soi)liomores, and juniors? During the first two j'ears a student gets 
very little practical work in his course, and as a result many students drop engineering be- 
cause they cannot see the practical applicaticm of the theories that they study. A trip 
through a steel mill or a mine at the end of the freslunan year, where the student could see 
the blast fnriuice that he had studied in chemistry, and the other ajiplications of engineering, 
would probably do more to stimulate his interest in engineei-iug and Ins iinaginative faculty 
than most of the freshnuui engineering lectures. 



THE GENERAL ENGINEERING COURSE 

The engineer of today is being called upon in all walks of life. Industry has called up 
on him for reorganization of its chaotic conditions; financiers look to him for expert advice 
on the advisability of investments in large engineering projects; and uuinufacturers re(iuire 
him to investigate the defects in their organization from the workers up to the selling and 
executive departments. He is no longer merely a designer, but rather an in\csiigator and 
advisor. Because of this the 7'/:^r//,VOrr/?.4P7/ endor.ses the i)roposal of introducing, next 
fall, a new course under the name of (ieneral Engineering. 

The curriculum of studies in the lirst two years will not be materially altered from most 
of the present engineering courses, the only changes being the substitution of economics for 
foreign languages and the elimination of all shop work with the exception of the foundry 
and one semester of machine shop. In the junior and senior year the student will get courses 
in grajdiic statics, direct and alternating current, thermodynamics, steam engineering, two 
years of a language or non-technical electives and two years of economics. This gives the 
student a total of three years of economics which will sui'cly be a valuable asset to him re- 
gardless of whether he goes into the ex]iorting. iiiannracturing, or construction business. 



82 



THE TECHNOGKArn 



■J a» liar I), W21 



Slag Brick Manufacture 



l>. 1>. liUEKDl.OVE, III. e. "14- 



Tlu' iiiMiiiiractuic k( hiick is one i>( tlic (ildcst 
and !ars;«'>it iiidiislrics nl' ilic initcd Slatos. Dining 
tlie past two years tlio iialicm lias licen consnniing 
about liOO.OOO.OOO Imilding lirick of tlic various 
flassiiications each working day. Most of liiis con- 
suiniititiH is witliin the metropolitan districts wliic-h 
have Ix'cn iiiitii recently amply supi)lied l)y manu- 
facturers located within those districts. The demand 
for larger production and the exhaustion of clay de- 
posits in the city districts ha.s forced a large numhev 
of the clay brick plants to seek new deposits usually 
at some railroad distance. The increasing cost of 
brick burning, the increase of labor expense and the 
longer transj)()rtation has handicapped the clay brick 
industry. The large increase in the number of plants 
producing sand lime brick, since their introduction 
into this country about 1897, has effected the market 
for clay brick. The manufacturing costs of saml 
lime brick are lower, while at the same time sand is 
easier to obtain in the city districts i)rincipally in 
the form recovered .sands from streams. The ideal 
economic conditions for the manufacture of brick 
involve the utilization of the cheapest form of raw 
material : to liave this supply in sufficient (piantities 
in the city districts close to the main market ; to use, 
if jiossilile, a by-product from some large industry; 
and to manufacture the bricks with a process having 
the lowest cost. It is, of course, essential to prodiue 
a product for the nuirket which has cpialities equal, 
if not superior, to those jiossessed by good clay, shale 
or sand lime bricks. The utilization of slag, which 
is produced as a by-product from blast furnaces 
usually located near large cities combined with the 
manufacturing process similiar to the process use<l 
to produce sand lime brick will give the lowest pro- 
duction costs, and at the same time i)r(iduce bricks 
having excellent competing qualities. 

Tlic maiiuractuir of building brick from blast 
furnace slag has been carried on in Europe for the 
last quarter of a century. At the present time enor- 
nu)us (puintities of these bricks are produced in the 
vari(nis (Jernian, French, Belgain and English Iroji 
Works. Some of these works convert their entire 
slag output into bricks. The general trend is aiqiar 
ently to utilize more .slag each year for brick manu- 
facture rather than produce crushed slag for ballast, 
concrete aggregate or for cement mills. By so doing, 
a larger net profit will be obtained. The main pro- 
dnclioii ill the .Middlesboroiigh district has been pav- 



ing blocks and bricks Iroiii slag. These liave ]in>veii. 
ill use, to be very satisfactory, their hardness and 
wearing qualities being excellent. W'vy little lu-o- 
gress in the actual manufacture of slag brick has 
lieeii made in this country. American manufacturers 
have been in the past content to make a good mar- 
gin of profit on their metal product and to allow the 
by-product of slag to be generally unprofitable. The 
strong ])robability of closer margins of profit has 
only recently (luickened the interest in the utiliza- 
tion of all by-iirodiicts. A few plants for crnshing 
slag have been established iu this country but the 
margin of profits for this product is small and tin' 
market weak. From the 41() blast furnaces in this 
country about lS,t)l)0,l)l)() tons of slag are produced 
each year, which is enough to produce about T.-'iOO.- 
000, (100 standard bricks or to produce enough ballast 
f(U' about 7,000 miles of single track. 

A good deal of experimental work has been car- 
ried on by the Bureau of Standards and other Ameri- 
can laboratories but this has been mainly concerned 
with the study of the effect on melting point, vis- 
cosity and durability of various additions such as 
lime, silica, alkalies, fluorspar, cryolite, etc, to syne- 
thetically compound slag. The practical utilization of 
this work would involve either alterations to the 
fluxing ingredients of the blast furnace charge or 
ailditions to the slag itself after remelting it or after 
tlie transference of the molten slag to a preheated 
receptacle. Experimental work has definitely indi- 
catetl the economic impracticability of any process 
involving either remelting of the slag or the mainten- 
ance, in a rece])tacle separate from the blast fur- 
naces, of the molten slag at a high temperature 
while its composition is modified by the additions. 
In the writer's opinion there is little chance of slag 
bricks being produced at a cost which will enalile 
them to compete with other forms of best (luality 
building brick unless the slag is utilized as it conies 
from the blast furnaces, and it must be recognized 
that the use of slag would in all cases be subsidiary 
to the iiroduction of iron. There is no doubt that 
by modifications of the coniiiosition of certain types 
OS slag by the addition of iron oxide, silica or alu- 
mina, the toughness and durability of brick made 
from it may be increased luit such methods would 
])rove economically unsound. The after treatment, 
lliat is to say the annealing, of the bricks after 
casliiig is (if niiicii greater iiii])ortauce than the com- 



Jdinmri/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



S3 



])Ositi()n of the shiji'. I'lilcss this ainioaliiij; is etlVc- 
tively carried out the hiicks are lirittle and liahle 
to cnimhle. The essential point is that the rate of 
cooling should be uniform. It is probable that after 
cooling to a certain temperature, the rate of cool- 
ing could be expedited. Experiments indicate that 
this is true; however no definite data has as yet 
been obtained. No cold air should be in any way ad- 
mitted to tlie annealing chamber during the cooling 
as any surface dulling will be fatal to tlie toughness 
and durability of the brick. The annealing treat- 
ment will vary to some extent with the composition 
of the slag, those slags containing a high ])roducti(ni 
of silicia, alumina and iron oxide being more easily 
annealed than those in wliich tlie lime is in excess. 
Bricks made from slags liigh in lime and sul])hides 
of lime or manganese will oiler a lower resistance 
to weatlier corrosion than those made from slags 
containing higlier jiroportions of silicia and alum- 
ina and more or less iron sulphides. The color 
of slag bricks will depend mainly on the iron con- 
tent of the slag; the color darkening with the in- 
crease of iron oxide. The available evidence is quite 
conflicting, but the limiting compositions of slag 
whicli are likely to give successful results in making 
bricks are as follows: 

Lime-Magnesia not altove 37% 

Silica not below m% 

Alumina i^ Iron Oxide not below 11% 

Calcium Sulphide not above 1.3';< 

The degree of porosity of tlie brick can be regu- 
lated by the finess to wiiicli the mixture of the lime 
and slag is ground and also by the pressure used in 
tlie manufacture of the brick. The weathering of the 
brick will depend largely upon the porosity of the 
brick and the climate in wliich the brick is used. 
The chemical composition of the slag used has a 
bearing on the amount of lime necessary. There is 
ample evidence tliat bricks of adequate mechanical 
strength and durability can be produced from blast 
furnace slag, however it is necessary after engaging 
in the manufacture to test out various mixtures of 
lime and slag also forming pressures in order to 
determine accuratelj' what combinations give the 
best product with the slag at hand. The jiroportions 
and pressures used by the dilt'erent comjianies which 
are now starting operations in this country are re- 
garded usually as trade secrets. 

A series of tests were conducted at llie writer's 
request for comparative data on red brick, sand 
lime and slag brick. Tlie red brick were machine 
IJressed brick, known as common brick, made from 
clay common to the soutliern Michigan territory. 
The sand lime Iirick were machine made from ^~y% 
lake sand, 8% lime and 7% water (in \)\.i\'( slag 
and 5.4% lime. The slag was taken from a 500 ton 



blast furnace producing foundry iron from Hanna 
and Carpenter ores. Tlie average analysis of tlie 
slag is ;is follows : 

S il Al () CaO MgO MnO Sul FeO 
31.50 12.80 41'.."):', ll.:',0 0.50 1.55 Trace 
The average of the tests is given below : 

Compression Tests Before Weathering 

Red Clay Brick (Complete Failure) 3l'i'(> lbs. 
per sq. in. 

Sand Lime Brick (Complete Failure i l.'35i.' lbs. 
jier sq. in. 

Slag Brick (Slightly Crushed i .".L'L't lbs. per 
s(|. in. 

Slag Brick i Complete Failure I .".SIO lbs. ]ier s(|. 
in. 

After Weathering 

Red Clay Brick (Coiiii)lete Failure I :'.ll!8 lbs. 
per sq. in- 

Sand Lime Brick ( Coni]ilete Failurei 2170 lbs. 
per sq. in. 

Slag Brick .Slightly Crushed) 3120 lbs. per s(|. 
in. 

Slag Brick (Complete Failure) 3715 lbs. per 
Sep in. 

Fusion Tests 

Red Clay Brick 1581 deg Fall 

S:uid Lime Brick 2102 deg Fall 

Slag Brick 2390 deg Fall 

Absorption Tests — Submersion in Water for 24 hours 

Red Clay Brick .5.93'\' 

Sand Lime Brick 20.120; 

Slag Brick 17.74'"; 

Size of all bi'icks standard. No test was made 
on the heat conductivity of the ditferent brick except 
in a rather crude manner, the results of which are 
not conclusive. However slag brick lias, a])parenlly, 
a lower lieat conductivity than the otiier types. 

The first step in the manufacture of slag brick 
is to jiroperly prepare the slag. The present tendency 
favors granulation of the slag at the furnace by 
water rather than the dry method used to some ex- 
tent in Europe. The molten slag as it pours from the 
furnace is granulated by plunging into water. Clam 
shell buckets hoist the slag fr(Mii the water in the 
pit to cars on which it is carried to the brick jdant. 
Tliis slag will average about 25 per cent moisture. 
The slag on arriving at the brick jilant is unloailed 
into a (rack hojiper or storage shed from wliich is 
carried by suitable conveying e(|uipnient to the hop 
jter of a direct tired rotary dryer. In this dryer the 
moisture is reduced to about (> or 7 per cent and the 
slag so dried is carried to the dry slag storage bins 
above the mixers. Non-^ragnesian lime is first 
biought to the crude lime storage bins; then crushed 



81 



Tin: Ti:<'llN(H;KAl'il 



•/(uiHarij, l!)21 



to abmit 1-2 inch i-ulies; jmssi'd tlini tlic ni('i-li:nii("il 
hydratiii}; aitpiiratus, and (Udivi'i-cd in cimpI diy loini 
to the linie storajje bins above tlie niixinji eiiuipnient. 
From tlie storaj^e bins Itotli slaj; and lime are fed in 
the proiK'i- ratio, either by automatic scales or table_ 
lirojiortioners. to a lonjj paddle mixer. This paddle 
mixer performs the functions of receivinj; the ma 
terials and trans])ortin}; them to tlie masticator w illi 
some mixing enronfe. In tiiis masticator slag and 
lime pai-ticles are further reduced in size and thor- 
oughly mixed, delivered to l)ncl<et elevator and fed 
into the iiopjier wiiicii is above the forming press 
and which supplies tlie press with material. From 
the [)ivss liricks are taken otV by hand and loaded (ui 
s]iecial trucks, these trucks are jdaced in the steam 
annealing cylinders and anneah'd or seasoned-so 
called-for 10 to 1'2 hours. On the removal. from the.se 
cylinders the bricks are ready^ for shipment. The 
grade 111' Inicl; can be varied by the degree of grind- 
ing done in tlie masticator and face brick may be 



made by carrying this grinding to 20 or 110 mesh. 
For building brick each brick formed in the forming 
])ress is subjected to 120 tons total pressure, while 
for paving brick or blocks this pressure is increased 
to IGO tons. 

Sketch 1 shows a design for about the smallest 
practical plant having a capacity of (10,000 bricks 
per day of 20 hours. This type of plant would oper- 
ate Tinder the general method given above. In the 
plants of larger capacities certain modifications of 
design should be made in order to effect better econ- 
omy of eperatioii. 

Estimated Costs of typical plants are given be- 
low. 



Initial Cost of riant 
Capacity of bricks jier 

day of 16 hrs 60,000 



250,000 



yeve ;5B%r-<- 













JanKari/. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



85 



Machinery and Eijuipnit'iit 

complete for brick 

making plant |59,000 

Euilding.s for brickmaking 

plant Steel framing, con- 
crete walls, iron roof, 

(! in. concrete floor 1),()0() 

Machinery and Eqnipment 

for Lime Kilns and 

Grinding Plant 

Building for Lime Plant 

Same type as for 

Brick Plant 

Foundations for Machinery 

and Buildings :!,0()0 

Erection-freight, etc y,()(M) 

Engineering, Sui)erinten(lence, 

Insurance 4,000 



1170,000 



15,000 



40,000 



3,000 

10,000 

i(;,ooo 

10,000 



Total 183,000 |l'(i4,000 

Costs of (tperation per 1,000 Bricks 

Interest and depreciation 1(3% | .92 | .51 

Slag-charged at 3oc per ton 1.15 1.15 

Lime-fl2.00 per ton unslaked 

at plant \Ai\ 

Limestone at |l.li5 at plant 0.91 

■Steam for annealing-coal at |9.00 

F. O. B. plant 0.80 0.(i!J 

Wages-base at .^(J.OO ]ier day 

of 8 hrs 2.14 2.94 

I'ower-at 75c per k. w. lir 0.22 0.14 

Kepaii's, waste, oil 0.13 0.08 

Coal-drying cylinders -coal at 

19.00 F. O. B. Plant 0.50 0.;!9 

Office and selling 0.25 0.13 



Total 



17.59 IG.81 



The estimates are based on 1920 costs with labor 
added for loading bricks on cars. The present price 
of red clay bricks in steel centei's is a[)proximately 
118.00 f. o. b. cars at plant. The usual unit of clay 
brick plants is about 250,000 per day. The brick 
plant having a capacity of (iO.OOO per day would re- 
quire 180 tons of slag while the plant of 250,000 ca- 
pacity woidd absorb the slag produced each day by 
three 500 ton blast furnaces. A slag crushing plant 
to handle 500 tons of slag per day would cost ap- 
proximately 1^5,000 complete. Charging slag to such 
a plant at 35 cents per ton, the coni]dete marketing 
expense of the slag per tun wmild be about fl.08. 
f. o. b. plant. 

Slag briclc have a light pleasing gray color 
reseiiilding that of sloiic, llie color being uniform 
throughout. Tlicy break clean and straight under the 
mason's trowel and adhere to mortar more firmly 
and closely than do clay or sand lime brick. Prac- 
tically each brick comes from the annealing cylin- 
ders perfect in shape thus making less mortar nec- 
essary and faster brick laying possible. Their resis- 
tivity to the action of aci<ls and the ability to with- 
stand higher temperatures may be used to advant- 
age. A plant i)roducing slag brick may operate the 
year round in any climate as work in the winter is 
not stojiped in the northern districts where the bulk 
of clay brick are produced. The industry is clean, 
giving no offense from dust, odor or smoke, and 
therefore is not subject to adverse local legislation. 
Remarkably small realty investment is necessary as 
a jilant of a capacity of 20,000 bricks per day may 
be located nicely on one acre. In the larger plant 
units the labor saving is about 40% comi)ared to 
the clay brick industry. A considerate saving in 
fuel is obtained as one ton of soft coal will care for 
a production of about 15,000 bricks. 




8(5 



TIIK TKCllNOiiRAI'H 



■hnniurji, liKit 



The Engineer and the Labor Problem 



H. J^. I'UNTl.AND 



"I'l 



This /.s- ///(• (irticle that ivon a prize offered hy Tan 
Beta Pi to its ptrdycs this semester. — Editor 



(H Jill llic various |ii-()Ii1(miis tlial conri-oiit niir 
statcsiiicii anil (lur indiislrial Icadci-s hiday, tlicl'c 
is none of iiiori' lu-essiiij; iin|ioi-taiic(' lliaii Ilic ])ii)h- 
Icm of labor iiiii-est. Our iialional life ami our iiidi- 
xidiial ('xist(^aci' (k'lK'iuls to a larj^c extent upon I lie 
ouiiMii of onr mills, factories, and mines. Industry 
cannol prosper unless it is on a stable iiasis satis- 
factory lo both capital and labor, and iiros]ierons 
industries are necessary if oni- country is to hold its 
own amoiifi; the nations of the earth. 

Dnriiij; the ])ast few years we have fonnd that, 
ill the dealings between employer and employee, wt' 
have not made ninch advancement. Science and en- 
gineering liave far ontstripjied in their forward ]u-o 
gress the art of handling men. In the groat majority 
of cases tliis most backward activity of our civiliza- 
tion is carried on exactly as it was in the earliest 
years of the development of the factory system of 
indiisl ry. 

In the past the employer has held the strategic 
position in the bargaining between employer and 
eni])loyee. If lie refused to pay the wages demanded 
by any individual, there was usually some one else 
willing lo accept the lower rate, and the individual 
was soon forced to yield. In a great many cases the 
employer abused his power; it was human nature to 
do .so. In order to combat this oppression, the work- 
ers organized into labor unions. They realized that 
the best way to bring force to bear on their emi)loy- 
crs was by collective bargaining. For a great many 
years the unions did not accomplish any detinite re- 
sults except in a few industries. In general, the em- 
ployers either ignored the organizations entirely or 
else black-listed the union men and hired nothing 
but non-union labor. 

It was not until the United States entered tlie 
war, that unionism became a vital and imiiortant 
force ill the industrial relations. Tiecause the de- 
mand for labor became greater than the sujiply, 
prices rose to unprecedented heights. In many cases, 
employers with ''cost pins'' contracts increased their 
payrolls enormously- because increased operating ex- 
penses meant increased profits. Exhorbitant wages 
by the.se concerns forced all wages up on account of 
the shortage of available labor. Organized labor now 
held the strategic position and promptly began to 
abuse its power as the employers had done before. 
The unions made the mistake of crediting their suc- 



cess to their organizations and failed to appreciate 
the ]>art played by the law of su]>ply and demand. 
In their turn they became the ojipressors and as- 
serted their jiower to dominate the iiublic conven- 
ience, safety, and healtli in order to coerce capital. 

Today the pendulum is swinging back, slowly 
now, but with increasing niomeiitnm. It is to be 
hojied that conditions do not i-eturn to their pre 
war state. Some s(nt of hajipy medium with neither 
side holding all of the iiower is to be desired, and 
the problem is to bring ab'ont this condition. There 
is no doubt but that the workman should have a 
fair share in the product of his toil and a voice in 
the management of industry, but, for the present at 
least, his should uot be the dominant voice. 

This new kind of flunking in regard to indus- 
trial relations is coming to the front, and many 
earnest experiments and attempts are being inaug- 
urated to put some of this thinking into effect. Count- 
less schemes involving "shoj) committees", "indus- 
trial democracy", courts of arbitration, and so forth 
have been devised. Sometimes the results obtained 
are worth-while; often the plans are failures when 
]iut into jiractice. One thing is certain, there is no 
cure-all for labor trouble. Each jilaiit or factory 
must be considered separately and a suitable solu- 
tion worked out. 

Since engineers are more directly affected by 
and more intimately connected with industrial pros- 
perity- than are the other ]>rofessions such as law 
or medicine, it is obviously their duty to assist in 
the solution of industrial problems. The engineer 
should be particularly well fitted to tackle this 
jiroposition. He is trained in straight thinking. He 
is able to see things as they are and to analyze 
conditions, and he is in a position to suggest the 
remedies and to put tliciii into operation. No great 
change, either in our social order or in our industrial 
structure, is to be expected. It is not a finish fight 
between brain and brawn, but rather a series of 
compromises in wliicli both sides must make conces- 
sions. It is the methodical clearing u]) of the many 
a|i|iarcntly trivial points that is needed. 

An exani[)le of what can be d(uie along this line 
can be had in the city of Seattle. Within the last 
two years, Seattle was one of the strongholds of 
radical labor, and, as such, was notorious all over 
the t'liited States. At one time the I. W. W.'s and 



Januarjf, 1021 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



87 



radical uiiioiiisls very nearly had coiilrol ul' the 
whole district. Kevolution was being openly ]>reac]ied. 
Today there is no American city with a more satis- 
factory lal)or situation or one brighter with promise. 
Mr. Samuel H. Hedges, a civil engineer, president 
of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce, is tlie city's 
leader in tlie present movement for harmonious re- 
lations between capital and labor. He is at the 
head of one of Seattle's largest engineering and 
contracting firms, and is iiimself one of tiie big em- 
ployers of labor. 

Seattle's new laI)or policy, as outlined by Mr. 
Hedges, is based upon a perfectly frank understand 
ing between employer and employee. Fairness is 
the watchword ; fairne.ss to labor both union and 
non-union, fairness to cajHtal, and fairness to the 
public. The plan does not ditt'er greatly from that 
of many other attempts at a solution. But in this 
case the men behind it seem to be putting it across. 
It is in the performance of this kind of work tiiat 
the engineer of today has an opportunity for genu- 
ine public service. 

Another way in which tlie engineer can assist 
in solving the labin- problems is in the improvement 
of working and living conditions. This is a straight 
technical job, and is the special field of the engineer. 
In almost all plants, there are a considerable number 
of processes or operations which are eitlier dangerous 
or disagreeable to the workman who i)erfornis them. 
These men become discontented ; their unrest spreads 
and reduces the morale of the entire force. Im- 
proved methods and machinery are needed in many 
industries. Although great strides have been taken 
in this direction in recent years, there is still room 
for almost unlimited impi'ovement. For economic 
reasons as well as humanitarian reasons, drudgery 
should be abolished as far as is possible. It is an 
actual waste to do woik by man jiower which could 



be done as well or Itctter by machines. Wlien mach- 
ines do a greater percentage of the world's work, 
man's hours of labor can be decreased and his stand- 
ard of living advanced. 

By devising the proper sliop methods, tlie in- 
dustrial engineer can often enable his plant to turn 
out its jiroduct at a profit, and at the same time pay 
higli wages to the workman. Henry Ford's factories 
illnsti-ates this point very well. His cars probably 
give tlie purchaser as great a value for the money 
as any other, yet Ford has for years paid his men 
a higher average wage than any other concern in 
the same locality. While high wages do not settle 
the labor problem, the wage question is ])robably 
the most important factor in the solution. 

Because of their training, experience, and the 
position they occupy in industry, engineers should 
be the leaders iu working out the right basis for 
our new industrial relations. They are directly af- 
fected. To a great extent their living depends upon 
the stability of industry ; therefore it is to their own 
advantage to do everything in their power to bring 
about a satisfactory settlement. 

Lately the importance of the engineer lias been 
emphasized again and again. His responsibility for 
getting out production has been stated almost to the 
point of becoming tiresome, and he lias been hebl up 
as the only man who has the knowledge of how to 
[M-oduce those things that the world must have. The 
imblic at large is beginning to have contidence in 
the engineer. Now he is called upon for help to get 
the world's work and workers on a stable basis. 
It is a big job, a real job, but one tliat means genu- 
ine satisfaction in its accomplishment. There is no 
doubt but that, when the matter is settled, and i( 
will be settled before long, the engineer will be I'oimd 
to have ))hiyed a leading part. 



A ROAD TEST OF LOCOMOTIVE VALVE GEAR 
(Continued from page 52) 



was coupled to the same load whii'li Numl)er 1711) 
had succeeded in jiulling <i\-er, and the train was 
backed down (o mile post Xo. 10(i. ruder tiic same 
steam pressure and temperature, and throttle posi 
tion as Number 1710, the locomotive cleared th<' 
grade with litth' elfoit- So two moi'e cars were cou]! 
led on, making a load which had stalled Xuiidier 
1710. Under the same conditions Number l.")Sl 
pi'oved the victor by taking tlie tr.iin over in good 
shape. The records from the Dyiiaiiiomcler <"ar and 



the hicomotive cab, sii|i|)lemented with tiie diiiieii 
sions ol' pistons, and indicator cards, seemed sull'i 
cieiil for coiniMiting llic relative efficiencies of llie 
two locoiiiolives, so the engine crews setlli'il theii- 
wagers, and the tests wen; discontinued. 

The exact ditl'erence in etViciency of the two 
gears, which is being computed from the dal.i by tlic 
Illinois Central's Ciiief Draftsman, Mr. lliiies '10, 
is not as yet avaihible, i)ut the railroad officials 
wiio were present at tlie tests, estimated that the 
Walsciiacrt gear was at least as g 1 as tlie Young. 



8S 



THE T10rUi\()(}KAI'II 



January, W21 



Photography 



A. (!. Ai.i)i!i-:iM,-|.;, />ir(cl iin/ I'lmloiini jiliic Ijilxiriilnrii 



You will find thei Photographic Department three 
flights up in the Physics Building and occupies nearly 
half the space of that floor. It is primarily a service de- 
partment furnishing all of the various kinds of photo- 
graphic results required by the numerous divisions of the 
University. The work includes the photographing of build- 
ings and grounds, activities, farm stock and crops, agri- 
cultural operations, general and research laboratory equip- 
ment, special bulletin illustrations, lantern slides, micros- 
copic work of many kinds, direct color photography, mo- 
tion pictures of many of the foregoing subjects and also 
research problems, blueprinting of building plans, class in- 
struction sheiets, etc. 

Instruction is given to a limited number with Junior 
standing. It is intended tor those who wish to make actual 
use of photography in connection with their work, as is 
often desirable in engineering, agriculture and the natural 
sciences and particularly with thei use of the microscope 
in the latter case. The department is limited in space and 
equipment and presents the development of instructional 
work to the importance which it deserves as an accessory 
in research or its application in many branches of teaching. 

Advertisments lead the general public to think that 
photography may be a habit which is acquired with the 
change of seasons, the only caution being that you press 
the button. Educational institutions might well give it 
more consideration. He would surely be a versatile man 
who could attain a comprehensive knowledge of the many 
fields in which it may be used and the technique of its 
application and the subjelcts to which it may be applied, 
such as the many branches of natural science, agriculture 
horticulture, engineering, etc. It would be difficult to find 
another craft so far reaching in its use and of so great a 
value in sciences of so dissimilar a naturel On the one 
hand see what it may do in plant physiology or animal 
pathology and on the other hand in the mevallurgical work, 
engineering or pure physics. It embodies the best know- 
ledge of chemistry and physics as one digs down behind 
the scenes. 

Industry has not been slow in adapting tor something 
more than recording building construction or for advertis- 
ing purposes. It has proven of great value in metalurgical 
work, for what else could record thei delicate lines of 
structure seen in the various metals and their alloys either 
pure or degraded? How else could the metallurgist record 
the progreiosive changes in the structural condition of his 
specimens through a long series of heat treatments? There 
are fields tor its employment in both organic and inorganic 
industrial chemistry. There is undoubtedly a good field 
for development in photo-ceramics. There are others 
known and unknown where this magic tool may prove* of 
great economic value. 

Wlien we say photography in connection with all 
these various fields of knowledge we include that marvel- 
lous instrument the microscopel Think what has been 
revealed to us through it since those crude instruments 
of less than 200 years ago were produced. Only since then 
has natural science become Systematic Knowledge. It i.^ 
within the past thirty five years, however, that it has been 



possible to record photographically many things seen in 
the microscope. 

The past few years havei seen the addition to the 
photographers kit of another tool — the motion picture. It 
is but a short time ago that the possibility of this illusion 
was seen and developed to a practical use. At the begin- 
ning no practical usefulness could be seien for this toy 
but today it is unquestionably the most potent tool that 
education has. It embodies one of the first essentials of 
any educative method — concentration. No one can escape 
its deiniand upon their attention in a quiet, darkened room. 
The most magnetic professor has difficulty at times in 
keeping all of his class awake but there is something in 
motion picture that prevents nodding heads. 





Wrought Iron un- 
der stress — Micro- 
scopic. 



Living Embryo 

Showing circulatory 

system and heart 

action 




Micro-Photograph of Wrought Iron after Repeated Stress 
Showing "Slip Lines" 



Jduunry. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



89 



There is yet much to be worked out in the usel and 
distribution of motion pictures for educational purposes 
although its power as a factor is well established. It may 
extend the knowledge gained by one man, and multiply 
his hours of setrvice. The years of patient study of a sub- 
ject, the time and technique required in it preparation for 
demonstration to others may be permanently fixed on a 
strip of celluloid and it is then ready to show an indefinite 
number of times to multitudes of people, precisely the 
same each time as the master scientist performed it. One 
of the motion picture news weeklies which often runs 
subjects of an educational naturei, claims an audience of 
150 million people weekly and it leaves an impression not 
to be given by the printed page. 




>. 



Red and White Corpusc- 
les of Human Blood. 
Magniled 1600 Diomet- 
ers. 



Wrought Iron un- 
der stress after 
breakdown. 

Photography labors under various handicaps, some 
physical, some chemical. There is room for the inventive 
brain of chemists, physicists or mechanical engineers in 
the struggle to improve materials and equipment, to find 
something new which shall be for the ideal. 

It is to be hoped that "Illinois" may take a stronge'r 
stand — a leader's stand — in the development and applica- 
tion of the possibilities of photography. There looms on 
the horizon a possibility, a strengthening probability that 
it will. 

Arthur G. Eldredge 



HOW TO OPERATE A SLIDE RULE 
IN FIVE UNEASY LESSONS 

Prof. Noah Webster in his thrilling textbook on 
"Words" defines the slide rule as follows — 

Slidel — derived from the Egyptian Cleopatra— To slip 
— to glide, to pass smoothly. 

Rule — (Ancient Hebrew) an instrument, a rude pro- 
cess or operation. Hence, slide-rule an instrument used 
to pass a course smoothly by a rude process. The slide 
rule was originally an instrument of torture used by the 
Spaniards in their inquisition exams, and has been handed 
down intact from those days. 

A slide rule is something like a woman. It is slippery 
and no one ever learns to manage one. It has a variety 
of figures which are! more or less true. It's beauty is only 
skin deep, but like the girls at the Prom it has sines 
(signs) on its back. Men are crazy until they get one and 



after they get it they wish they had saved their money. 
But unlike a woman a slide rule can be put in a leather 
case and shut up. 

LESSON I— OBTAINING A SLIDE RULE 

In order to impress your profs, and your girl that 
you are really an engineer determine to secure a good 
rule. Get one, either buy it or find it with as many numbers 
and scales as possible. The more scales it has the more 
the prof, is impressed and the easier it will be for you to 
get lost. Again a big slide rule means that you have paid 
a large price for it and the prof, will think that you are 
really interested in his course. Get a magnifying glass on 
the slide' by all means. Your errors will be twice as ac- 
curate. It is absolutely necessary to obtain a leather case 
for the rule. This is how you advertise that you are an 
engineer to the co-eds. 

LESSON II— CARRYING A SLIDE RULE 

On first obtaining a slide! rule print your name, ad- 
dress, telephone number, home address, number of credits, 
and reward offered. Take the rule to all classes including 
psycology, economics, library sciencci and English 57. Wtear 
it in the right coat pocket exposed to full view to all 
south of Green Street. When you arrive on Green street 
place rule on the inside pocket. 

LESSON III— FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS 

Remove the slide rule from the case. Remove slider 
and let drop easily from a height of ten feet on something 
iiard such as iron, or concreite. Buy a new slider and place 
a standing order for one per week. Work the inside scale 
up and down the rule until it moves easily from one mark 
to another. If the rule sticks whittle off about half an 
inch and try again. Now you are re^dy to learn the techni- 
que of the rule. 

LESSON IV— RELATIONS— CONTINUED 

Take some simple numbers as two, ten, seven, eleven 
etc. which you know are right. Follow directions closely. 
Placei the slider and slide over the same number on the 
lower scale. This takes time to learn and must be learned 
thoroughly. Now if you wish to multiply two by three 
place the glass slider over three on some other scale. 
Look on one of the scales and read your answer. If you 
find that somewhere along the line you find a six reipeat 
until the result is 5.95 or nearly that. A little practice 
such as this will soon wreck your arithmetic but you won't 
need it anyway when you get out. Now that you have 
learned the principles the next important thing is the 
decimal point. Use this method in finding the point. If 
your grandmother married your grandfather in 1S42 place 
the point after the second figure but if the moon is made 
of green chelese and spends its quarters getting full place 
the point after the fifth figure. In any case you will be 
wrong and will have to check it up with long hand. The 
best way to use the scales on the back is not to. If you 
desired a logaritm of a numbeu" ask Prof. Goodenough. If 
you want the sign or cosine of an angle ask Mr. Ensign. 
LESSON V— HOW TO GET RID OF THE SLIDE RULE 

Now that you are a master of the slide ru'e you must 
get rid of it. You will anyway when you get to be a 
senior. Don't leave the rulei in any design class. Nobody 
wants it and it will be returned. Don't litter up the bone- 
yard with such trash. Don't try to sell it for nobody wants 
to buy it. The best way to get rid of it is to send it to 
your maiden aunt in return for the yellow and purple 
tie she sent you for Christmas. 



90 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



January, 1921 



KEOKUK WATER POWER DEVELOPMENT 
(Continued from page 79) 

till' siiiiic per ct'lit ol' iifiilil iiiiw lli;il tlicy did llicn. 
liugli L. C'oDiK'i-, tilt! ('liifT lOiigiiicci- ol' tlic Ki'okuk 
work, saw the uiistakf ol' inakiiiii: loiij; ti'i-iii coutracts 
without taking care of fluctuation in prices. In 
niakiug coutracts for the sale ol' |io\vcr lioni the 
Keokuk plant he iuciudeil a clause calling; for an 
adjustuu'Ut of i)rices at I lie end of each live-year 
period. The adjustuient is based on the change in 
price of coal during the same period. That is, prices 
for tlie power varj- as the price of coal, so if coal 
should show an increase of 10% during any live year 
period, the contract would cause an increase of 10% 
in the price of power furnished by the plant. It is 
conceivable that the variation of prices might cause 
the Xiagra Falls power companies great financial 
einbarassment, while the Keoktd^ comjiany can not 
be affected in that way. 

Hugh L. Cooper furnishes a good example of 
what an engineer can do for him.self, while at the 
same time serving his employers and the public. He 
felt that he had taken enough personal linancial 
risk and responsibility in i)ushing the project thru 
to completion, to warrant a commensurate remun- 
eration being given him. Therefore he caused to be 
written into the bonds a clause giving hiui the posi- 
tion of Chief Engineer of the Missi.ssippi River 
Power Comi)any at a salary of !Sp50,000 per year, this 
salary to he paid even though he should he discharged 
or in any other way sever his relations with the 
company. As the man who really built the Keokuk 
(lam, he deserved the salary named .for it cost f:>0,- 
(UtO.dlKI. and is the largest water-iiower plant in the 
world. 



MECHANICAL. EQUIPMENT OP BUILDINGS 

(Continued from page 68) 
and insurance, with that of a heating plant only, 
plus the cost of electricity purchased from a public 
service company will immediately show whether 
a generating i)lanfsli<uild he installed in the build- 
ing. A similar comparison will show whether it is 
preferable to install the hi'atiug plant even though 
the steam is actually taken from a public service 
company, as the interrtiption of steam supply is not 
so well guarded against as is the electrical supply. 
Hence, the calculations for operation of the plant 
in the building, with luith electricity and steam 
imrcha.sed from an outside source should include 
interest, depreciation .taxes, etc., on the boiler plant 
in order to obtain the true cost of maintenance. 

However, many times con.sideration other than 
cost of maintenance enter into the decision as to the 
completeness of the jilant. and ev<'n then calcula- 



tions show a saving by generating the electricity re- 
quired in the building it may be advisable, due to 
lack of s|)ace or for other reasons, to install a heat- 
ing plant only — furthermore, it may even be ad- 
visable not to operate this plant but to purchase the 
amount of steam necessary. Therefore, the con 
ditions surrounding each building should be most 
carefully considered and linal decision based on 
those which are most important, for any arrange- 
ment which may apparently be for the best at one 
time may be radically different at another, and con- 
ditions which govern in one location may have little 
or no etfect in another. 



JOHN AUGUSTUS OCKERSON 
(Continued from page 75) 

velop vanity, even if it's in him, and the most notice 
able characteristic of Mr. Ockerson is his unassum- 
ing modesty. Quiet, like most of the great engineers, 
almost retiring in manner, he never pushes himself 
forward into the limelight and never tries to attract 
disciples to himself to iiromnlgate his ideas or plans. 
His job is to bend Nature to the uses of ilan and for 
this the highest type of cnginecritig reipiires the jiigli- 
est type of man. 



REPEATED STRESS, ECT. 
(Continued from page 57) 



due to the process of manufacture or to faulty heat- 
treatment there are internal strains in the material 
a high elastic limit may not be a good measure of 
the cai)acity for resisting repeated stress. Minute 
defects or localized internal strains may not effect 
the general stretch of a sample of material suffi- 
ciently to reduce the elastic limit to any appreciable 
extent, hut such defects or strains may form nenelei 
from which progressive failure spreads. At present 
the best criterion for choosing material for resisting 
repeated stress is a combination of high elastic limit 
with a microscopic examination for homogeuiety, 
and, if possible an examination for internal strains- 
A (pialitative indication for the presence of internal 
strains is the tendency of a piece of metal to "kink" 
when machined on one side. It is hoped that the 
Joint Investigation of the Fatigue of Metals now in 
progress under the auspices of the Engineering 
Foundation, the National Research Council, and the 
Universily of Illinois J'^ngineering Experiment Sta- 
tion will, among its other tasks, develop some reli- 
able and practicable method of testing material for 
resisting capacity for rei)eated stress. 



fir 




DEPARTMENTAL 

NOTES 



3 



ARCHITECTUKAL NEWS 

The architectural club held its secoud meeting 
of the semester on Tuesday, November 9. Among 
the important items of tlie meeting that wei'e dis- 
cussed was the question of giving the organization 
a new name. The comittee appointed at the first 
meeting decided on naming it the "Architectural 
Society." The new name was voted upon and was 
adopted- 

The first move toward an Engineering supply 
store was made by the society wlien Floyd Bay, '21 
received orders for paper and otlier supplies and dis- 
tributed the goods at cost price from Chicago houses 
with a saving of more than sixty per cent over Cam- 
pus prices. The Architectural Department has made 
a start in the big plan for saving and we hope that 
other Engineering departments will join in with us 
and that we will soon have the profiteers realizing 
that we can combat with tlieir high prices. 

Plans for the adoption of a i)in for the Society 
were brought up for discussion and it was decided 
that a pin would not be u.sed. Committees to act 
upon the organization of a Year Book staff, the 
annual Fete, Publicity and Entertainment were ap- 
pointed by the Presi<lent. 

The Sliy Hooli has at hist made its appearance. 
The first issue came out on Wednesday, Novendjer 
10. It is a onepage edition this time but the editors 
hope that their contril)utions will swell its columns 
until the paper reaches the form of a good sized 
weeldy paper. 

The architectural Society is conducting a series 
of lectures for the remainder of tlie semester and the 
first series was given on Thursday, Nov. 18, at seven 
o'clock in tlie Eicker library of architecture, by 
Professor Eexfore Newcomb. His subject was, "In 
the Bath of the Padres," which dealt with the his- 
tory and present state of the old California missions. 

Professor Newcomb has made quite a study of 
the subject and has made a great nundier of sli(h's 
and drawings of the missions. The lecture was illus- 
trated and proved extremely interesting to both the 
layman and those studying architecture. 

The lectures are to be given on the first and i liird 
Thursday evenings of each month and tlie society 
extends an invitation to tlie faculty, the students 
and to those who wish to follow the series. Profes- 
sors of other departments of the university ai-e to 



give tlie following lectures acc(U-ding to the sclie<lule 
as stated below. 

November IS — In the Footpaths of The Padres 

Professor Kexford Newcomb 
December 2 — Minoan Civilization 

Professor Oldfather 
December HI — Old Nuremburg 

Professor N. C. Brooks 
January G — The Cathedral Builders 

Reverend John Mitchell Page 
January 20 — Life in an Assyrian Palace 

Professor A. T- Olmstead 
February 10 — Santa Sophia and Constantinople 
Professor A. H. Lvhvei' 



Karnack Temple of Scarab Fraternity has announced 
tliat it has contributed a sum of fifty dollars to the Beaux 
Arts Institute of Architectural Design in support of a 
design competition to be conducted by the Institute. It 
will be an annual contest. 

The problem is an Esquisse-Esquisse open to students 
of class B enrolled in the Beaux Arts School and will be 
given out on March 26, 1921. The temple hopes that this 
step is a good start in the way of inducing the other 
chapters of Scarab to conduct similar competition or in 
making a National affair of the competition. 

The board of Trustees of the Beaux Arts school has 
arranged for the date of the competition at a time when 
the enrollment is the greatest and therefore the best 
results ought to be forthcoming. 

EDGAR J. McDonald 



MINING SOCIETY NOTES 
The mining Society started its program for the 
year by holding a smoker at which Profess(u- H. II. 
Stock explained the aims and purpose of the organi- 
zation. The purpose of the society is to promote 
good fellowshij) between the undergraduate students 
and to give lectures and addresses of an interesting 
nature on the practical side of mining. These talks 
have largely been given by students who have been 
engaged in mining work during the summer months. 
The meetings have proved a great success, as 
talks given by students have been intensely interest- 
in, besides having been instructive. The scoi)e of 
these addresses have covered every branch of engi- 
neering, as may be gathered from these topics of 
discussion given so far: 

Mining Coal in Indiana Coal Fields 

Zinc and Lead Jlincs in AVesteru Wisconsin 



92 



THE TECllXOCUAl'U 



■luiiiKirji, 1921 



I'r()s|M'cliiii; in Aim/(iii;i. Xcw >r('xico, anil Call- 
I'diaiia. 

Tlic I'lilliiw inj; arliclcs will he discusscil al llic 
I'm lire nicci in^s ; 

Ja'Vcc liuildiii'': on llic Arkansas IJivcr. 

Drilliiif; for Oil in Oklalionia. 

Hclievinji llial topics of lliis sort woiihl appeal 
to all cnj-iiu'ci-in"; stndciits the .Mininj; Society cor- 
dially in\il('s all cnijinccrs to its mectinjis. 

11. M. Wilten 

("IVIL KXCINKKIJIXC. XEWS 

II has been said llial cxcry cnjiinecr at sonic 
time dn'inii liis college career seriously considers 
jjoini; 111 SiMitli America after jiraduation. Tliat this 
is still trne was proxcn liy the luunlier of students 
who tniaicd onl lo hear tlie talk on "Sonth Aniei-ica" 
hy Mr. K. Z. Cornwell in the eiitjineerinj; lectnre 
room on I'riday afternoon, Decendier 1(1. 

.Mr. Cornwell is a civil engineering graduate 
from Illinois, and lias lieen doing work connected 
with Sonth America ever since his gradnation in 
1!)1(). Uis first two years there were spent on rail- 
road work in the jnngles of the Amazon valley and 
later lie went into the e.\|)ort business, his head- 
(luarteis at jjresent being in New York City. He 
stated that the ojiportnnities offered in South Ameri- 
ca were ih-mm- lieller than they are now, although 
Americans will have to modify their methods to 
snit the (ustoms of that continent if they wish to 
succeed. He compared the American and (jernian 
methods of going after trade, giving examples of 
I)oth, and showing what we .should do to improve onr 
relations with the South American countries. The 
selling of machinery of all kinds offers special op- 
])ortnnities now for engineering graduates, with ex- 
cellent chances to work nji business for one's self. 

The Civil Engineering Society plans to obtain 

other s])eakers during the year who will tell ns about 

conditions ami a Hairs in the engineering world, not 

only for Ci\il lOngineers but for all other branches. 

John C. Allman 



THE CIVIL ENGINEERS' INSPECTION TRIP 
K. H. Siecke 

No other trip compares to that of the civil engineers 
in point of early start Monday morning, as the first light 
of dawn found us on a suburban train bound for Gary. 
Nevertheless, we found the gates of various largei plants 
along the lake front scenes of great activity, and we en- 
tered the steel mills with the last few straggling v/orkers. 

The production of stelel is one industry in which al! 
engineers, regardless of specialization, must find great in- 
terest. The enormous plant layout, the ponderous mach- 
inery, and the spectacular nature of many of the opera- 
tions furnish so much to arousei and hold the attentions of 
technically trained men, that a half day at the mills proves 
all too short a time in which to satisfy the desire for in- 
formation. 

The afternoon spent at the (^urtiss plant of the Ameri- 



mn Bridge Company was equally interesting and evetn. more 
instructive to civil engineers than the morning had been, 
as here we saw fabricated and assembled the parts of 
steel structures with the design of which our theoretical 
training deals almost entirely. On the following morning 
we viewed the erection of the steel parts at the sites of 
several new buildings in downtown Chicago. We thein had 
followed the progress of the metal from the ore on the 
docks at Gary to its final placing in the framework of a 
modern office building. 

As guests of the Rock Island railway, we werel taken 
on Tuesday afternoon to visit a completed track elevation 
.iob. Work of this nature is very important to all railway 
lines entering Chicago and since much of it remains to 
be done, no doubt some of us will bei engaged upon it at 
some future time. The work visited consisted of grade 
separation and track elevation which, as with all work of 
this nature, was accmoplished under traffic. 

Wednesday was devoted to thei municipal engineering 
features of civil engineering. A crib of the Chicago water 
supply was visited by launch. Before successfully setting 
out however, it was necessary to turn back and pick up one 
instructor and three noted seniors who had become so 
confused by the turmoil of the city, as to have misseid the 
departure of the launch. 

On returning from the crib, a trip was taken up the 
river under the guidance of an assistant city engineer. The 
operation of various typels of bridges was demonstrated 
with utter disregard tor traffic. The unusual difficulties 
met in bridging the Chicago river were most forcefully 
demonstrated, even residents of the city not having fully 
appreciated the! situation. 

The day was brought to a close by a visit to the city 
garbage disposal plant, to a rapid sand filter plant in the 
malodorous Packingtown district, and by an inspection of 
the 39th. street sewage disposal plant on the lake front. 
The entire inspection trip was thus confined to the im- 
mediate vicinity of Chicago, but the city affords abundant 
opportunity for observing almost any kind of engineering 
work. The proximity of the university of Illinois to this 
great industrial center means much at the time of thel an- 
nual inspection trips. 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ENGINEERS 
NOTES 

The Ameiican, Association of Engineers, Uni- 
versity of Illim^is Student Chapter, was host to the 
entire College of Engineering at the Home-coming 
Smoker held in the (iym Annex, Thursday evening 
October 28. A crowd of t!()0 turned ont, making it 
the largest departmental affair of the year. Prof. 
Gordon Watkins talked on "Industrial Unrest" Prof. 
W. M. Wilson, and Prof. C. C. Wiley were the otlier 
S])eakers. A jazz orchestra entertained, while the 
brother engineers ]iut away donghnnts, milk, and 
api)les, and talked shop or football annd the haze of 
myriad Fatimas. 

The A. A. E's policy is to present as far as 
])ossible the viewpoints of prominent faculty mem- 
bers of other (\)lleges of the University who have 
iid'ormation which is of great value to student engi- 
neers. In line with this jiolicy, the following s])eak- 
ers have been he.ird al the bi-weekly \\'eduesda,v 
iiiglil iiH'ct ings : 

I'l-of. (\ II. Woolbert -•■Why and How Engi 
ncers Should I';xi)ress Themselves Convincingly." 

I'rof. K. II. Sutherland — "Sociology and tin; 
Eniiineer.'' 



Januarti, 1921 



THE TECBNOGRAPH 



9:i 



Prof. H. J. Mclutiri^— "Coal Is Kiuj?." 
Mr. W. E. Ediiiofoii — "JlntlK'Hiatifs and (lie 
Engineer."" 

Mr. N. T. Peef — "Socialism and tiie Engineer."" 
Tlie A. A. E. lias in addition put over two otlier 
stunts — an o])en mixer ("Meet Your Friends, (Ireet 
Your Profs, and Eat Yoin- Fill""), and a get-togetlier 
in tlie Cliieago ('liajiter (•hih-i-ooiiis after the Cliicago 
game. 

Officers of the A. A. E. foi- the tirst semester, 
191^0-21, are: 

President— Harold .1. :\loek, "I'l 
Vice-President — Leroy M. Dangremond, '-'1 
Secretary — Lewis J. Wargin, "22 
Treasurer— Miles 1>. (".itton. "2! 

The A. A. E. adojited the (onstilulion of the 
Associated Engineering Societies in Xovemlier, ami 
was admitted to membership Dec. 2, so that it is 
now represented on the Engineering Council. The 
Association is especially interested in the projx); ed 
Human p]ngineering Congress suggested for next 
spring, since such problems are directly in its field. 
A. A. E. is also backing the Co-operative Selling 
scheme jilanned for the College of Engineering. 

In the membership drive which closed Dec. ol, 
the Association took in many new mend)ers, espec- 
ially from the Freshman Class. Nearly all Seniors 
are either already in A. A. E., or jtlan to join before 
graduation. Any engineer, including chemical engi- 
neers and Industrial Administration men, are cor- 
dially invited to join the local chai)ter, share in its 
activities, and be in line for national niembershii) on 
gradujition. The student dues are |."{ i)ei' year, wliicli 
includes a year"s subscription to the Professional 
lOngineer, the Association"s official ])ublica1ion. 

The American Association of Engineers finished the 
year with the most strenous program the local chapter has 
attempted since: its foundirfg here in 1917. With between 
200 and 250 members it is the largest engineering society 
on the campus, due to two facts: first, it is for engineer- 
ing students of all courses and all classes; and second, its 
objects and activitielj appeal to all engineers who feel 
that more than a technical training is necessary for suc- 
cess in the outside world. 

"The objects of this Association shall be to raise the 
standards of ethics of the engineering profession, and to 
promote the) economic and social welfare of engineers." 
Thus reads the motto of the national organization, which 
is already the largest engineering association. It has sur- 
passed the great technical societies, because its field is 
entireily separate, and because such activities as safeguard- 
ing the profession's welfare in proposed engineering legis- 
lation, fighting for an engineer at the head of the newly 
proposed Cabinet position, the Deipartmet of Public Works, 
carrying on a valuable service clearing house, and the 
like, are all drawing to it the forward-looking younger 
blood of the engineering profession. 



RAILWAY CLTTB 

On December lOth. the Railway Club enter- 
tained Jlr. L. K- Sillcocx, General Superintendent 
of Motive Power of the Chicago, Milwaukee and Si. 
Paul Railroad Company. Mr. Sillcox g:ive a vei-y 
interesting talk on "Making '\\'ork ,i daiue."" 

For the regular meeting on .Januaty (ith. i'ro- 
fessor Ciordon Watkins has pi-omised to address the 
("lull on the subject of "Dynanuc Changes in Labor 
rolicies." 

A committee of practical railncid men has re- 
cently been apiK)inte(l l)y the Amei-ican Railway 
Engineering Association, at the suggestion of Dean 
C. R. Richards of the College of Engineering, to 
cooperate with the Department of Railway Engin- 
eering for the mutual benefit of that dei)artuient 
and tlie railroads of the State of Ulinois. The com 
mittee is composed of Mr. H. R- Safford, President 
of the A. R. E. A. and Assistant to the President 
of the C. B. & Q. R. R., Chairman ; Mr. A. S- Bald- 
win, Operating Vice President of the I. C. R. R. : 
Jlr. C. A- Mor.se, Chief Engineer of the C. R. I. & 
P. K. K.; Mr. A. F. Robinson, C. E. "80, Bridge Engi- 
neer of the D L. & W. R. R .\t a meeting of this 
committee held at tlie Cniversity on Xovend)er l.~>th 
plans were discussed as to the i)lacing and advance- 
ment of graduates in Railway Engineering, thereby 
encouraging a larger enrollment in the department. 
The committee will also act in an advisory ca])acity 
with regard to research and desirable changes in 
the curriculum now offered to undergraduates. 

C.*\V. (M.EWORTH 



REINFORCED CONCRETE CROSSING 

The experimental crossing placed on the north-bound 
track of the Illinois Central main line where it crosses 
Chester St, in Champaign is an item of interest to rail- 
way men and others engaged in transportation. The cross- 
ing was made of reinforced concrete planks laid in some- 
automobiles and heavy trucks, it has given satisfactory 
surface crossing. 

The continued decrease in timber supply with its at- 
tendant high prices makes the use of oak and other first 
class lumber practically prohibitive. Inferior material in 
public crossings fails in such a short time that economy 
forbids its use. For a number of years railroads have 
attempted to solve the crossing problem by using substi- 
tutes for wood. Concrete planks and macadam with mas- 
tic binders seem to meet the requirements best. The 
first cost of. installation of these crossings is somewhat 
heavier than is that of the wooden crossing, yet their life 
is enough longer to warrant their construction. 

This crossing was built jointly by the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company and the Universal Portland Cement 
Company at the request of Professor E. E. King of the 
University of Illinois. The crossing was installed in May 
1U20. While it is subject to frequent traffic-wagons, 
what the same manner as wooden planks on the ordinary 
service in every way. 



94 



TUH ti;("iin(>(;kai'ii 



Jamiari/, 1921 



i:lk("tki('A1, i:\(;tnket{tn(1 notes 

.1. .M. Aj^ii.'w 

Tlie Elcrli-ical i;iij;iiu'criiij; Socicly. live wire 
elect ric:il club, lias liad s<>vei-,il jiood talks this year 
and it is IkiikmI that iiuirc will follow. On October 
22, I'i'of. I'aiiie gave a talk on "lOlectrical Accidents'' 
that was of benefit to the listeners, and J. E. Aiken 
spoke on his experiences as radio o]perafor last snin- 
nier. The Xoveiiilier ."> nieeliiii;' was addressed by 
('a]plaiM KliMinbouuli. iiisi rnclor in sijjnjilling, on the 
work of the siunai corps (i\crseas. U. J. Herriuan 
icild iif suimiicr life at Camp Alfred Vail. At tlii.s 
iiieelin^ 1 ». Iv Woods. 11. A. I'.rown. and C. vS. Parker 
of the Iv !•:. faculty, and ('apt. i;iiiinil)ou<;li of the 
signal corps were el('cte<l to houoi-arv mendiership in 
the society. The cooperative bnying plan was again 
discnssed. and definite action started by the ap- 
|iointinent of two nienibeis. .1. K. Lindley "21, and 
('. L. Conrad '22. to serve on a jternianent committee 
witii re|>resentatives of the other engineering clubs 
and at least two members of the faculty. This com- 
mittee has power to act as long as no money is ex- 
jiended from the funds of the various clubs. 

The next meeting, November 19, was devoted to 
the showing of a movie, "King of the Rails" put out 
b\' the General Electric Company. The selection of 
Dean Jordan as the chairman of the faculty board of 
advisers for the cooperative store was announced. 
On December 3 C. N. Clark '22, gave a description 
of a i)ower system in West Virginia where he spent 
last summer. M. H. Cook, '21, gave an account of the 
senior engineers' in.spection trip to Chicago, Milwau- 
kee aiul Joliet. The experiences related, often Im- 
nu)rous and in some cases almost pathetic, were in- 
teresting to everyone, and some of them may help 
future engineers on similar trips. 

On Decend)er 17 a joint meeting with the A. I. 
E. E. was held in the E. E. Lab. and w'as addressed 
by V. IT. Hurkhart and H. A. Brown of the E. E. 
Dept. .Ml-, linrkliart told of the opportunities for 
E. E. and il. E. gi-aduates with the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Co. 

Mr. Brown discussed the elimination of static 
currents in receiving, and several types of instru 
ments and circuits for reducing these disturbances 
to a minimum were illustrated. A description was 
given of Alexanderson's new system, which when 
installed on Long Island will enable the station to 
communicate directly with all other stations thru- 
out tlie world. The .system also gives and increase 
in business cajiacify of ITo times the present nri.\i- 
iiiuni. l''ollowing his talk, Jlr. Brown gave a short 
radio concert of band and vocal selections. 



CERAMK^S NOTES 

The annual insju'ction tri|i of the upper class 
students was made during the week beginning Nov. 
22. The party was under the direction of Prof. R. 
K. llursh. The first day was spent in Chicago visit- 
ing the Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., The Chicago 
I'ottery (^o.. The Midland Terra Cotta Co., and The 
Cof)idey Mfg. Co. From there the party went to 
Ottowa and inspected the National PMre Proofing 
Co., The National Plate Glass Co., and had lunch as 
guests of the former company. At Streator, the 
party visited the plants of the Streator Brick Co., 
The Streator Drain Tile Co., The Western Glass 
Co., The American Bottle Co.. and The Streator Mfg. 
Co. 

The party consisted of fourteen seniors and jun- 
iors. 

On Nov. 18, the Student Branch of the Ameri- 
can Ceramic Society met and were given an excel- 
lent talk by Prof. Watkius of the Economics depart- 
ment upon "Economics and the Engineer". 

On Dec. 16, tlie Student Branch was addressed 
by Dr. Bunting upon "The Effect of Dissolved 
Gasses in Glass". Prof. C- W. Parmelee also gave 
an interesting illustrated talk upon the manufacture 
of carborundum wheels. 

Sinse the last issue of THE TECHXOGRAPH. 
Mr. G. R. Shelton has been appointed to the Corning 
Glass Works Fellowship of the American Ceramic 
Society. Mr. Shelton is working on the prolilem of 
viscosity of glass. 

The department of Ceramics gave a display of 
all materials and products u.sed in the chemical in- 
dustry at the Chem Open House on Dec. 17. The 
display was under the direction of R. E .Arnold, 
V. K. Haldeniau and N. A. Ragland. 



COMMITTEES ON POWER TEST CODES 
A Committee on Power Test Codes has been appointed 
by the Council of The American Society of Mechanical 
Engnieers to revise and extend the Power Test Codes of 
the Society. 

The purpose of the Power Codes is to provide stand- 
ard directions for conducting and reporting performance 
tests of power-plant and heat apparatus, such as are most 
commonly undertaken in commercial work. They are suf- 
ficiently comprehensive to apply to tests which determine 
all the details of the performance, but selected parts of 
the code may be used for tests of limited scope. They 
apply further to tests which concern the fulfillment of 
performance guarantees and to acceptance tests. 

The University of Illinois has four of its faculty on 
this committee. Professor G. A. Goodenough is a member 
of the Main Committee, Dean C. R. Richards is Chairman 
of the individual Committee on Fuels of which Professor 
S. W. Parr is a member, and Professor J. M. Snodgrass 
is Chairman of the Committee on Locomotives. 




ALUMNI 

NOTHS 



3 



W'cusel Mitraid, in. e. "78, has been presidt-iit and 
manajjer of tlie iloi-ava Constrnction Co. since 
1901. 

Fred A. Lirtzc, c. e. '81, has had charge of the con- 
struction of a :U1 acre reservoir as city engineer of 
Carlyle, 111. 

William Btirchiy, c. e- '87, has been city engineer of 
Kansas City since 190'J. 

Col. W. R. Bobcrts. c. e. '88, is in the engineering and 
contracting business and specializing in industrial 
l)hiuts. 

Lincoln Bush, c. e. '88. is president of Bush, Roberts 
& Schaefer Co. and manager of bridge construc- 
tion, foundations, etc. 

Philip Steel, m- e. '89, is chief operating engineer of 
the S])ringtiel<l Ave. i)nnii)ing station for the city 
of Cliicago. 

Frank II. Clark, ni. e. '9(1, writes us that lie is techni- 
cal advi.sor on tlie Chinese (Tovernnient Railways 
to the llinistvy of Coinniunications in Cliina. His 
duties are in the direction of the standardization 
of cars, locomotives and other eiiuipment. 

Fred L. BiintOH, m. e. '91, is president of Hunton iV 
Bockins Co., in tiie line of selling and installing 
heating plants. 

Willurd A. Boyd, arch- '91, designs new jilaiils and 
develops new processes for the Dii I'ont ('uinpany 
at Wilmington, Del. 

Bcnjaniin A. ir«(7, c. e. 'Wl, is division engineer for 
the C. K. I. .Vc P. Railroad. 

Williain C. Lciiicn, c. e. '95, does consulting work on 
river and harbor and fortification projects for the 
United States Engineer Department- He holds 
the position of Division Assistant Engineer. 

Harry W. Baum, c. e. '95, went into the contracting 
business for himself last year. 

Henry Burt, c. e. '9(), is engineer and manager for 
tlie architectural firm of Holabird iS; Roche, Chi 
cago. He has recently been honored by being elect 
ed president of the AVestern Society of Engineers. 

Oscar Xtrchlav, c. e. '9(i, is constructing engineer for 
H. A. Hayworth ,of Chicago, and confines most of 
his attention to this branch of engineering 

Homer Linn, ui. e. '9(i, is industrial engineer for the 
American Radiator Co., Chicago. 



(lc(ir(/e ]j. (Irinns. m. e. "97. is president and general 
manager of the (liinies .Moulding Co., Detroit, 
Mich. 

Bert A. (Ini/iiKiii, m. e. ■!)7, is secretary and asst- 
treasurer of the Link Belt Co., Chicago- 

(leorge J. Bay, c. e. '98, was made chief engineer 
of the D. L. & W. Hailroad in 1920. 

^\'illilnll ./. linnrn. arcli. '0(1. practices architecture 
at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Edward P. Boyd, arch, '01, after having served the 
state and federal government as Supt. of Con- 
struction of U- S. Public Buildings for five years, 
has entered private practice at Aklalnuiia City. 
Okla. 

Alfred C. Lc tSound, c. e. '0.?, is assistant engineer of 
the Union Pacific Railroad and has been in charge 
of railway construction since 1915. 

Seymour D. Broun, c. e. "01, is connected with the 
American International Corporation. He is assis- 
tant to their rejiresentative to France and lie man- 
ages their Paris office. 

Jolni Ij. Huchanan, e. e. '01, is president of the Wesco 
Sii|)i)ly Co- During the war he had charge of the 
^lass Hospital ('enter and later the Jlisvis Hospit- 
al ("enter. 

Charles IJ. Sims. c. c. '(15, makes harbor designs, 
orders mateiials, writes specifications, etc. for tin' 
Harbor Department of llic City itf Los ,\ngeles, 
("a I if. 

,1/. /.. (')irr. e. e. '05, is director of the research laiiora- 
tories for the Safe Cabinet Co., Manetta, ( >. 

/>■ /'. //"(/. c. c. "(Ki. informs ns that he is chief engi- 
neer of the lioiicr plant of the Haker-I )unl)ar-Alleu 
Co.. at Cle\eland. 

.1/. a. Case. c. e. "DC. is research enginei'r f(U- the 
.Vmerican Sontlieiti Uridge Co. 

ir. .1. hniijiii. c. e. ■()7. teaches ( ". 10. as associate 
]irofessor at l'iir<hie- 

A*. I). ■/( sxiiji. III. e. 07. is in the sjie'cial process de- 
]iMrtnieiit of the \\'esterii Electric Co. at Chicago. 

Liirix McDoiKild. c. e. '08, has charge of engineering 
the sales for the Chicago Bridge & Iron \V(n-ks. 

C. li. Xiiltc, 111. e. '00. is general iii.inager (»f the R- 
M'. Hunt Co.. of Chicago, constructing railway 
e(|iii]iment. 



96 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



January, 1921 



S. B. Wright, m. e. '(1!), jittouds to the sales for the 
Texas Co. His positiim is that of Assistant Super- 

illtClKhMlt. 

//• J), liinniiiiii, e. e. "1((, as consiiltiii;^ and inaclic 
inj; enjiiiit'er al Sail l.:ikc Citv s|ic(iali/.cs in Imilil 
injjs. 

Aitliiir ('. (Irii iriiiik. c, c. "lO. of Sau Fi-aiieisco, was 
a "home comer." and is wvy entliusiastie over his 
prospects owinj; to .some patents recently allowed 
for the construction of reiuforced-concrete open- 
top railroad cars. 

H. I). Easlcrhrook, e. e. "10, is sales en<;ineer for the 
AN'estinjjhon.se Electric ('o., at Los Angeles, Calif. 

IL K. Burton, c- e. "11, lias his own private bnsiness 
at San -I nan, Porto Kico, selling construction sup- 
plies and doing eugiueeriug work. 

Clair E. Audvrson, e. e. '11, is sales manager for the 
American Everreadv Co., at IN^ewark, N. J. 

Harry J. Klotz. m. e. Ml', supervises plant operation 
and testing e(iuipmcnt for Webster and Stone, 
Boston, Mass. 

Harry F- Glair, m. e. "111. is at AVhiting. liid. and is 
superintendent of the I'aralfine ^^'orks of the 
Standard Oil Co. 

C. M. Fuller, m. & s. e. M:'., pilots the Ely .V Fuller 
engineering and constriiction company, .lauesville. 
Wis. 

Gurrncy H. Cole, e. e. "i;!, is doing general research 
for the Westinghouse people at Wilkinslinrg, Pa. 

Roscoe H. Albright, c. e- "1."'., has charge of design, 
layout, construction, and maintenance of the Fire- 
stone Tire and Kubber Co., Akron, (J. 

L. DeForetst, m. e. '14, is assistant engine-house fore- 
man for the C. C. C. & St. L. K. K at Belfontaine, 
Ohio. He has charge of a terminal dispatching 
from 7.~> to 100 engines daily and employing 350 
men. 

/'. L. White, ni. e. '14, has charge of special machine 
tool equipment, gear work, and miscellaneous job- 
bing woi-k in the engineering department of the 
Barl)er Colmau Co. at Kockford, 111- 

John H. Miller, e. e. 'l.">, has lieen with the Jewell 
Electrical Instrument Co. since 1911). He was gen- 
eral engineering su]M'rvision of instruments. 

Lloyd I). KiKipjj. c. e. "l."), is terminal engineer for 
the Trans-Mississijipi Terminal Kailroad. 

L. S. Morrill, n\- e. '1(1. is pi-oduction manager of the 
IMirand Steel I.ocker Co., (Mucago Heights, 111. 

Chiirlrs W. MeCiniibrr. arch. Ui, is with Wm. .Me 
Cnndter & Son. Chic-igo. Cliicago. general linildiug 
contractors. 

M. C. Hughen, e. e. "U!, is general foreman in charge 
of the test department of the Xew York Edison Co. 

F, M. Finn. arch. '17. is general superintendent in 
full chaige of tlie construction of the Uolfman 
Construclion Co.. Lawrence, JIass. 



t^tanton Walker, m. & e. e., "IT. does research in 
concrete and concrete m;ilciials for the Portland 
Cement Association. 

Ahnihnni lihtikshnir, c. c. "IS, designs |io\ver plant 
sl:it ions ill l'.osl<iii. 

.1/. /v. Gniliinn, e. e. MS, is snpciiiilciideiil in full 
charge of one j)laiil of the N'aiighan lV: I'.usliiicll 
Mfg- Co., Chicago. 111. 

Harry H. Chainnau. m. e. "lil, is sales engineer for 
the Westinghouse IMectric Co. 

Arllinr K. »sV//((/f'r.vo;/, in. e. M'.t, is assistant engineer 
and does foundry and machine shop estimating 
for Love, Bros., Aurora, 111. 

Walt Hpiiuller, c. e. '20, writes: "This C. E. game 
is like checkers, I move again. To make sure that 
I'll get the TFCHXOGRAPH hereafter please send 
it to my home address,wlii ch is 100 LaSalle Ave., 
Peoria, 111." 

Xorral E. Anderson, c. e. "L'O, now with the Sanitary 
District of Chicago, writes: "I have been fortu- 
nate in getting some real engineering problems "to 

I ry my teeth on"' as Prof. Baker would say. When I 

took the job of .Junior assistant Sanitary Engineer, 

the last thing I expected to do was to design arches, 

but that is just what I have been doing for about two 

months." 



A special committee of ttie American Association of 
Railway Engineers visited the engineering college of the 
University on November 15 to investigate its needs and to 
pledge its assistance to the Univetrsity in securing an 
increased appropriation from the state legislature. The 
railway men were brought together at an informal recep- 
tion with the members of the faculty and later a commit- 
tee meeting was held at which Dean Riohards outlined 
in detail the needs of the College of Engineering. The 
committeei expressed its satisfaction with the work that 
is being done under adverse conditions. 

"Wte are greatly impressed with the general outlay 
that we have observed in our tour this afternoon." stated 
H. R. Stafford, "and we admire the organization that is 
striving to do its best even though it is hindered through 
lack of appropriations by the state legislature." 

The committed consisted of A. F. Robinson, c. e. 'SO, 
bridge engineer of the Santa Fe system; H. P. Satford, 
assistant to the president of the Chicago. Burlington & 
Quincy railroad; G. J. Ray, '98, chief engineer of the 
Delaware Lackawanna and Western railroad; and C. A, 
Morse, chief engineer of the Chicago, Rock Island and Paci. 
tic railroad. 



EARL K. BURTON 

San Juan. Porto Rico 

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN 

INSPECTION SUPERINTENDENCE 



THE 




PUBIilSHED QUARTERLY BY THE STUDENTS OF THE 
COLLEGE or ENGINEERINO UJOVERSin y ILLINOIS 




Me^rcli 

'OUNDED • EIGHTEEN • HUNDRED • AND • EIGHTY- FIVE 
VOL. XXXIII • PRICE ■ 40 • CENTS • NUMBER 5 




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FITTINGS 



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Made according to engineering requirements, tapped and 
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Comply with A.S.M.E. specifications. 

Furnished in any size or type required by the trade. 

Particular care is given not only to their design and ap- 
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Our Long Experience In The Manufacture Of "S" Fittings 
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W. H. Stockham 'So. President H. C. Stockham '09. Vice President 

G. Petesch '19, Ass't to Vice President 

R. Risley '20. Research Engineer 

General Office and Factory 

BIRMINGHAM 

Distributing Warehouses 

BUSH TERMIXAI^BROOKLVX 

36TH AND IRON STS.— CHK'AGO 



The Technograph 

University of Illinois 
CONTENTS 

Till- Die Cnstinji I'l-occss -lolm W. Han-iiiiMii il'.i 

Smiiiiiei- Engineering Work Bi-uce W. Benedl.t Hi:: 

(ileanings from an Old Volnnie <>( the ('olonial I'ei-iod . . Hali)ii Stanlee Fanning Id.". 

TJie New Water Iniponnding Dam at Decatnr, Illinois .... -lolni C. Allnian 107 

I'eter Jnnkersfeld F- M. Wright 1(1!) 

Tonerete Slab Kailroad Bridges K. H. Siecke 11(1 

Revamping a Heating System Kobert F. Doepel 115 

Mexico and the Engineer E. O. G-adaval llfi 

The Story of the Army Trnck M. H. Cook IIS 

The New York-]S"ew Jersey ^■eili(■ul;n■ Tunnel I. K. Holmes ILM) 

Coal Studies at the Fniversily of Illinois H. W. I'arr iL'l 

Oil and tlie Engineer Harold H. Osborn li'L' 

Editorial '-^ 

Clay Deposits; Prosiieeting and Exploiation H. L. Bramwell ll'C, 

Research in Mechanical Refrigeration Horace -f. Macintire 1128 

The Antioch Plan K. A. Harvey i:!() 

Practical Hints A. L. R. Sanders 131 

Departmental Ncjtes l-'^ 

Ahunni Xotes '■" 

STAFF 

Ralph W. Ibenfehlt, '21 Editor 

Kurt H. Siecke, '21 As.sistant Editor 

Robert P. Doepel, '21 Assistant Editor 

Lloyd B. Baker, '22 Assistant Editor 

Arthur J. Ingold, '22 .... ' Assistant Editor 

Hurlbert V. Cheever, '21 Art Editor 

Fred W. Scheineman, '22 Business Manager 

Reginald P. Packard, '21 Assistant Business Manager 

Walter A. Mueller, '22 Assistant Business Manager 

William J. Klingberg, '22 Circulation Manager 

Martin E. Jansson, '23 Assistant 

Seth T. McCormick. '23 Assistant 

William H. Moore, '23 Assistant 

SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVES 

H. H. Osborn A. A. E. 

E. J. McDonald Architecture 

M. E. Jansson Civil Engineering 

N. A. Ragland Ceramics 

J. M. Agnew Electrical Engineering 

D. A. Monro Mechanical Engineering 

H. M. Wilten Mining Engineering 

C. W. Cleworth Railway Engineering 



PiihllslKd (iiKirtcrtt/ by the Ulini Publisliin;/ Coiniian:/. AiJijIiralioii (ix si KiiKl-dns.'i niiilltr piiidiiiij <it the 
Ijostofficc at Urbana, Illinois. Office 213 lingincennrj Hall, Vrbaiia. Illinois. Xubsvription.'i $t.2.'> per ijair. 

Single copies 40 cents. 



The Stadium 

An opportunity to demonstrate true Illinois 
loyalty, 

To erect a monument which will stand 
through the ages— a fitting tribute to our Alma 
Mater, 

To provide a recreational field for all Illini— 
an investment in health, happiness, and general 
welfare of our men and women of today and of 
future generations, 

A comprehensive project which will afford 
an opportunity for each loyal Illini to contrib- 
ute to the future glories of Illinois, 

Build the Stadium! 



The Die Casting Process 

■ IiiiiN W. I Iakui.m AX, 111. ('. '2:! 



Every eiiginepi-nij; stiKh-iit slioiilil he well in- 
formed as to the possil)ilities and liinitatioiis of 
die eastings, the former tliat lie may ap)ily such east- 
ings to the prohlems in prodnction he will eneoniiler. 
and the latter that he may ap](ly his ability to tlii' 
furthei- development of tliis new craft. It is only 



AiR C^LiND^R 




The location of tlie units of a diecasting niacliine in tlie 
starting position. 

in the last seven years that ahimininu has been sue 
eessfnlly die cast; brass die castings are still in the 
experimental stage; and tlie reward seems nnlimited 
to the man that will eventnally die cast iron. Many 
small, intricate i)arts are still being jirodneed at a 
great expense by machine work when tJicy conld be 
effectively replaced by diecastings at a much lower 
cost. When a part that is produced by several mach- 
ining operations upon a sand casting can be accur- 
ately cast to the finish dimensions at a rate of foi-ty 
an hour, a great saving has obviously been alVected. 
Unlike much industrial nmchinery, such as 
machine tools, which may be bought from the manu 
facturer, die casting machines are designed and built 
liy the individual concerns ])roducing llie diecast- 
ings. Each concern has its corps of expert designers 
whose entire time is devoted to the development fif 
new luachiiies fin- the use of that coiicerii. ( 'ouse- 
(piently, a keen rivalry iias gi-o\vn ii]) bcl\\ccii the 
ditt'erent companies. Eacli coucei-n lias iiieii in its 
employ secretly placed in the shops of its coni|ii'ti 
tors to observe and make reports on new machines, 
dies, alloys, or methods of producing dillicult cast- 
ings. Watchmen are placed at entrances to the shop, 
and employees are admitted only upon ]tresenting 



their number tag. Xewly designed niachiues are de- 
tailed only by draftsmen known to be loyal to the 
firm. Excessive curiosity is regarded with sucli sus- 
picion, that little information has been gathered and 
published. Lately, however, manufacturers have 
realized that the industry has sutt'ereil from this 
lack of publicity, and efforts are being made to in- 
form the i)ublic ii|ioii the die cjisting process, though 
concerns contiimc to guai'd their individual achiev- 
ments as zealously as ever. 

Stated briefly, the die casting process consists 
of forcing nndteii inet.il under pressure into a steel 
nndd fitted with suitalde cores, and then knocking 
the solidified casting out of the mold. 

It would be futile to attenn)t to cover the de- 
sign of die casting dies by the description of a single 
die, for each die possesses features peculiar to it- 
self. It is this variety that nmkes the work of die- 
maker and die designer interesting, for die design 
requires more than ordinary imagination and initia- 
tive. There are certain details of construction, how- 
ever, that are common to almost all dies, a descrip- 
tion of which should give a general understanding 
of their construction. 

Thus, all dies are nuide in two halves. A com- 
jilete die may be described as a complicated mold 
which is made of steel and designed to be used nmny 
times. TIh' two liahes of the die correspond to the 
cope and drag of a nu)ld. When used on the type of 
nmchine described in this article, they are called 
the stationary die block, and the nutvable die block, 
the former being stationary on the carriage of the 
diecasting machine, while the latter is faslened to 
the movable plate and is moved away from the sta- 
tionary block to open the die. To insure the ])roper 
alignment of the two blocks when the die is closed, 
four guide ])ins are set in the iiioxable block. They 
are accurately ground to tit reamed holes in the sta- 
tionary block. The i>arting line to be followed de- 
termines the nature of the surfaces of the blocks 
that coincide when the die is closed. If the i)arting 
line is in a single plane, the simplest case, the sur- 
faces are ground flat aud parallel. I'"or many inti-i- 
cate castings, Iiowcmt, llie parting line must lollow 
a very irr<'gulai- path, causiug a complex joint be- 
tween the t\v<p blocks. When it is coiisidere<l tli.it 
this joint between I lie two steel surfaces must be 
tight enough to liobi the liquid metal under great 
pressuri', it liecomes evident that dieniakers om- 
jiloyed in this work must jiossess exce])tional skill. 



100 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



March, J 921 



MOVEABLE PLATE. 




r,6 ^ 

The location of the units when the casting is shot. 
A side view of a typical die. 

Die lilocks iirc iiiadt' I'loiii tool slt-t'l. oi- ci'i'tain 
foiimii'iciiil steels liaviiig heat resisthij; (lualities or 
a low coetlicient of e.\]tansioii. The size ranges from 
six inches sijuare \\\) to sixteen by twenty-fonr in- 
ches, depending, of course, ujion the size of the cast- 
ing, though ccitjiii iy|n's of machines reiinire larger 
(lies than others. Tlic thickness depends ujion the 




Fig. 3. 
Side View of Typical Die 



depth (if the cavity and tiic iiiccliaiiisiri iie<-('ssary to 
operate the cores. Hoth die lil(i<ks aic water cooled. 

Since niet;ils shriiilc ii|)oii co(diiig. shriid<age 
must he allowrd mi all dimensions of the die cavity. 
Hei»etit inns ol' calciilat ions of shrinkage are elimin- 
ated liy pi()\iding thr draftsman with ihM-itiial 
e(|ni\alciit laldcs having the shrinkage addcil. These 
tahles are ina(h' up for each die casting alloy. 'iMie 
problem of shrinkage is not as easily solved as 
wonid at liist appear, however, for in many cases 
the sliajK' of the casting is an important factor. A 
solid, heavy casting would have less slirinkage than 
a light bracket or frame. Die cast, elliptical, alum- 
inum frames for plate glass automobile curtain 
lights have a greater shrinkage i)er inch along the 
major axis than along the minor axis. Correct de- 
termination of shrinkage requires a man with good 
judgement and extensive ex])erience. ilistakes here 
are expensive, because to remove a few thousandths 
of an inch of metal from the surface of an irregular 
cavity is a slow operation requiring skill. To facili- 
tate the removal of the casting from the die, draft 
is necessary on all cores and side walls. The amount 
varies from .005 inch per inch of side wall for alum- 
inum castings to .001 inch iier inch of side wall for 
tin base metal castings. 

Holes are made by steel cores that jirotrude in- 
to the die cavity. The draft allowed on cores varies 
from .015 inch for each inch of diameter or length 
of core for aluminum castings to .(10(15 inch for each 
inch of diameter or length of core for tin base metal 
castings. It is important that the casting shall stick 
in the moveable die block when the ilie oi)ens. be- 
cause the means for knocking tlie cas^ting out of the 
die are attached to this block. If it is necessary for 
cores to enter the cavity lidin the stationary half, 
they pass througli the block ami are fastened to two 
plates called "pull back plates." The cores are free 
to slide through the die block. After the casting is 
"shot", these ])lates are drawn back, removing the 
cores, and thereby reducing the tendency of the cast- 
ing to stick in the stationary block. AVhenever it 
is ])ossible, however, the cores are permanently set 
in the movable block. This dis])oses of the pull 
hack plates, and serves 1o hold the casting in the 
movable block. Cores entering the side of tlie die 
are giiideil liy cast iron bushings set in one or the 
other of the blocks, and are drawn by the opei-ator. 
before the <lie o|iens, by nieaiis of levers attached to 
the die. 

.Vftef tli<' die has opened, the casting is knocked 
otit of the movable block by "push of!' pins" fastened 
in ••push olf plates." These jiiiis, which are made to 
have a sliding tit in the block, |)ass through the die 
block into the die cavity and are finished flush with 
the cavity when the- push otf plates are drawn back. 



Miinh. IH21 



THE TECHNOGKAPH 



101 



WIu'ii the L-astiiij; iius \>^•^■n sliot and the die opened, 
the pusli off plates are driven forward, the push oil' 
l>ins knocking the casting out of tlie block. Now it 
is evident that if these plates were left in the for 
ward position, the push off pins would protrude in 
to the die cavity leaving their inii)ression in the next 
casting. Additional pins are tiierefore fastened in 
the inisii oft' plates and slide through tlie die block, 
but do not enter the die cavity. Tliese pins are 
liiiislieil flusli witli the surface of tlie die block when 
the iiush oft' plates are back. They are called "|)ush 
back" pins. If the ]ilates are forward when tiic die 



type casting nieliiods to the inainifactnre of castings 
of other kinds, is in a patent grantecl to ('. and B. H. 
Dusenbury, in 1877. This was on a small liand-oper- 
aled niacliiiie only adajited to metals having a low 
fusion i)<)iiil. It was not developed until additional 
claims on a similar macliine were allowed C W. 
AVeiss, in 18!)!-'. These small macliiiics have been 
used to [iroduce small lead triiikcls such as are sold 
at fairs and e.\])ositions. In tln' early jiart of this 
century a machine was made by the Hoss !?.Iannfac- 
tiiring Co., of Hrooklyn, N. Y., which, though only 
a primitive hand oijcratcd type, ein'i')died (he same 






a 






1''1G. 4. 
ILLUSTRATING THE CYCLE IN WHICH \ DIE OPERATES IN THE PRODUCTION OF EACH CASTING 
(a) Die closed and cores are in position ready to receive the metal, (b) Pull back plates drawn back and die 
opened; the casting is shown in the movable block, (c) Casting knocked out. (d) Die is closing; push back pins are 
bearing on the stationary block to bring the push off pins flush with the die cavity when the die is closed. 



closes, these pins will bear on the stationary block 
while the movable block mo\-es forward until the 
pins are flush with its surface and the push olf ]iins 
are flusli with the die cavity. Figure 3 is a side view 
of a typical die having cores in both halves and show- 
ing all the details mentioned above. Figure 4 illus- 
trates the cycle in which the.se details opei-atc in the 
production of each casting. 

Die casting macliines, and in fad, the while <lie 
casting process, are an outgrowth of lyiic casting 
machines, the linotype machine being a machine (\v- 
veloped to produce a certain kind of die casting, it 
is dili'icult to determine the period at which mo<lein 
die casting niachiiiery was introduced, foi- its de- 
velopment from type casting machinery has been 
gradual. The earliest record of an attempt to adapt 



general principles of design found i'l all sncceeding 
die casting nuichines including the present automatic 
macliines. Tliese princiides are: a carriage, .supiwrt- 
ing the stationary die block moving back and foith 
over the bed and jiassing under the pot of metal at 
one extremity of its path; a movable plate, carrying 
the movable die block, and sliding on the carriage 
so as to bring tlic two halves of the die together; 
means l.y which to draw the cores from the casting, 
and to knock the casting onl of the die. 

The metal is not iionred into the die, as into 
a sand mold, but is foi-ccd into the die nnder press- 
ure, thus tilling out the corners of the casting, pre- 
venting air cavities, and insuring a smooth accur- 
ately cast pi-oducl. Two distinct styles of pots have 
been developed for deli\eiing molten metal (o !he 



102 



THE TEOHNOCSRAPH 



March, 1921 



ilic Ml .1 |picssiirc III' L'-Ml |>((iiiiils piT si|ii,irc im-li iii;iiMt;iiii tiic supply nT iii('l:il in lliis slylc uf pdl, 
Willi ImiiIi sInIcs. \\\v iiicI:iI is ^illdycil in the iiii'lliii- iiinl ("isliiijis pnidiiccd liy il ;irc ^;ciicr;illy IriM- Irniii 
1111)111 ill l.irj;c (pi.inlilii's mikI llicii carricil in sni:ill ;iii- liolcs. Il :ilsi) ilcli\crs tlicdcnscr iiicl:il Ironi llic 
hiillcs hy (Mcli (ipciMlur III his iiKicliinc. Tliis insures Imlliiiii uT Ilic pol Ircc fnini llic iii;iiiy inipiii-il ics 
Ihc cMslinj^s Irdiii iliilcii'iil iii,-icliincs to li:i\c llic ||imI rise Ik llic sni-r.-icc uf llic niclal. This lypc is 
s.iiiic ciinipcisiliiin, mihI cinihlcs analyses lo he iiiailc reprcscnlcd in Ihc diai;ranis nf I he uiiils of a die 
of Ihcalliiy when llic niiMals are iK'iliji- mixed in llic casliiii; iiiachiiie shown in lij;nrcs I and l'. The piil 
iiicllin.u rmini. The pols arc sntViciently healc<| liy js localed altoxc llic die in llicse dia.uranis, which 
j;as 111 niainlain llic iiiclal in llie nmllen slale. In is the must liiuical place liir il. Iliunuh simic manii- 
onc slylc. Ihc pnl is made air ti;L;lil. and llic niclal raclnrcrs jilacc Ihc put on one side or dircclly lie- 
insidc is kepi iinder air pressure. When Ihc car hind Ihc die. l-'i^nre 1 shows Ihc rclali\(' Incaliiin 
ria;;e l>rini;s Ihc die under Ihc put, a \al\c is o|)cnctl. ul' Hie \arions iinils at what nii;;lil lie called the 

slartiiii; iiusiliun. p'rum this pusitiun the carriai;!' 
mu\cs lurward under the pul. the mu\,ildc plate car 
rics llie mu\alilc die liluek aluiii; Ihc earriai;e to the 
stationary block, closiiis; the die; then the uperalur 
places llie cures in pusitiun and the parts are luca- 
Icd as shown in lienre '1. 

Now is the time In watch onl! l'"rom his 
sliieldcd position behind the macliinc. Ihc opcratui- 
roadies above liis head with both arms and liives a 
sliort jerk on the valve lever. .V low hiss, a sluirp 
rei)()rt as the exhaust valve oiiens, and it is all over, 
— if everything went smoothly. IJiil many a trust- 
ing young draftsman sent to the shop to measure 
up a job has been burned by a si)ray of molten alum- 
inum that often spurts out from between the die 
blocks, sometimes even clearing the ten foot sheet 
iron partitions hung between the machines. 

The cores are now drawn out. the carriage and 
movable ])late rnii back, the casliiig knocked oii( of 
the movable die bluck ,ind jilaccd in the pan of cast 
iiigs. and the o|)eration coinnicnccs again. Two men 
o|M'i'ating one machine can |iroilucc four or lixc 
hnudred castings a day. If the part is small, sevci-al 
sejiai-ate cavities may be sunk in one die and gated 

and Ihc lal spnrls into the die cavity. This style together, greatly increasing ))roilncl ion. Due to the 

has the ;iil\anlagc of simplicity. Inil trouble with great pressni-e uii the metal, (he castings come Iruni 
air liulcs in the casting is often experienced with Ihc machine with a lin at the parting line, and Ihc 
ils use. In the ullicr style. Ihc pul is made gate is also attached to the cast ing. From the ca st- 
all- tight. .\ plunger working in a cylinder snli- ing department Hie ])ans of castings g(» to the clean- 
merged in the metal o|)erates by means of cum ing department where this tin and gate are removed 
ju'csscd air. (»pciiings in the side uT Ihc cylin in a single punch ])ress operation. The result is a 
der admit the melal. which is Irappcd liy Ihc siiiuul h. clean cast i ng, accurate to the thousandth of 
plniigcr on the downward stroke and lurced through an inch; often of the most intricate design, yet pro- 
llic upcn v.ihc inlu the die cavily. II is easier to duced in a single upcratiuu. 




Fig. 5. 
F^xiuiiiiles of (tiecastings 



SIR : 

BAK(iAIN Iir^'Ti;!;: Will y<m iilea.se direct 
me to the liosiery department ? 

BOAV-LE(iGEI) FLOOR-WALKER: Walk this 
way. madam. 



Summer Engineering Work 



Bkuce W. Benedict 
MaiHif/cr Hliop Luhnniiorh 



"ICiifiinocring is the .seieuce of controlliug- tlie 
forces and oT utilizing tlie material of nature for the 
licnclil of man, and the art of orgauizing aud of 
diiecliii.u Ihc activities in connection therewith." 
'{'ills dclinition of engineering from the ]iream1)le of 
the conslitiitii)n of tlie Federated American lOngi- 
neering Societies ought to Ite tlie beacon light to 
e\-ery student of engineering. It sketches in out- 
line llic nllim.ite aim of engineering and also the 
elements of piacticc liy which this aim is to be 
realized. .\n uiulerstanding of this detinition is the 
tirst essential in the preparation for tlie ])ractice of 
engiueeriug. as without it the student will not 
|iossess the ju-oper backgi'ound foi- the stmly of en- 
gineering subjects. It will give a new meaning to 
the curriculum and throw into bold relief the im- 
portant elements of college life which in these days 
of countless activities are liable to become obscured. 
A study- of this definition is commended to every 
stmlent of engineering in the belief that it furnishes 
the basis of present action aud of future conduct. 

The science of engineering was developed by 
man to improve conditions of life. If all engineer- 
ing knowledge, data, and traditions wej-e suddenly 
destroyed, cities would disappear, millions of people 
would ilie of want, and the world would revert to a 
condition a])proximating that of the itrimitive age. 
i'lngineering suiiplies a vital element in the social 
siructui-c of the world today, ami those who practice 
it must ((udorm to certain well defined recpiirements 
if they are to have satisfactory market foi- theii- 
endeavois. In general terms, the engineer's rniic- 
tion is to tiansloiin the raw materials of the earth 
into forms useful to man. This process involves a 
]u-ohlem just stated, but they are nevertheless an 
integral jiart of it, and their execution is measured 
by the same standards as govern the whole. I'uless 
this fact is clearly understood and acted upon in 
l)ractice, personal eft'ort is quite certain to be un 
productive and is not in demand. 

Every new idea, every new design, excry new 
device, is subjected to the inexorable tests of costs 
and utility. The world has no ])lace in its scheme of 
allaiis lor engineers with ideas, methods, or ap- 
pliances which either do not reduce the cost of the 
elements of living or promote the comfort of man. 
Although this general statement is without sjiecific 
reference to individual tasks or conduct, it defines 
in ([uite definite terms the field of jiroductive engi- 
neering effort. 



In a discussiim of engineering, the terms 
"theoiy" and "practice'" invariably are emiiloyed. 
Too often they are considered to represent opi)osing 
elements. .Vctually they are closely related and both 
are fundamental in the management of eugim-ering 
projects. Theory represents the plan, aud piaclice 
the execution of that plan. Without a jilau, prac 
tice is inefi'icient and costly. Engineering is good 
when it is based on sound fundamental theory; it is 
had when theory is unproved or unsound. Since 
theory must precede practice, the initial period of 
training for the profession of engineering is devoted 
to a study of the fundamentals nuderlying engi- 
neering theory. Society has provided the technical 
school with its scientific and noncommercial envir- 
onment for this purpose. It is generally agreed that 
here the study of engineering theory flourishes un- 
der the most auspicious circumstances, and evei-y 
young man who is given the oi)portunity of beginn- 
ing his engineering training in the atmosjjhere of 
the technical sclnxd should not overlook his good 
fortune. 

While the ]iursuit of the knowledge of engineer- 
ing fundamenlals is carried on to develop sound 
conceptions of engineering tluMiry. the student 
should not forget that the ability to put his theories 
into practice iiiNohes other i'actoi-s than a certain 
nuderstanding of them. Tlie<>ry in ilscH' is \aluable 
for the possibilities it holds for aii|)lication to the 
l)roblems outlined by the definition previously given. 
It is the a]i|ilicatiou which makes the intrinsic merit 
of theory valuable lo man. The young engineer 
should -seek first to pcrlcci liis understanding of the 
theory and secondly the methods of its ai)plication, 
if he would ronuil out liis pi-e|)aratiou for engineer- 
ing luactice. While I lie technical school furnishes 
the facilities for training in theory, it alt'oi-ds none 
and properly so, lor aii])lication of theory to prac- 
tical aft'airs. The world is the laboratory where 
theories are tested out in pi-actice and it is there the 
student in engineering must go for the i)ractical end 
of his training. 

Few students are fortunate enough lo have had 
ex])erience in industrial or engineering works before 
entering college, but every one shmdd embrace tiie 
opiiortunity of employing the summer vacation for 
])ractical work related to his chosen branch of engi- 
neering. It goes without saying that before any stu- 
dent is qualified to assume a i)osition of responsibil- 
ity, he must have had actual experience, and a con- 



104 



THK TECHNOCrRAI'H 



March, f!).U 



sidcralilc Miiioiiiit of it. willi |ir:H't ii-nl alljiiis. 'I'liis 
can III' olilaiiicil al'lcr };rii(lu;itii>ii Itiit :it a (-ci-laiii 
pric-i' which it is not iiccessai-v to jiay. If llircc siim- 
iMci- vacations arc ntili/.cd for pi-aclical traininu. a 
tciial of nine months will lie fjaincd ilnrinj; the col- 
lcj;c coui-sc. There ai-c a niinilicr of sound reasons 
for so doinj;. The iiraclical knowh'djje jjaincd diii-- 
inu Ilie vacation will uivc a more definite meaniii;; 
to llie courses of study and un(|Uest ionalily result 
in a lietter understandini; of llieni. \\'ork al'tei- grad- 
uation will lie taken u]i \\iih nnuii more facility on 
account of the previous trainin,n. and in most cases 
pay will lie liijjher anil the jiosition a more n-sponsi- 
hle one. 

The colh-jie student I reiiiiciil ly fails lo "i;et on" 
«ilh the ordinary woi'kman simply liecause he does 
not nndei-stand him and his ways. The workman is 
the partner of the cnjiineer, as the latter makes plans 
and the former executes them. T'uless there is sym- 
pathetic cooperation in the common task of produc- 
tion, the output will lie affected. The eng:ineer must 
know men as he does his formulas and materials if 
he hojies to occupy positions of res|)onsibility. Johu 
\. ^^■illys made this fact especially clear when he 
said. "If you know one line of work, but cannot 
direct other men. you are worth so much — if you 
know several lines lint cannot direct nuni you are 
worth more — if you are not an expert in any line. 
I)ni can handle men who are experts, you are worth 
still more — if you are an expert in one line and can 
also handle other nu'u. your worth is even greater 
— if you are an exjieit in many lines and can also 
handle men, \o\\ are the rarest man in business". 
The younj; eujiineer should end)race every opportun- 
ity of "ruliliing elbows" with the workman and seek 
to learn his methtids, his view[ioint and more of the 
world in which he lives. IVrhaps no other outside 
experience is (piite so important as this, because 
fitness for jiositions of responsibility is largely a 
matter of ability to handle men. 

Outside of the human contact the young engi- 
neer will gain valuable tirst hand experience during 
the summer in res]iect to e(piipmeii1, material, ])ro- 
cesses, methods, and many other essential details in 
the conduct of engineering and industrial all'airs. 
This tyiie of knowledge cannot be ac<|uired from 
books. It will be an illuminating and ])ro(itable 
experience to serve as a small cog in a big machine 
and be subject to tlu^ many regulations which in- 
dustry linds are necessary in the conduct of its 
atlairs. 

The College of ICngineering maintains a com- 
mittee to promote the cause of summer work for 
iindergi-aduate students. It is hoped that eventually 
every student will .seek engineering work during 
the vacation period as part of his egineering train- 



ing. .\l present, the decision as to whether engineer- 
ing or other work is engaged in rests with the in- 
ilividual. l-"rom the reiiorts received from the |ire- 
ceeding summer it devehips that ."S jiercent of the 

lergraduate body was emiiloycd in work of value 

as engineering training, while 4l' pei-cent was en- 
gaged in tasks unrelated to the ]iractice of engineer- 
ing. The percentage of .luniors who sought engi- 
neering work was higher than that of Freshmen, 
bill in all (lasses the number that denied themselves 
I lie opporlmiity of increasing their knowledge of 
engineering as an industrial practice was much too 
large. It is liopccl ihc importance of utilizing the 
vacation pei-iod for practical engineering training 
will be more fully realized by all classes this year. 

Ill secui-ing jiositions for students last summer. 
tlic Committee found that the nuitter of wages gen- 
erally carried nH)re weight than o[)])ortunities for ex- 
perience in the decision to accept or refuse offers 
from employers. While the desire to attain the larg- 
est wage iiossible is a normal one, nevertheless it is a 
mistake for a student during his training period to 
sacrilice oitjiortunities of .securing valuable know- 
ledge for a few extra dollars. Positions should be 
sought which offer the best experience in the par- 
ticulai- lines regardless of wages jiaid. Employers 
cannot afford to give experience and high wages 
also, and if they offer large wages it will be for 
specialized and physical work of uncertain value in 
the training of an engineer. The loss of money 
now from accepting a lower paid but a more valu- 
able job will be comjiensated for by increased earn- 
ings after graduation at an earlier date. 

The Committee also found much to its surjirise 
and regret that (piite a large ]>ercentage of students 
failed to keep their aiipointments with employers 
with scrupulous exactness. In some cases the candi- 
dates failed to report for (hity without offering 
any explanation. Such practices as this ai-e (piite 
out of keei)ing with engineering traditions or with 
good business principle. After accepting a job. stu- 
dents should report on time and stay for the prom- 
ised period of service. Unless students kee[i their 
ap]iointments it will be im|)ossible for the college to 
develo]) a satisfactory plan of cooperation with em- 
jiloyers, and this at the lu-esent time is a policy to 
which it is committed. 

College men are a selected group. The world 
rightfully exjiects much of them, and it is not being 
disajipointed. As a class, college men are carrying 
giealer responsibility than any other group in soc- 
iety of similar size. >>ot all college men succeed, be- 
cause a fornml education does not make up for de- 
liciencies in ciiaracter and the will to work. Let each 
man who reads this ask himself, "Do I understand 
(ConchulecJ on Page 13S) 



Gleanings From an Old Volume of the 
Colonial Period 



Jt.M.I'll S'i'AXI.EE FaNXINC 

. l.v\or/(//(' /() Arcliitrcliirr 



At a [icridil wlicn I lie so ciillcd ('((loiiinl style 
of architec-turt' is liciiii; used tlii'duglidiit llic conn- 
try, and at a tinir wlicii all uiatei-ial that is aiitlicn- 
lically colonial is licinii I rcasuri'd, it is of iiilcrcsl to 
snrvL-y one of the more conuuonly known ai-chitec- 
tui-al pnhlicatlons, the Bible as it were, that resnlted 
from the needs of the hnilders of that iicriod. Snch 
a hook was composed hy Asher I'enjannn who styles 




it.MCN:) IM. f>h:)t MOULDINGS CIVIN 
)YA5HLR. bCNJAniM [01 THt U5D Of 
TliF: COLONiAL BUILDEl 



himself "Architect and ("ai-jienfer'". Thoniih credited 
with the autliorshi]) of several works, such as *'Tlie 
Builders' (luide", "Tiie Practical House CariKniter", 
and "The American Builders' (\)mi)anion", it is as 
the author of a hook entitled "Practice of Architec- 
ture'' that Benjamin is most tamed. .\ copy of the 
seventh edition of this work. ]inl)iislicd in I'.oslon in 
1851, contains, accordin<; to tiic announcement, "The 
five orders of architectui-e and .in additional c(dumn 
and ent,ilila1ui-e for the use of carpenters and prac- 
tical men." 

Asher Benjamin then proceeds to give a develoii- 
ment of the principles and practice of the science 



of using the five ordei's of architecture in a detaileil 
and systematic manner. \Miile it is \(My possil)le 
that some of the nu)re intricate liits of det.iil in the 
do(U-ways. ](orticoes. and m:nitcl pieces where the 
classic order iletails were used, were imported from 
abroad or built by imported craftsmen, surely much 
of the work of this nature must have been dcuie by 
native workmen whose chief tutor would be a cojiy 
of such a work as this by Benjamin. 

Tlie classic orders are reproduced with concise- 
ness and accuracy, the author evidently being famil- 
iar with the writings of Vitruvius and tlie di-awings 
of Sir William Chambers or ]iossibly \Mgnola and 
other Kenaissance authorities. His careful repro- 
duction of th(!so orders is no doubt a cause for the 
close relation to the classic of the early .\merican 
Kenaissance, as the colonial and (ieorgian jjcriods 
may be rightly called, aiul of the Greek and llonuin 
revivals of a more studiously strict adluM-ence to the 
classic, which came later. 

The author- howe\cr, felt that there was a need 
for auotlier order of architecture .illhough he a|iol- 
ogizes for the publication of anything in the shajie 




.')KTioNc) or kKmy\\L houldinc/ 

TAKtN tm\ AN E'ULY VOLl^NEr F"i^ 
AJHLR. RtNJAMlN- 



lOf) 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



March, 1921 



of Mil Older, unless it lie <ii-eek or Koiiinii. li.v .1 piT 'I'lie eiil;ilil;iliii-e ^iveli lo this ideal oi-.ler. is two 

son well versed in arehileet lire as lieiii^ llioiii;lil dialiieleis in lieifjlit and divided into the colivoil- 
liiil.' worse iliaii heresy, '{'he reason he jiives loi- tioiial pails of architrave, frieze and fornice, the 
ills olVerin^ of a new order is llie I'ael llial more (h'lails heiii.u selected witli a view of economy and 
than half of the columns and eiilalilal iires lieini; an adaplat ion to t he column ami lo modern pracl i<-e. 
erected, lieloni; neilliei- lo llie Cirecian nor Komaii Here. Ilieie is an adherence to the nondeiil ialated 
system.— that inIelli.u<MiI workmen round I lie 'I'liscau (ii-eek Ionic order, excejit that in the cornice, the 

corona has ;i jii-ealer i>rojection and lieii;lil more 
adajileil lo serve New lOn.nlaml i-limale llian sunny 
( i recce. 

With an assiimiirion that would lie (|uile (lis- 
Iressint;- tit the presenl day advocate of the abolition 
of I lie classic orders, Aslier lieiijamin states that, 
imismnch as all the laincr and lietter class of edifices 




t51GN5 rOR. WOODEN CO^NICE:.^ PR/VWN 
AM; PUBL15HtD BY A^HtR BtNJArilN-1651 



order too massive and idain, the horic too exjien- 
sive. and the Ionic too rich, and that they were 
therefore under the nece.ssity of coinjiosiny a cidiimn 
and entablatni-e which would conform to the views 
and |iiirses of their emidoyers. 

As a solution of this prolilem. llie ideal order, 
or rather combination of ordei's. is ^iven. The shaft 
of the column, together with its flutes and tillet. is 
an imitation of that fouud in the interior of the 
Temple of Apollo at Bassae, this bcinj; adopted on 
account of -the graceful and simjile aspect." The 
flutes are an imitation of the best (Irecian Doric 
flutes, ditiering only in that they are sejiarated by 
very small lillets, which in hreadth are eipial to one- 
fifth or one sixth of the width of llie flule. The riiites 
are twenty in number, and llie base is somewhat 
similiar to that of the Tuscan order given by \'itriv- 
iiis. excejit for a fluted elliittical torus, recalling the 
better examples of the (ireeU Ionic base. The capital 
is imitative of both the (Ireek and Koman Doric, but 
strives to retain the delicacy of the (Ireek mouldings. 



HjVL a POtTICl/WHKt THlJrHOUJt 

;r Jlf MAK.n TflC/cOliinK M LTASTNINt 



;>M',IT[:C1 IN HtlGHT- ON TOt WtfTCAeY, 
' 1M[ list M, 6fc ^ LARCt 3IZE,IT WILL 
Bt A^Vl-WSlir TO riAl.t THt COLUMN *- 
WOT BCHT PlAMfcTKf IN HtlCHT- 



/yHri^t^.H.J. 




A COLUMN AND ENTA5LATUPX nt THt 
fOLONlAL CA^PtNTE^ AND PRACTICAL 51JiLPK^ 
mmW 5Y A5H&P.5E:NJAniN 



will always be decorated with some one of the orders, 
he iio]ies that this composition may be found wortliy 
of being made a substitute. He specially advocates 
its use in the designs of the smaller and cheaper 
class of buildings where a -chaste and classic ap- 
pearance luav be secured at small expense." 



The ICgyplians are becoming modern: they im- 
ported more llian a million dollars worth of sla- 
lionaiy internal-combustion engines in tlie first nine 
nionlhs of I!l2(t. and in the first eight iiKuiths, #15,- 
liD.'i worlli of elcciric lights. This might prove to be 
a good lield lor the engineer who considers going 
abroad. 



The New Water Impounding Dam at 
Decatur, Illinois 



.ToHX C. Ai.i.jiAX, ('. E. '2\ 



When ;i city of io.Odd pcoplf |i;iys mu- iiiilliiiii 
dollars to pi-ovide itself with a .suitable vvatei- 
supidy, it is either a very progressive city, or else 
it fiuds the supplying of water a ditfieult problem. 
Decatur conies under both heads to a certain extent, 
for the (piestion of furnishing the city with water 
has always been a puzzling one; but the people be- 
lieve so strongly in the future of tlieir city that they 
are willing to sacritice for the ])i'esent in order to 
provide an ailcipialc sn]i[)ly fur many years to come. 

The present supply consists of a very small res- 
ervoir in the Sangamon River, ft)rmed by means of 
a concrete dam al)out 11.' feet high, iiolding barely 
enough water to ill! tlic livei- hank full. The water 
from the reserxoir has to be treated witli alum to 
coagulate tlii' solid material, then tiltered, and fin- 
ally mixed with chlorine for stei-ilization. A\'lien 
the river is low ami no water passes over the dam. 
the water gets \(m\ dirty and reipiires careful treat 
ing. The obi <lam has broken once or twice, ami is 
in very ]»>i)i- condition. Added to the jioor (piality 
of the water is the fact that the city is growing 
rapidly, and increasing quantities of water are need- 
ed for manufacturing purposes. In a very few years 
the old sujijily would be inade(puite, and it was de- 
cided to provide an abundance of water now ratber 
than wait until the need was more urgent. 

The site selected for the new ilam is abont .")0() 
yards upsti'eam from the old dam just above I he 
pumping station and tilter plant. At this point the 
valley narrows down to about one-third of a mile in 
width, with fairly steep slopes on the sides. No laii- 
roads ci-oss it foi- eight miles above the site, nor is 
there any land in the proposed reservoir that is ex- 
ceptionally \aliiable. At the selected site there is a 
steel highway bridge, one approach of which is to 
be used as jjart of the dam. the other approacii and 
tiie i)ridge itself to be laised 14 feet above their 
present height. The valley bottom is tilled with 
glacial drift in layers of sand and gravel, with a 
pocket of (piicksand here and there, the drift ex- 
tending too far below the river bottom to permit 
the use of a rock oi- even (lay fonndation. Uardpan 
is found at the north end of the dam. but it soon 
drojis sharply and gives place to the sand and gravel. 
However, the drift is compact enough and has sutfic- 
ient binding material in it to support piling safely, 
so that, instead of trying to go to bedrock, the en- 



gineei-s designiMl the dam to rest on piles driven 
down HO feet into the river bottom. 

One-third of a mile is an unusiml length for a 
snmll dam. The length is actually about IS.IO feet, 
divided into three i)arts: the north end)aukment, the 
south embankment, and the concrete spillway, each 
part having a different alignment, so that the dam 
is made n|p with respect to three ditferent refereiu'e 
lines. 

The north embankment, which is 585 feet long, 
consists of an earth (ill jtaved with concrete, and 
lias a cut-otf trench and wall at the bottom to pre- 
vent seei)age. All sod and other oi'ganic uiattei- is 
strii)ped from the endiankment site to prevent holes 
from being fornu'd by decayed vegetation. A trench 
10 feet wide and from (! to 12 feet deep is dug by 
nu'ans of slijis at what is to be the center-line of the 
endiankment. and down the middle of the trench 
a row of piling is driven to a depth of 20 feet, AVake- 
tield. or wooden piling being used for about ;>0() feet 
out from the bank, and sheet steel the I'cst of the 
way. The ]inddle ti-ench, as it is called, is lilled 
with tine clay, and then acts as a wall to prevent 
seepage, or at least to slow down the nmleiflow to 
the point where it can do no harm. In tilling the 
trench, clay will be dumi)ed along the side and then 
washed in by large streams of water. By this method 
the finer material settles <lovvn lirst ami makes the 
clay mass very compact. At the ui) stream toe of 
the endiankment a concrete wall is ])laced four feet 
deep and about 18 inches wide; at the downstream 
toe a concrete gutter is provided to carry away all 
seepage and rain water. Vm- making the fill the 
earth is dng from luige borrow jiits by a steam shovel 
and carrieil to the embankment in dum|i wagons, 
the latter also serving to pack down the till. The 
batter on the upsti'eam face of the embankment is 
;'. to 1 and on the downslream face 2 to I. 

The south endiankment will be similar to the 
north except that a ]iart of it will be made np of 
the south ajiproach to the highway Inidge. The road 
will run along the top of the till. 

It is the thii-d jiarl of the dam that is most 
interesting — the concrete spillway. This is (100 feel 
long, in the center of the dam, extending across the 
present river channel an<l is to be of solid concrete 
with large abutments of the same material at each 
end. Although the Sangamon ordinarily is a small 



108 THE TECHNOGRAPH March, 1921 

sti'tMiii. it li:is lafuc lloods ;il ccrlain (iiiics of the (lirm-iisiDiis. Striiclmal steel tr;mies are to bu used 
year, and a larjje spillway is re(|uire(l lo take care cm tlie iiiers lor siipitort iii}{ the l)ri(lge at its new 
of this surplus water. The loniidatiini will (■(insist liei;;ht, I liese frames to he put in place as the bridge is 
of a shallow excavation in the l)(ill(ini of the river, raised on lai-ge hydraulic jacks. The north ajiproadi 
in which L';!()(l ])iles will be drixcn. Tlic sjiiliway il- will then have to be filled in to the new grade, 
self is 2S feet high, the uiisl rca in I'acc being xcrlical. When the reser\(iir crealcd by tiie dam is tilled 
the lop curved to conform willi llie sliape of llie wit li water, i I will covci- .in a rca abinil iL' miles long 
sti-eam flowing over, and (he downstream face lia\ and :! miles wide. In older llial the water may be 
iug a medium slope. A concrele apron extends down kept pure, and lice from any color or taste that 
stream from I he toe of I lie dam lopi-evenl llicwaler miglil be caused by decaying vegetation, il will be 
from washing out a hole in the stre.im bed at that necessary lo clear the reserxdir site of all jdaiit life, 
poiiil. Temporary llashboards I'l^ f^et high will be including trees, brush, and sod, and of all animal 
IM-oxided for the lop of I lie dam, but should grealer maltei-llial might coiilaminale the watei-. The clear- 
height be desired, llie spillway is so designed tliat iiig of an aiea of this size in the thorough manner 
21/j feet can be added toil. I n order to simplify c(pn- Ili.il is re(|iiire(l will take almost as much time as 
strnclion and to allow water to be released from the building of the dam itself, and will be one of 
the icsci \(iir. sluice gates are built al the north end the biggest expenses of the pi'oject, esi)ecially since 
of the spillw.iy. allowing llie reseix oir to be lowere(l the river bottom is tilled with thick underbrush. 
any anionnt desired. .\i ihe noilli end are also Actual construction on the dam was begun 
])lac(Ml the inlets to the pipes cari'ying the water to .\iigust 1, 1921), and the work is exjiected to be 
the ]iiiiiiping station. At the south end of the spill- linishc^d in October 1921. Mudi has already been ac- 
way is a concrete lish-ladder, which is re([uired by complished, the mild winter giving the contractors 
l.iw, lo allow the fish to go up or downstream pasi more time than they had hoped to get. At present 
the dam. llie two puddle trenches have been dtig, the cutoff 

l"or reiiir<irciiig the spillway, steel rods will be piling driven, and the north trench has been partly 
u.sed al Hie lop. and small sleel rails in the face and tilled in with clay. The steel piling for the coffer- 
apron, [ilaced ,1 lew inches below the surface of the dam around the north half of the spillway is driven, 
concrete. The mix used is lo be 1:21/4:5, and the and as soon as the earth is piled outside of it, the 
consisiency such llial llie concrele will jiour easily, colferdam can be |minped out and excavation begun. 
and yet iiol se]parale when hauled several hundred The foundation for the south abutment of tlie spill- 
feel in indiisiiial i-ailway cars. way is |)i-actically ready for the forms to be .set up, 

In building the spillway, colferdams are to be with all piling driven, and the excavation finished. 

used, Ihe north half being built first, allowing the W'ingwalls for both bridge abutments have been 

river lo jiass through the south lialf. Then, when poured, ami the north approach to the bridge has 

the norlli half is finished, the water will be [lassed been jiartially tilled in. The bridge itself will not be 

through the sluice gales mil 11 (lie reni.iindcr of Ihe raised until next summer. The clearing of the res- 

s])illway is completed. eivoir site is under way and will be continued 

The collerdam used will be of steel piling with steadily until it is linished. 

earth jilaced against it. The earth is to be dug from Transjiortation of materials to the dam site was 

inside by means of a clamsliell bucket. After the a comparatively easy matter, for the Illinois Cen- 

cofi'erdam is ]>umpe(l out, llie interior will be ex- tral Kaili-oad crosses the river a few hundred yards 

cavated lo Ihe propel' depth, llie piles driven, forms below the dam, and it was only necessary to run a 

erecteil, and Ihe coiici'ete poiiicd into place. The side-track from the railroad to the north end of tlie 

same ])roce(lnre is carrieil oiil lor e.icli half of llie dam. I'or unloading cars a steel derrick is used 

spillway. which may be e(|ui]iped with either a steel hook or 

Besides the actual construction of Ihe dam. .i clamshell bucket, the latter being used lor tilling 

thei-e ar(! two oilier important jiieces of work llial llie sand and gi-avel bins. A large cement shed has 

must be carried on; one is the r.iisiiig of llie liiglr been built next to the side-track, and the concrete 

way bridge, and the other is Ihe cle;iring of Ihe mixer is ]ilaced between it and the bins, making a 

resei-voir site. very elficieut layout. Foi' hauling the concrete from 

The highway bridge is made up of four steel the mixer to the work an industrial railway is used. 
girder sjtans, with a concrete roadway and side- It is expected that the norlli half of the spill- 
walks. This nni.st be raised 14 feet wilhoul cliang- way will be completed this sjiriiig, and the other 
ing the piers more than enougli to kee]> their tojis half constructed during the summt»r. Work on the 
out of the water. The abutments will be enlarged dam goes on steadily, and so far there have been 
to the proper si/.e. which means incicasing all their (("oiulurled on Page i:!6) 



Peter Junkersfeld 



F. .M. WuKillT, III 



Villi li;i\c riMil iiuiiiy ( "imliTi-lhi slorii's ul' liiisi- 
iicss ill llic AiiKM-icau ilajiJiziiU'. Tlif slMiidard hroml 
juiiip is riinii joj; cabin to president's desk ul' :i mill 
ion di>il;ir (■(iiiiiiany. Cindeixdla stiirics in engineer 
inii are nut so widely read becanse tiie (ine wonl in 
liie sloiy is WORK and few ol' ns ever become inill- 
idiiaires. One of the Itest enjilneerin<; broadjnni|i 
i-ec<irils is t'runi a farni neai- Sadiiriis. 111., a few 
miles suiitli III' Trbana, to llie dllice uT » )iiei-al iiii; 
lOnnineer lor Stone & \\'ebster id' IJoslun, Mass. 
I'eler .liinlversfeld holds this record, and if yon're 
still with lis we will give a few details. 

Teter lilnkersfeld was born on a lariii near 
Sadoriis. Oct. 17, 18(i9. He was exixised to tlie three 
K's at the Little Red Schoolhonse near his father's 
la nil until lie was fonrteen years old, and then went 
to work on the farm for the next li\e yeais. At the 
age of nineteen years, he resnnied his stndies, bnt 
dni-ing the winter months only, still helping work 
the farm dnring the other seasons. 

In 18!)1, he entered the University of Illinois, 
and gradnated in 1895 with the degree of B. S. in 
Kleclrical Engineering. Incidentally, becanse of a 
high scholastic stamling, he was elected a menibcr of 
Tan Beta I'i. Immediately after gradnating, lie went 
to ("liicago. and not long after was taken on as a 
helper in one of the generating stations of what was 
then the Chicago Edison Com]iaiiy. Afler two years 
of oi)erating experience, he was proiiioled to the en- 
gineering de])artment, where he became I lie chief 
draftsman within ten months. 

In 1!)0(), after having been with the comjiany live 
years, he was made assistant to the Mechanical En- 
gineer, and in l!)OCi was given the title of lOlertrical 
Engineer, which ])lace he held for three years. I'^ir 
nine years he was in entire cliaige of all electrical 
design and conslrnction in the company's |iower- 
houses, which inclnded the extension and recou- 
st ruction of the old plants and bnildings as well as 
the const rnction of three entirely new stations. 

One of the latter is the widely known Fisk 
Street Station, which inclnded many mechanical and 
electrical featnres then innovations, which have be 
come standard practice, and in the design of which 
the very ntmost of engineering skill, judgmcnl and 
imagination were reqnired. II is work dining this 
])eriod inclnded the design and const riicl ion ol' a 
total of thirty snb-stations,' which, with the power 
houses mentioned above, the new Northwest Station, 
and the transmission and distrilnition systems, con- 
stitute the "most comprehensive universal jjower sys- 



tems in any large city in llie world. -Iiinkersreld 
]iaid particular alteiilion to alternating current, be- 
ing one of the lirsl engineers lo employ a toiir-wii'e 
three-phase system of |iriiiiai-y distribution on a 
large scale. 

In the snmnier ol' IDd".) lie was made assistant 
to the Second \'ice riesideiil. Lonis .\. Ferguson, 
and with him siiared general sniiervision of the Con- 
tract, Engineering, Conslrnction, and Operating De- 




ri:Ti;u junkersfeld 

partments, controlling over twenty-six hnndred men. 
One of the incidents of this |>hase of his w(n-k was 
the securing of the widely known railway contracts, 
liy which the Comnionweallli F.dison Coni|)aiiy sold 
over l()t),t)l)() KW to llie siirl'ace and elevati'd lines 
of the city. Juid<ersfeld was iircmiinent in the secur- 
ing of these contracts and greatly assisted in work- 
ing out many of the technical details. He has at 
dill'erent times been calleil tuxni lo act in an advis- 
ory cajiacity on several central stations, particu- 
(Concluded on Page 139) 



Concrete Slab Railroad Bridges 



SiKi'Ki;. c. c. 



'I'liDiij^li Ilic use dl' rciiirnrccil (■(inci-ctc is still 
III ils iiifiiiK-y, mill tlioujili llic tlicory ni rciiirnrccil 
ciiMirctc design is not pcrrcclly iiiiilcistonii, i( is 
iic\ (Ml liclcss ;i \'(M-v t;('iict"llly iicrc|ilcii liiiil(liiij{ iiui- 
lcri;il. •■mil new uses I'di- il arc liciiiy cinistniitly (lis- 
cipvcrcci. Kailrnaiis arc iisiii!; |)lain and i-cinrorccd 
ciincicic Ncry extensively, liccansc it is well aila|itcil 
to tlic lica\y ciMistrncliiiii al reniolc sites wliicli is 
|icriiliai- to railway Iiniliiiiii; ami inaintenaiicc. 

'riie reiilaceiiient of wnuilcn trestles wifli rein- 
I'liiccil concrete |iilc trestles with slab decks is now 
liecoininf; conunon. ( >iie nut acquainted witli onr 
railways wonid be snr]iiised at the lai-ge nninber 
of tindier trestles now in use. l)nring the period of 
eonstrnction they were no ilonbt the cheapest ami 
most rajiidly built form of sli-nctnre, bnt their life 
is sliort anil tliey mnsi lie frequently inspected and 
i-eplaced at considerable cost. At least one bridge 
gang with comidete e(|nii)nient operates from early 
spring nntil late fall on each division of a large 
railroad merely maintaining and i-e]ilacing wooden 
trestles, and freipiently two or three gangs are thus 
kept busy. It is ))lain, therefore, that to replace 
wooden ti'estles with a permanent ami comparative 
ine.\]ieiisive bridge is very desirable. The type of 
conci-ete trestle which is to be discussed is sncli a 
bridge. 

Tlicse trestles consist of concrete piles capin'il 
with large blocks of concrete \i|ion which rest rein 
forced concrete slabs of standard dimensions, wliicli 
form a floor for crnslied stone ballast and the track. 
By variations in the type of slab, bridges may be 
constructed for any number of parallel tracks and 
for any skew. Not only are these bridges peinian- 
ent, but they incsi-nt a very attractive appearance, 
a featni'c which is coming to be recognized to an 
increasing extent in all engineering construction. 
The writer was engaged as the ins])cclor dniing 
construction of several of these bridges in central 
Illinois. 

Of conise. bridges of this lyiie have their liinita 
tions. In general, lliey arc adapted to the same 
crossings foi- wliicli wood pile trestles are used. 
Thus, such bridges make an cxcidlcnt crossing for 
small streams or shallow sti-eams flowing in broad 
flat valleys. However, the earth endiankment oi' till 
forming the appi-oacli nmsl not be so high that the 
base of rail is more than twenty or twenty live feet 
above the bed of the sti'eam. Concrete trestles ai-e 
therefore well adapted for crossing small drainage 



or irrigation ditches, the broad flat soiitlierii bay- 
ous, or for a]iproaclies to large bridges. They may 
also be used for cattle jiasses and ele\atcil public 
road crossings, 

Silrcliiii/ CiiiiiTclr I'ilis 

A feature of considerable importance in the 
construction of a concrete pile trestle is the use of 
piles of the correct length. Ft is assumed that the 
use of piles has been ])revionsly decided upon, as 
it would be in the ie]ilacciiieiit of a wooden ])ile 
trestle. (»f course, it was originally decided by the 
nature of the surface and sub soil and t.ype of cross- 
ing. Certain clays and gravels receive piles easily, 
whereas wet sands, quick sand i)articnlarly, are very 
liad to di'ive into, and rock and bowlders beneath 
the surface make driving im])ossible. The selection 
of ))iles is made by means of data secured by ilriving 
test piling at the site of the new bridge. 

Eailroads have various specifications with re- 
gard to driving test piles, for instance, one large 
system specifies that test piles be of well seasoneil 
tind)er, preferably hard wood, straight, and with a 
point not less than ll! inches in diameter. At least 
two test piles must be driven even for a snuill struc- 
ture, and foi' a longer bi'idge, one test pile is driven 
al each fourth bent. 

These test piles ,-irc driven on the line of the 
proposed bents and appri>.\imati'ly eight feet from 
the center line of the track. Additional clauses pro- 
vide that tlie piles shall be driven to refusal with a 
hammer having a certain weight and droj), or to a 
ma.ximum penetration of .'>() feet below the ground 
sni-face. Kefnsal is defined as a penetration of not 
more than one foot for l.")() blows of a steam hammer 
whose ram weighs '?,{){){) jiounds and has a droj) of 
three feet. 

From data secured by driving in accordance 
with the above provisions, the Engineer of Bridges 
selects Uw. pi-o]ier length of concrete pile to be used. 
The concrete ])iles are octagonal and the distance 
between opposite faces is Ki inches for all lengths. 
The piles are reinforced with eight longitudinal rods 
of diameter vai-ying somewhat with the length. The 
|ioiiiled end is about live inches in diameter, and the 
length of the pointed jiai-t is two feet. In addition 
to the longitudinal reinforcing, wire hoo])s are pla- 
ced at certain intervals to bind the rods together. 
These piles weigh from 2'2'> to 2:55 pounds per foot 
depending on the length. The selection of the piles 
is made entirelv with regard to the length. 



Mil nil. n>il 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



in 



PrrHniiiKir]/ ^\'(>rk 

( "oiisideijildt' pri'liiniiiai y work is iicccssMiy he- 
foi'c actual driving can be commenced. Tlie center 
line of the new bridge and center lines of abutments 
and intermediate bents must be located by means of 
a transit and by careful chaining. The ground is 
tlien exanuned to discover possible advantageous 
shifting of the bridge as located. This is esjjecially 
im|)ortant where the wooden structure has been re 
[(laced several times, because iu such cases it is not 



In pulling an old j)ile. some difficulty is met in 
securing a line to it and e.\cavalii(n is generally nec- 
essary around the stumi). Where the latter is in the 
stream, the work is even more unpleasant. Often it 
is impossible to make a start with an arrangement 
of pulleys, and in this event, it is necessary to rig 
a lever to increase the power of the hoisting engine. 
Such severe stresses arc needed to start the pile 
fr((ni its firm seat that parts of the equipment as 
hooks, cables, and levers are uflen broken. The work 



/4'0' 






1 




to 




■y 




1 


1 "^ 


, 


© 






« 




t^ 




T 



, 1 m""''' rr-ri I r-^-y, I ry'Ti r''' rr"i"| 



/iiif- Planof Top Baps Half Pi.an or Bottom Bars 



t-t -tj-tl-i- -! 4< i-t-i| !— i JtfiiiH -j-lofi-trj -^-t-u!rli4-|t 1-tjH-. 



¥\ 



F-"=l-" 



t- ^ 1- f -| n -pg£^EH^^ 

^ r ^ ^ -^ + ^^^-^-^1^^-a 





Z'O" 




1 1 

\ 
J 


1^ 


J [ 


c 


\ \ 



FPONT OF \ ABUTMENT 



xM^j^ 



a 



30 rz CON CRETE PILE 






-rn-rrrTTi 



^E^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



/NTEPMED/ATE 
BENT 



customary to pull old piles, but merely to saw them 
off at ground surface or just beneath the surface of 
the stream. Therefore, when a trestle has been re- 
driven four or five times, as is sometimes the case, 
the ground is .so full of pile stum])s that all of tiuMu 
cannot be avoided, and it is then necessary to pull 
sncli (lid piles as still interfere aClei- a jiidicions 
shirting of all bents. As this is expeiisixc wmk .-mkI 
makes the driving of new piles in iiroper position 
more ditficult, a careful examination "f conditions 
before commencing to drive is decidedly desii-able. 
Tiie i)resence of so many old piles makes tlie gr«(und 
solid and compact; however, this condition is s<niie 
what relieved by pulling some of the stumps. 



is heai-tily disliked by both foreman and men. 

Before driving can be carried on, ojjenings must 
be provided in the structure lieing rejilaced so that 
(he concrete piles may be driven in |)ro|)er position. 
This is done by rcmioving ties which are in the way 
and shifting tlie stringers and the rails. (\»nsider- 
able delay results from the fad liiat iiormal tratTic 
must not be interfered with. The bridge ninst be 
made safe for the passage of all trains, notice of 
which is furnislied by the train despalcher. 
DririiH/ Thr I'ih y 

Piles are driven in rows, called bents, which are 
transverse to the track. Intermediate bents contain 
live piles for single track trestle; anchor bents. 



112 THE TECHNOiJRAPLI March. IU.il 

wliicit arc |ini\ iilcil cxcrv sixlli hciil, lnr Icuiu Ires froiii lii-idj^c seal, or Idp, to tlir liolloiii. The aliiit- 

tk's, lia\c Iwo rows of lour |iilcs each : ami ainil iiieii(s arc I'd leel loiii; wilh the ailditioiial k'li<;tli 

nu'ills lia\c six |iih's. The |iihs are '1 feci '.t inches (o in I he lonii of wiii^; walls (i leel 1' inclics lii<;h to it- 

;> tVt't S inches aparl c. lo c. I'or I he ililTel-enl types lain the enilia liknieiit . 

of bent, and the lienis arc I I to If, IVet apart c. to c. The hottonis of thi' loiiiis loi- the caps are niere- 

ol' piles, (Icpendini; on the pi-oposed length of slabs. \\ li^lii floors of Iwo inch plaid<inj; riltiii^ the jiiles 

l're\ions to (Irixini;. the concrete piles arc usn closely ami accurately le\cllcd al the correct ejeva- 

ally uuloa<led near the site lA llie new bridge within tiou. I''or small bridf^es, tlie.se Hoors are l)nill on 

reach of a line from the hoisiinf; engine. This pile joists suppmteil on wed<;es i-eslinj; on f,'ronnd plates 

line is attacheil. the [lile is dra^j;ed to the bridj;f. so as to maUe the removal of the t<irms easy. K.\ca- 

lioisted loan upi-i,uht ]posit ion, and maueu\cred into Nation is IriMpieuliy necessary in consi<leral)le 

place. It is ol'leu desirable to pro\ ide a seat I'oi- aimmut before the foians can be built. The <;n)Mn<l 

the point by diiij^ini; a hide loi- it with a post hide has often heaxcd up a foot or nioi-e dnrinj; the pile 

di^^cr. The hammer is then set on top of the pile. dri\in,i;. 

and the tr;iin is nioxed ami \i\\\ lines adjusted until llcfore the side foi-ms are erected, cai'cfiil mea- 

tlie pile and the dri\cr leads are plumb, when driv suremiuils must lie made to locale the center lines 

inj;' ct>nimences. of the caps ami to jilace these lines at the proper 

A steam hammer consists of a steam cylinder anfjle with tlie center line of the track. The sides 

with a piston to which .i heavy ram weighing; ."{OOO are then built of two inch planks spiked to two by 

pounds or more is allached. Steam is supplied six studdin<;. The to]) of the forms uinst be a.s neai-- 

throj;h a flexible hose ami lifts the lani. An exhaust ly level as possible, and it is eiistoniary to use an en 

poit then Opens, and the ram falls in its j;uides yineer's level both to make sure of this and to set 

abonl thi-ee feet, strikinj; the pile. As the ]dle slides the rifjht elevation below the base of rail. This is 

into the ,i;rouud. the entire hammer mech.iuism fol- necessary as the concrete is struck off to the lop of 

lows and is ^uideil by tlu' pile driver leads. The the foi-ms, and any inequalities may result in im- 

top of the concrele pile is so w(dl |irolecled from |)ro|ier |)lacinf; of the slabs. 

t he impact by an oak followei- block and a rope (Misli- The method of construction where the forms 

ion Ihal shalteriui; seldom occurs except tliroui;h cannot be built on the ground is to bolt timbers to 

careless npei-.i t ion. the coiu'rete ])iles at the pi-oper elevation, aud then 

The ins|iector. who snperx ises the drivini;. build the floor dii-ectly on these timbers. The 

counts llie blows, and when a condition of refusal is forms are otherwise the same. After the forms are 

reached, i. e., when the pile sinks no moic than one coni])lete(l, careful check measurements aud eleva- 

foot f(M" l.")() blows of the laui. drixini; is discoutin" tions are taken. 

ued unless cuttiuL; off the pile c.iu be ,i\oideil by The method of computiui; the reinforcement is 

contiiinini; to ilri\i'. .\ recm-il of the penetration of nid known to the wrilei-. It is a problem of a beam 

c.ich pile is kept. .\ nuudier of precautiiuis in driv- wilh multiide su]iports ami would ai)pear to be in- 

inj; are imporlaul, Init of little iutei-est to one not determinate. The reiuforcinj; bai's used are eight 

actually engaged in pile diiving. ■"• , inch bars idaced lougitiidiinilly al the toji aud 

Those piles which can not be driven to |iro|>er b(dtom the full length of the piers and abutments, 

depth below ihc base of rail must bi' cut ot)'. This is and l/o inch bars with bent ends placed horizontally 

done by two men eipiipped with a sledge and cold at right angles to these liuigitudinal bars and spac- 

cliisel. The vertical reiidorciiig rods are tirst un<o\ ed eight inches c. to c. 

creil after which they are nicked aud driven back |, is very important that the reinforcing bars 

and forth until .severed. The concrete is I hen eas |„. ,,|;|,-ed .-is called foi- in the jdaus. lOven when the 

ily broken oil'. The entire job rc(|uires about an hour forem;iu in charge is an ex|.eiieuced man, the inspec- 

•I'l'l :l li:ill' l"l- '«o experienced men. ,,,,. should be constantly on the .ilert to insure the 

'I'lii- ('(iiirnir C<i/).s pi-o|ier placing of I he steel, as it is dilVicult if not im- 

.\fler all the |iiles have been ilriven and their possible to make any changes after pouring is com- 
localions apjiroved by the lOngineer of r.ridi;es, meiiced. The bars should be wired together aud 'o 
work on the caps is begun. There are in general the forms wilh heavy wire. No. Hi. because the con- 
three verieties of ca[)S. uanndy. the abutment, the crcte is dl-opped several feel into the forms and 
intermedi.ite. and the anchor bent <-aps. These three would dis]ilacc improperly att.iched reinforcement, 
are shown in the figure. They contain res])ectively. Whenever it is possible to do so, the nnxer is set 
fi.9, 4, and lb..! cubic yarils of concrete, deducting for up on cribbing near the ceulei- of the bridge. The 
pile lo]is. Intel-mediate ,ind anchor bent caps are mixer used in the work last summer was a cube 
I J feet long, and all caps are :'> feet (> inches deep mixer, which is a cube made of riveted steel i)lates 



March, 1!)21 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



113 



hiiilt to rotate about an axis tlnonjili two tlianu't- 
rical coriKM-s. It is charf;ed tlu'ougli one end and lijis 
1o cliscliarj;!'. Tliis is an excellent tyiie and mixes vciv 
satisfacldvily. A cliai-fjiing skip, o]i('ialcd l)y a calilc 
and lioislinu drum was ])art of the (■(|iii|im('HT. ami 
llic material, which iiad been unhiadcil nn the 
;L;i-u\nid near the lii-idj;e, was wheeled and dnmpeil 
inid the skip liy means of wheelbarrows. 

An arbitrary mix is used by this railroad, but 
the disadvantages incident to this metiiod are )>rob- 
ably avoided by the definite provisions of the sjn'ci- 
liiatious with regard to the aggregate used. Thus, 
crushed limestone was used as coarse aggregate, and 
the s|)ecitications state that it must be crushed to 
sizes not (>xceeding two inches in any direction, that 
it shall not contain iiuire than one ])ercent of earthy 
or clayey matter, and that it shall not contain more 
than twenty percent of stone less than V^ inch in 
size and no .stone dust. There is a special provision 
that for reinforced work up to two feet in thickness, 
the maxiniuni size of brcdcen stone must be one inch 
in greatest dimension. Sand must be clean, shaip. 
and coarse, with grains of various sizes, free fiMUu 
sticks and other foreign matter, ami may contain 
clay or loam up to two percent. 

Nineteen men disposed as f(dlows. — four load- 
ing wheelliarrows witli sand and gravel, three wlu-el 
ing the barrows, one emptying cement sacks into 
the ski]), one o|)erating the mixer, one loading wheel- 
b.iriows with concrete, six wheeling concrete, one 
spading tiie concrete in place, and three setting bars 
in the tops of forms, placed al)out .")() yards of con- 
crete in a ten hour day. Though this may seem a small 
amount to those having ex|)erience with jilacing con 
Crete, it must be remeiid)ered that tlie conditions are 
unfavorable on work of this nature. The concrete is 
dum|ied froui the harrows through the openings l)e- 
tween the ties of the liiuber trestle; the ilistribntion 
and spading in the forms is done in very cram.ped 
(inarters; and the placing of the top steel and the 
finishing is done witli oidy a few inches clearance 
between the wooden striu'ture and the new concrete 
caps. The jiassage of trains also interferes 1o a cer- 
tain extent with the placing of the concrete. 

Where plenty of water is available, it is good 
lU'actice to keeji the ca])s wet down for several days 
or two weeks. Hot dry weather during the period 
of setting is known to decrease the strength of con- 
crete, and the belief that the forms have any great 
effect iu retaining moisture is ill fonmled, as wit- 
ness their drying out and shriiikiiig. After the 
forms are removed, the wires which hold the reiu- 
forcemcnt are cut off. and any small crevices in the 
surface of the concrete are filled with mortar. TIk 
slal>s may be ]ilaced thirty days after finishing the 
caps. 



Thr Concrete filabs 

Because the slabs must .set thirty days longer 
than the caps, or sixty days, it is customary to build 
the slabs first, 'i'he woik is best done where all '-on- 
ditions are most laMnable rather than necessarily 
near the bridge. Thus, the slabs on last summer's 
work were made at a point alxnit forty miles distant 
Ifom one of tiie bridges. This was done for several 
reasons, immely, most of the bd)orers lived neax-by. 
a railroad water supply was available, there was 
]ilenty of right of way, and tiirongii freights could 
conveniently set out cars of material. 

Slabs are of two general types, outside and in- 
side slabs. The main point of difference is tiie pres- 
ence of a parapet about ten inches high on the foi*- 
luei' type, which is absent on the latter. Both are 
built in standard lengths of 1."! feet 11 ^^ inches or 
1.") feet 11'-. inches ami a width of C. feet 1134 
inches. These are designated as 14^ and Hi foot 
slabs i*es])ectively. The inside <'dge is two feel thick 
and the top surface is sloi)ing to afford drainage to- 
\\ard weep holes extending thru the slabs from top 
to b(jttoni. There are 7.:> cid)ic yards of concrete in 
the 14 foot outside slab, and !).") cubic yards in the 
l(i foot slab, and the slabs weigh ri»s]iect ively about 
I'T.TlHt pouiuls ami :;(i.()(l(» pounds each. 

As the lirst step in slab constructicm, a level 
[ilank floor (Ui heavy bt'aius is built of such a size 
as to accommodate the desired number. The site 
for this floor siionld Ite selected near the track froiu 
which the cars of material are unloaded and close 
to the water supply. 

The side forms are then made of two inch 
])laid.;s uaile<l to two l)y six studding and great care 
is taken to get the sides parallel and the angles 
sipiare. These side forms may be used re])eatedly 
when a very large nuinber of slabs is bidlt. After 
the slab forms are completed, a system of runways 
from the mixer is built on trestles above the forms 
in case wheel barrows are to be used for distribut- 
ing the (-(nicrele. If a ilumpiug car is available, the 
method of distribution may be iiu](roved by using 
rails and a single plank walk from tiie mixer. 'IMds 
will result in economy of labor as two men can 
traiisp(M-t as niiuh concrete as si.x or seven with 
whecdbarrows. 

Slabs are necessarily built with two reinforcing 
systems, because in i)icking a slab up, there may be 
negati\e moment, but ;ifter placing it, the moment is 
always |Kisitive. To resist tlie negative moment, a 
l.ittice system of iialf iuch bars at about one foot 
c. to c. is placed in the to]i of the slab. The posit i\-e 
luoment is resisted by a system of ^/^ inch li.iis in the 
bottom of tiie slab sjiaced four inches c. to c. four 
teen of which are bent u|> at the ends to resist shear- 
ing forces. Inch and a half rods bent in the form of 



SLABS 


CAPS 


$3.96 


$5.52 


1.83 


3.72 


4.69 


2.67 


1.05 


.63 


2.51 


2.66 


3.71 


3.71 


.95 


.95 


2.21 


2.21 



m THE TECHNOGRAPH March, 1921 

.vtirriijis ;inil licii i-iiij; ;i,n:iiiist ;i layer of ■'• , inch bars Iraiii service is Ilial a(lu|ileil iiy tiie railroad lor 

ai-e uscil Id allacli lit'liiij; liooks in nioviiif;' llie slalis. est iiiiale.s. 

'riie iiieiliod of poiiriuff tlic slal)s is similar to 

lliat ns..,l ill poiiriiiK the cai-s. Kecaiise the work is y.,,,^,, , ^,,^^., ,^,. ^.,„(rrr/r' ]„ l>Ui<; prr Cii. Til. 
more accessilile. no (lill'icilll ies are eucoiinlereil, ami 

, I . ,1 ■ . I ■ 11- Cusl of lumber in foinis (no 

Onrleeii men can place alioiit Ihirty cnlnc yanls ol -„„,, 

' . salvage) $50 /MI3M 

concrete in six hours. The same precaiil ions are oh- ^,^^^ ^^ ,^^^j. ^^^ j^_,_^^^ 

served with re.nard lo ke<'|(in^ the slabs wet <lo\vn cost of reinforcing bars 

diirini; llie |ieriod ol' setliiii; and Iiardeniil}; above Cost of placing bars 

,i,,li.,| Cost of labor mixing and placing concrete 2.51 

■ , ,1 , ,1 ( . f ,11 .1 ,1... Cost of concrete material, 1-2-4 mix 
Slieci ica ions uroxnle Ih.il the tops ol all slahs 

' ' . , ,. , • , cement 1.57 bbls. at $2.36 

'""-" '"■ "aterpr r,\ with two coats ol hoi pitch ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^2.15 

and that the ends ol' slabs exi>osed at the ends ol crushed limestone .884 c. yds. at $2.50 2.21 

i)ri(lf;es lie likewi.se wateiprool'ed. Slabs must set 

thirty days before hein- moved and sixtv days he- '^°'^' '"'^^ P*^'' c"' >'''■ "^ 

..;.', ' ' concrete in place $20.91 22.07 

lore lieilii; used. -,_,_^ ^, . , ii. ^ »,_ ■ , „ , > 

NOTE: — It is assumed that there is no salvage of lumber. 

I'liiriiK) Sliilis ami Hiilldsl tho it is possible to use a considerable part of it several 

in seliiiii; slabs, the woo<len striictiire is en- '""es- 
tireiv ii'inoved lor Hie len<;tli of one slab at least, 

leaving nothing but the rails in i-lac. Tar paper is ,/,,,,,/,, ,, ^,,^^., ,^, , ,^ ,.^ Duuhh-lrark Com-ntr I'Hr 
then laid on the concrete piers and bridge seat of 

the abutments, and on this a layei- of niorhir, made . Trrxtlc Ciiiii pli'lc 

of one pai-t cemeni lo two jiarts of sand, is sjiread 22 concrete piles 22 feet long at $38.28 each $842.16 

lo insure llie uniform hearing of the slabs. Driving concrete piles, labor 188.73 

The re(niire<l number of slabs having been pre- "^"'""^ off concrete piles, labor 48.76 

, , , . , ^, , . , . , Work train service 48 hrs. at $7.00 / hr. 336.00 

\ionsl\ deiposited near the bridge, the derrick picks ^^ , , . ^ or j ,„„„o 

' "^ ' Cost labor excavating 65 cu. yds. 172.08 

up a slab, carries it to place, swings it under the cx,st lumber forms abtmts. 4.07 MBM at $50 203.70 

rails, and sets it, llie lirsi one being given a clear- Labor on forms for abutments 223.66 

ance of t\\-o inches from Hie lace of the head wall. Labor placing steel, abutments 37.67 

The .stirrups ,ind hooks are three feel nine inches Labor mixing and placing 30.2 c. yds. cone, by hand 152.78 

,. ",, , i-.i , I 1 ,1 1 1 • • , Cost lumber, forms for slabs 2.376 MBM at $50 118.80 

from the cenler ol the track when the slab IS in iilaee „ ,, , , . , , .,.„ 

' Cost labor on forms for slabs 54.17 

so the rails need not be removed. .\f(er one pair of ^ost of placing bars In slabs 48.16 

slabs is placed, the rails are blocked nj) on them, Mixing and placing 29.6 cu. yds. concrete by mixer 57.13 

anil the next slahs are .set with a half inch exjian- Cost of concrete materials 1-2-4 mix 

sion joint bet\veen the ends of abut ling slabs. This 94 bbls. cement at $2.36 / bbl. 221.84 

method is continued until all slabs are set. ^^ '^^^ ''^^- "''''^'^^ ^'°"^ ^' *-50 135.00 

,„..,,, , , . , 27 cu. yds. sand at $2.15 58.05 

1 he ends of joints between slabs over piers and ^.^^^ j^^^,. ^^^jj^^ ^j^,^^ ^g3^2 

abiitmeii's ami the botloni of the longitudinal crack work train service 24 hrs. at $7.00 / hr. 168.00 

along Ilk' center of the briilge are calked with o,-ik- Crushed limestone ballast 21 cu. yds. at $2.00 42.00 

mil to ]preven1 leakage and then tilled with a pitch Inspection and engineering 110.00 

mastic made of one part of pilch ,iiiil two parts o 



Total cost of bridge $3382.11 

The writer is indebted tcr Mr. J. J. Sekinger, 
Rridge iSupvsi'. of the Illinois Central Railroad and 



.sand even with the top of the slab .iinl paiiijiet walls. 

The holes around the lifting stirrups are lilled with 

mortar, and after this sets, the surface is coated 

with iiitcli. Crushed rock ballast is s|iread on Hie 
,,,,,,,. , 1 .1 , 1 1 I J '" 'li'' -Massey Concrete Products ( "oriiorat ion for 

deck, the blocking reiiioxed, .'11111 the track brimght ' 

, ,„, ' ,. ., . ,, , , ,. '. some of the cost data given above, 

lo grade, llie base ol r.-iil is usually abiml lour in- " 

dies tibove the iiarapet. 

The two following tables are self exiilanatory. 

The tignres may be of dmibtfiil value, because the 

rates of pay changeil iliiring the sunimer, and for TTEXPEOKED 

.some work, due to administrat i\-e reasons, the gang 

was possibly hirger than necessary. The maleiial 

costs are tiiose of August I'.iL't), .mil were taken from 



"I'lie time will come." I liii ndereil the siitl'ragefte 
rator, •■when woman will get a man's wages!" 



Hie Engineering News. No charge is made for ■•^■es," sadly iiiiittered ,i man on the rear seat, 

freight on niateriiils, and the charge for the work ••next Satiird.-iy night." 



Revamping a Heating System 



KOMERT F. DoEI'EI.. 111. e. '21 



Tlidiisiiiiils III' sicniii licaliiij; systiMiis lliat iii-c ,it 
jn-cseiit iiistjillcd ill Imililiiigs tlii-()iij;li()iit tliis (■(Hiii- 
try operate inefficiently. This is liiic to tlieir ohso- 
Iclc ;iiiil iiiiscieiititic designs based on out-of-date 
iiictlidils of eii'cnlating steam for lieating ])ur])oses. 
Such a condition fnrnislies an excellent talking 
jioiiit to tile salesman of beating sjiecialties and 
wliciKnei- be can (juamntrr a defiiiite saving in 
dollars and cents tbrougli the installation of modern 
beating specialties in connection witli only an in- 
expensive change of the piping plans, be is certain 
to lind an interested tentative customer. But in 
orib-r that Ilie salesman can furnish a compreiu'n- 
sive estimate of the total cost of any pro])osed 
change to a system, be must employ the technical 
services of tlie lieating engineer. This iiii]iortant per- 




sonage surveys the old system, becomes ac(|uaiMled 
wilii the i>ipiiig layout, makes his decision as to 
the l)est type of system to be installed, draws all 
necessary piping plans, and estimates the resulting 
costs — in fewer words — he revani])s tlie system. Tlie 
owner will tlien secure the data from which he can 
decide whetiier to continue paying his former lieat- 
ing bill, or with a .stated initial expen.se reduce his 
bill the guaranteed amount. 

Recently a representative of a nationally known 
heating sjiecialty tirni interested the board of di- 
rectors of the (iiiardian Savings and Trust Co. HIdg., 
Cleveland, Ohio, in llie jiroposition of revamping 
the beating system, in order to reduce the excessive 
cost of heating their building. The board of direc- 
tors agreed to consider plans of a projiosed change, 
all plans In he rni-iiished by the heating liiMii's engi 
iieers. 

The (luardian Bldg. is one of ClevelandV bug 
est oft'ice buildings, part of liie main floor being oc- 



cupied by the Tiiist and Savings I>ank. Steam for 
beating the linilding is snp]ilied from the city ser- 
vice main at pressui-e of ."> lb. to 10 lb. The heating 
system of the building is of the downfeed type neces- 
sitating the installation of two large steam mains 




rnnning from the .sub-basement to the top attic 
floor. From tliis common source of supply in the 
altic, forty vertical risers furnish jsteani to the rad- 
iatois on all floors with tlie exception of the bank, 
which receives its supply directly from the sub-base- 
ment. All risers with the exception of those above 
the bank drop directly into either the basement or 
sub-basement, where they are connected to a com- 
mon let urn main which leads through blast trajis 
and then to condensation iininps. The risers above 
the liaiik, end at the second mezzanine floor where 
they connect into a single main which carries IIk; 
(•(indens.ition to the sub-basement. The branch suj)- 
jdy |)ip('s rroni the vertical i-isers to the radiators 
enter all radiators at the bottom and drain toward 
the risers, furnishing the outlet for the condensation. 
The air of condensation is taken from the radiator 
by means of a separate air line down to the sub- 
ba^;emellt and removed by air ]iunips. The main fault 
with this arrangement is that all sujiply jiipcs carry 




\\w cold condensation wafer which tends to reduce 
the efficiency of the system es|)eciaHy in the lower 

floors. 

To overc<ini(' this condition the re\amping cngi- 



116 THE TECIINOORAl'H Mnrch. 1<):>I 

liccrs (Icciilcil lo cliaiijic (lie iircsciil syslcin into ;i ;it<n-s arc t() he ln|)|iiM| al llic Ixilliiiii ii|i|M)silc the 

Iwu |ii|ic return line vacimiii syslcin of sicain circii- su|i|ily cud ami di-aincil I l;i-i)i:i;li iiaps into llic 

laliiiii. iisiiifr tlic air line risers as i-cluni risers In Idriiicr air line, a ]iliii; heiiii; |ilaccil in llic ii|)cnin^ 

take caic 111' all i-ailia lor ci)n<lcMsa I ion. .Many are ac- which is lell when Ihc air line is disconnected. A 

(|nainlcd willi ihc lerni ••\acnnni sysleni" Itnl lew cT'oss seclion of a nn)dcrn lypc \ acnnni trap is sliowil 

iHMi Icchnical men reali/.c llie adva n la.ycs of sncli a in l-'ii;. .\ anil llic inclhod of c rlini; lo radialoi- 

syslcin, which arc mainly, llial: is shown in i'"i.u. <'. .Ml supply risers arc lo he dri]i- 

I. 'rherc is elVci-livc dr.iina.uc of llie supply ped al I he liol loni t!irouj;li a jialc v.ilvc, dirt strainer, 

pipiiii; <-ondciis,ilion al -'drii) points,"' and \acii 1 rap as shown in V\'^. !'., The comlcnsat ion 

J. 'riicie is circclixc drainaiic id' condensalion I'roni all rclurii and snpjdy risci-s is lo lie (■(ninecled 

rroni Ihc radi.ilors as ipiicUly as il occnrs. lo ihc ni.iiii rcliirn in the liascnicnl and is lo he i-e- 

:i. The ail- is rcinoM'il I'rom Ihc i>iiiiii.u and r.id moved lo rcccivin.i; tanks hy \aciinm piini|is. 

iaiion wilhoiil Ihc use of scp.ir.ilc air valves. rpi,,, |i|||j,|„.,| j,].,,,^ ,..,|| |,„. i,,,, |-,.^^. ,.||;|„„.,.j. i„ 

1. 'riicrc is tiio eliTninalion or a rcdiiclion lo a ,, i i ■ ■ i ^ i ,i , , i . ,■ .i 

Ihc (dd piping layont and the lolal cosi ol Ihc pro- 
miiiininm ol' hack ])ressni-c on ciiiiines wiili a con 

, ,. ,. , . ' posed elianse deiJends niosllv iiiion Ihc in-icc of the 

tiiinons circulation ol e.xhansl sicani. j^ i . i i 

.Ml ol' Ihcal.ov.. staled advanl.i-cs arc very ini- Ih'mI in- specialties. After lieiiii; <piol.-d lliet.dal cost 

poriaiil. In order lo clian-c Ihc (;iiar<liaii I'ddji-. sys- and knowing the guaranteed saving to their yearly 

Icin into a reliirn line vaciiiim syslcin Ihc survey en- heating hill tlie board of directors arc in a position 

gincers specilicd ihe following changes. All the radi- to decide as to the advisaldlily of Ihc change. 



Mexico and the Engineer 

I'], t !. ( 'aii.u Al., III. c. "L'l . 

••.Mexico! what a rich and iindevclopcfl country, hy many of its lenders is now turning a new 

Lois of o]iporliiiiilics lor escryhody. It is as easy leaf. Like the sick man during the convalescent 

to make money there as il is lo grow corn here." period, she is rapidly gaining slrenglli and is 

Does the .\nici-ican slndenl sjieak in oilier Icriiis of eager lo attain and surpass the position that 

thai \asl coniilry which lies licyond the sonllii'rn she rm-incrly had among the civilized nations of the 

border of I his nation'.' world. She is holding her arms o|icii to all and wel- 

()ii the oilier liami the .Mc.xic.-in slndcnt willi comes I he iii\-cstor as w(dl as I he hnsiness man. The 

|(erliaiis a licllcr knowledge of the geography anil hlnropean war left in .Mexico n(» racial enmity 

the history of iliis coiiiilry. has a no less vague idea againsl .any (d' the liclligcrcnl nations, and the cul- 

of the life and the cnsloms of the .VnuM-ican. lie is tnred man has l'org(dten onr disastrous war of 1S47. 

thought of as a man willi lillle or no love and less A\'e w<dcoiiic all nationalities who come to us 

res|iect for others than his fellow (it i/,ens : who cares to develop our liclds, work onr mines, and eslali- 

iiol for Ihe way in which he acipiin-s the wealth lie lish indiislries. .Millions of doll.irs of .\mericaii. 

seeks, hut strives to ohtaiii il even at the cost of lh(> haiglish, and (iermaii capital arc iincslcd in niincs 

lives of others ; in a word, he is Ihonglit of as ;i man and I'aclories. Lately the .Vmcrican has come to 

■whose only ( !od is Ihe l»(dlar. prcdominalc willi Ihc ilixestmciit of considcralde 

What a niisnndcrsla nding lielwccn two people cajiilal in Ihc oil hnsiness. Mexico, like her sister 
who slnnild he Ihe licsl of friends, for they arc neigh- nalions of Soiiili America, that slninhcred during 
liors, have Ihc same ideals, and both strive toward Ihe lasl decades id' greatest indiisl ri.il activities, is 
the same end in life, ( 'londs of war liav'e thrcatenctl Ihc ideal Held lor lht> investment of small capital 
to involve Ihc two nations in what would have liccn and Ihc org.iniy.a I ion of small Imsiness and indus- 
tlie hloodicsl ami niosi savage war ever fought on Ihe Irics, In many a line, there is hardly ,-iiiy competi- 
.\orth .Vmcrican contincnl. Thank (!od, at ])resent lion by large organi/.alioiis : onr indnslrv is onlv in 
the I wo countries are coming to a better understand- Ihe embryo stale. The ( bivei iimciil is greatly cu- 
ing, at least diplomatically, conraging new industry by increasing the custom tax 

.Mexico, after several years <>[ a sirnggic on imported articles of the line manufactured, so as 

of pur(dy social character, pcrlia])s misinlcrprcdcd to rcilucc compel il ion from llic foreign markets. 



March. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



117 



able siiiiply nf ]K)wei'. Mexico's oil lields of T:iin|iico 
aud Veracruz aud those newly discovered on the 
Desert of 5Iai)inii prodnce millions of barrels daily. 
l'"or its transportation, several oleodiicts, or pipe 
lines, connecting the main cities are about to be 
constructed by the oil companies, and at present 
every town of ten thousand inhabitants and up- 
wards is reached by rail. Ooal. which has been dis- 
covered only in the Northei'n St:ite of (^oahuila, snp- 
|)lies the needs of the many metallurgical and steel 
mills of the Republic. The hydroelectrical resources 
are innumerable. Rivers and brooks carrying tor- 
rents of water during the rainy season are found 
extensively along the coast . Mexico is like a great 
truncated cone with hundreds of fissures along its 
elements. These rivers can in many places be har- 
nessed between two mountains, thus reducing the 
investment on large dam works. 

The existing industries are still in the end)ryo 
state. Even the nuning industry, the oldest and most 
d('veloi»ed, has only scratched the earth. There are 
mines such as those in Guanajuato aud Pacluu-a 
which have been in operation since the early days 
of the Spanish viceroyalty, and Real del Monte still 
produces two metric tons daily. How much more is 
still hidden under those forests aud sierras, many 
yet untrodden by man, remains a mystery which 
awaits to be solved by the young man of enterpris- 
ing ability. 

The textile industry is (]uite extensively devel- 
<i]ied as shown by the large number of looms in 
ojicration. But yet the cotton products are not suf- 
ticicnt to supi)ly the needs of the country, and the 
|)ossil)ililies of producing for exi>ortation are unlim- 
ited since the raw fibers can be gi-own advantage- 
iiiisly in several regions. Then there is llie sisae and 
li('ii('(|uen grown extensively in tlic ]i('iiinsiila of 
Yucatan, of which hundreds of thousands of bales 
are expoi-ted annually. 

The ciiemical industries present an encouraging 
lield foi- the chemical engineer. There are many 
\arielies of shrubs and trees from whicji comiiounds 
useable as drugs, oils, etc. may be obtained. To cite 
an example, the arid regions of the northern states 
grow the imlina christi which produces ricin oil ex- 



tracted from the seed of its fruit, and yet these 
bushes are not cultivated for pi-olit excejyt in very 
few regions. 

And so it can be said of all the industries. Raw 
products are a\ailable, labor is cjiea]), fuel is not ex- 
pensive, and the tield is openeil to all men of enter- 
jn'ising ability. 

In regard to the engineer proper, the one seek- 
ing em]doyment, the field opened for him in Mexico 
is rather reduced. He may find work with the large 
American companies, which naturally give preference 
to men of their own nationality, but even this is 
being restricted by the recent "Labor-Laws" oblig- 
ing the companies to employ only a certain percent 
of the foreign labor. The industries of Mexican ori- 
gin give preference to the native engineers, and only 
when in need of highly specialized men do they recur 
to foreign professionals. The railroads are under 
Government administration, and the American engi- 
neers who directed them up to 1909 have been I'e- 
placed by native engineers. Yet, some of the large 
American companies are building railroads at pres- 
ent, and are employing men trained in this country. 

Most of the other industries are of the type that 
recpiire small numbers of technical men, the work 
being accomplished by unskilled labor. In general, 
the field is restricted, and for the young engineer who 
seeks experience during the first years after gradua- 
tion, I would recommend that he think over the 
matter before signing a contract with anj' company 
operating south of the Rio Grande. The reason for 
advocating this is not because there is a hatred 
against the American engineer, but because the field 
is so restricted and little can be learned of practical 
experience when' compared with that olitained in a 
more develojied country. 

Mexico is eager to otter her liospitality to the 
one who comes and promises to remain within the 
law. She extends a heljiing hand to the right and 
honest foreigner, and in return, she asks something 
for the wealth gotten from her bosom and carried to 
foreign lands. Often only dark caves and wretched 
miners are left of the prosperous and wealthy mines 
once the mineral is exhausted, and not a house, a 
school, or a church is left to reward those who helped 
the foreigner in amassing great fortunes. 




The Story of the Army Truck 



M. II. <■ 



At til' lici^imiilij; <>\' tlir \v:ir the riiitcd Stales 
fdiiiiil its"!!' in a (icploralilc coiiilil ion of inii)i-('|ianMl- 
iicss. We arc all iiiiiic or less familiar with tlic ik-- 
Vfiojniu'iil (if the iaiici-ty air|ilaiic ciiiiinc. Ilic siih- 
inariiu' ciiasi'i-s, (U'])tli lioiiibs and many of lln- oilici 
inventions wliii-li wore lironjilil out iliirini; tlie war. 
I^acli of tiiese has its own story of tiials and fail- 
nrcs: each represents weei;s and months of |ialient 
ell'ort. These stories are not romantic. They are 
trne. They coni])rise many pa^cs in the history of 
the cnuinccrini; |iroi;ress of our iMnniti-y. 

In the lield of military transport e!|uipmen1, we 
were compi lied to start with practically nothini; in 
the sprinj; i>\' 1!)17. There was no time for e.xperi- 
Tnent, thinjis had to he thouyht ont carefnlly in ad- 
\ance. made ipiickly and made riiilit to hej^in with. 
We had a small amonnl of data whicJi had heeii 
collected liy men who went throufili the Mexican 
border cam|iai;;ii. \\'e had the lessons of the Allies 
for reference. Init much of this iiiforniatiou was not 
api)lical)le to onr case, since I']nro])ean and Ameri- 
can methods of mannfactnre are radically different. 

The lirst use of motor trucks liy the I'nited 
States Army was in January, l!)l:i, when two 1 1/2 
ton trucks were purchased by the office of the (iuar- 
ferniaster (Jeneral. These trucks were tested, and a 
set of specitications for the purchase of motor trucks 
foi- inilita'-y ]»uritoses was ])repai-ed. The major part 
of these speciticiilions was furnished by the vaiious 
truck manufactnrei-s. A few 1 ' •_. ton trucks were 
built from these s]iecilications ami purchased by the 
C^narterniaster. The sjiecitications were revised and 
reissued in Jlay, I'.M."). 

In April lilHi ('ol. ("hauncey D. Haker, chief of 
transportation. (i.Jl.C, i-e(pn'sted the Society of 
AntuuKitive Engineers to ('o-o])era1e with his ollice 
ill the prejiaration of si)ecilications for 1 ' -j and :i 
ton trucks. (\)]. Haker was a veteran of the Spanish- 
American AA'ar, and he remembered the dill'iculties 
which w>'re enconnteicd in '1)8, due to the use of a 
nnndier of dilVerent tyjies of transport wagons. In 
those (lays, tlie Army mule was the only st.mdardized 
piece of ti-ansport eqtiipnu'ut. Col. Haker foi'csaw 
the advantaffes which conld be derived from a com 
plete standardisation of nnitor ecpiipmi'nt. and he 
at once took steiis to realize this aim. 

Soon after this, WUn resumed his o]ierations on 
the l!or<h'r, and a nnmbei' of rush orclers for trucks 
were placed. There was not sutficient time for tin- 
trucks to be built in strict accordance with such 



specitications ;is had been |ii-epared. so each manu- 
facturer followed the desij^ii as closely as possible!, 
chanj^inj; many features to coufoi-m with his methods 
of manufacture and desii;n. It was dnrinj; the sub- 
s<Mpicnt e.\|K'dition into Mexico and the ojierations 
in the Southwest that most of the data on truck 
performance were c<dlecled. and we should thank 
I'''rancisco \'illa for beinj; tlie man who bi-ou«;ht about 
the establishment of the Motor Transpcnt Corps of 
the Cnited States Army. 

Several meetinj;s and coid'erences between en- 
fjineers w.'ie held in the fall and winter of liMti and 
s]iriiij; of I'.ilT. A nuudier ^<\' sets of specitications 
were drawn up. Hy this time it was apparent that 
the riiiled States would soon be drawn into the 
war, but just where our part of the tijihiiui; would 
be done was uncertain. Trucks h.id to lie designed 
to withstand the conditions which might be met in 
■luy part of the field of operations. The sjieciftcations 
which were issued In Jlay I'.M 7 were the most cotu- 
plete and the most satisfacf<iry of all up to that 
time. 

A\'ar was declared on (ieiiuany in April 11)17, 
and an inventory made at this time showed that the 
T'. S. Army possessed 2-100 trucks of all sizes and 
makes. We were confronted witli the problems of 
obtaining motorized military equipment in lai-ge 
(pmntities and without ilelay. To those unfauuliar 
with manufacturing jirocesses. this may not sound 
very formidable, but to the engineer it presents a 
very serious ])roblem. It means the building of coni- 
]ilete sets of tools and machines, the changing of 
methods of manufacture, and the overcoming of the 
complicated system of governmental red tape. 

The only way to achieve tlie desired result was 
to organize an engineering deiiartment whose func- 
tion it should be to design and test the trucks. Col. 
IJakei- asked Congress for an aiipi'opriation of 1175,- 
t)i)0 to finance the designing and Iinildiug of samjile 
trucks. The aiijiroiiriation was granted and work 
was slart.1l at once. 

.Men were olitaiued from the leading automobile 
companies, and thi'y started to work on the design. 
They were seriously han(licaii|H'd by the lack of 
ei|ui|imeni. especially drafting rooms and drawing 
supjilies. In some cases two or more men worked at 
the same drafting fable. There were not even enough 
T-s(|uares to go around, and the author had the novel 
e.vperience of making two or thiee of his first draw- 
ings freehaml, to be worked up mechanically later. 



Mfirrh, 11)21 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



119 



trucks into si-rvice. Mr. (iirl liclicvtMl in j;iviiij;- a 
jolt to ;i iiiiiii who could till it, auil he threw Army 
lurt-edents to the wiuds by disre<;:ir(lin<>; rank and 
seuiority. He selected lueu who were taiuiliar with 
automotive practice, secured commissions for them 
and assigned them to jiositions of resiumsibility in 
the organization which he formed. There was a 
great deal of opiiositiou to sucli a phni as this hut 
tlie results obtained justify Mr. (iirl's actions. 

The fuel shortage and the lack of trans|iortatiou 
facilities which resulted in the slowing up of all 
manufacturing during the winter of 1917-18 inter- 
fered with the work, but thanks to the men in charge, 
tlie trucks were produced and delivered to the Atlan- 
tic coast for overseas shipment. All of the trncks 
were driven overland to the ports of endtarkation, 
and many of them were utilized for the transporta- 
tion of spare parts, tires, supjdies, and the like. 
AA'lien they arrived at the ports they were knocked 
down and crated. Even the sliii)ping crates were 
standardized, so that every inch of cargo space was 
utilized. The trucks were taken apart in sections, 
so tiiat a minimum amount of time was recpiired for 
tlie dismantling, and the re-assendjly overseas. 

Enemies of standardization asserted tliat tiie 
trucks would be a failure, owing to the limited time 
in which tliey were designed and l)uilt. The ])erform- 
ance of the Class B truck was satisfactory in every 
respect, and its record is the best argument in its 
own defense. Assertions were made tliat the war 
would be over before any of the trucks could be put 
into service, that the ojterations of tlie A. E. F. 
would be hindered by the failnre of the Quarter- 
master's Corps to deliver the trucks. The facts of 
tlie case show that there was never a lime when the 
suj)ply of Class B trucks on the docks at the jiorts 
of shipment did not exceed the facilities for ship- 
ping tliein over.seas. If there was any blame to be 
jilaced for their failure to apjtear in France in 
greater nund)ers, it was the fault of the shipjting 
facilities, not of the truck manufacturers nor tlie 
men in charge of the production. 

The details of the construction would be of little 
interest in this paper, but a few of the more inter- 
esting features may well be included. It has been 
stated that the Class B truck was a "gasoline 
hound." It was. Economy of fuel consumption was 
sacrificed to gain power, which was the |)rime con- 
sideration. If a single truck should get stuck, it 
might block a road and hinder important ojjerations. 
It was the intention of the designers that the truck 
should not get stuck. One of the features of the 
design was the low-gear ability. A four s])eed trans- 
mission was used, giving as much tractive effort as 
the adliesion of the tires would permit, lu othei' 
(Concluded on Page 138) 



Thei-e was a si-rious lack of authority and rcsjionsi- 
bility, no system for the liling oi' recording of ilraw- 
ings or data. After all, this was no more than was 
to be expected, with almost every man conung from 
a different factory. The tii-st few weeks were s])eiit 
in the straightening out of Ihe rcil tape. Too much 
credit cannot be given to the men wiio assumeil the 
direction of the operations and finally organized an 
engineering department which would compare favor- 
ably with that of any factory in the country. 

By October 1. 1917 the designs were comideted 
and the first of the two sample trucks was completed 
on October 7. The other was ready for delivery on 
Oct'^ber 9. The trucks were driven overland to Wash- 
ington and ou October 19, Col. Baker presented them 
to Secretary of War Baker. Sixty-nine days elapsed 
between the calling togetlier of the engineei's and the 
completion of the first sample truck. This is a rec- 
ord which has never been ecpialled in the history of 
the automotive industry. 

After the delivery of the two sam])le trucks the 
engineers divided their time between the designing 
of a new model and the redesigning and testing of 
the samples. The first design was the Class B, 
which was rated at 5 tons capactiy. The second 
model was the Class A, a 3 ton truck. The Class A 
trucks were- not completed in sufficient quantities 
to be of much service before the signing of the arm- 
istice. 

The sample trucks were subject to the most 
rigorous tests that could be devised, and their per- 
formance was very creditable. The failure of some 
of the parts was to be expected, and as soon as a 
defect be -ame a]i])arent. immediate steps were taken 
to remedy it. The trucks were run about 18 hours 
every day and sonic of the lest routes were taken 
over the worst roads thai coidil be found in the 
vicinity of Washington. The d livers were Army 
trained chauffeurs, men who were representative of 
the type of men who would drive the trucks under 
actual conditions of .service. 

It was so(m evident that tin' <'lass I! truck was 
going to be a success, so authorization was given for 
the letting of contracts for 10,01)0 trucks. Before 
each contract was awarded, the conqtany taking it 
had to satisfy the I'urchasing Hoard that the trucks 
would be completed according to schedule. It was 
the intention of the Board to have the making of each 
part divided among at least three manufacturers. 
Seventeen plants asseiiililed the i nicks, in h)ts rang- 
ing from 500 to 1000. 

It was at this stage llial one of the worst diffi- 
culties of the work was encountered, and the trouble 
which arose was overcome chiefly through the eft'orts 
of Mr. Christian (iirl, an engineer of national 
prominence who was given the task of getting the 



New York -New Jersey Vehicular Tunnel 



.1. K. llui,.MKs. mill. "1^2 



A sij;ii;il lioiiiii- has liccii licsldWi'il ii|i(iii llic 
]"]iigiiu'eriii{i Stall' o( tlit' l'iii\(Msily in tlic aiipoint- 
mciit of I'l-of. Arlimr ('. Willai.l. iicad of tlu- iiiccli- 
aiiical I'^iifiiucerinj; Depaitinciil. as ((Uisiill iii^ en 
j;iri('c'r in llic coiisl ruci ion ol' llic Xcw York New 
.J<'l'S('V Tunnel. 

This tiiiiiK'l iiiiikT tiir Hiiilsoii IJi\ci- will con- 
lu'ct New York and Jersey Ci1y ami is lo 1)(> built, 
jointly l»y the states of New York ami New Jersey 
a I tlu' cost of some f30,0()0,()(>(l. Its construction 
was authorized under a s|)ecia] act of Coufjress. 
The tunnel will consist of two separate, circular 
tubes, one for the east bound tralVic, the otlier for 
the west bound traffic. The diameter of each lube 
will be r>0 feet and the lenotli from jiortal Ui portal 
!)()(!() feet. Each tube will follow somewhat the ele- 
vations of the river bed; that is, the central span 
of each tube will be level and about ;>20() feet lono-, 
while the end spans will have a geutly rising grade 
from each end of the central span to the surface. 
Provision will be made for a twenty foot roadway, 
curbed on each side, and a sidewalk in each tunnel. 
The incoming air duct will be below the roadway, 
while the exhaust duct will be above a ceiling placed 
ill the tubes. A ci-oss-section of the incoming air 
(Inct will Im> a ligure resemlding a i-ectangle, one 
side of vviiich is an arc (tf a circle. The outlets froiu 
this duct will be Ushaiied lubes which will cipiidncl 
the fresh air from the main duel through openings 
in the road cni-bing inio the liinnel. The e.\haust 
duct will be a circular segeiiieiil in cross section. 
Holes in the ceiling will admit the foul air into this 
e.xhanst duct. 

Prof. Willard and his assistants will concern 
tiiemselves with the problem of the ventilation of 
such a tunnel, and especially the passage of air 
tlir(nigli such ducts. (Mher tniinels of such diam- 
eters have been buili ami \cntilated with success, 
bul the nnpi-ecedented length of this tunnel pre- 
seiils new and unusual prolilems in ])i'oviding sull'ic 
ient air and removing the poisonous gases exhausted 
by the automobile engines. The solution of these 
problems will be carried on by experiments with a 
ilOO foot concrete model (d' one of the tubes. Such 
a model is now under con.structiou east of the Cer- 
amics Building. Its cross-sectional area will be 
one-fourth that of the permanent tube. Otherwise, 
the model is to be an exact dui>licatioii of the tube 



under (he Hudson i\i\cr. A lliree hnndicd horse- 
power motor and a Sirocco ty])e ventilating fan n( 
lotto cubic feet ])er minute <'apacity will supply the 
air for the n]od(d tube. 

The lirsl and main ]u-olileni which presents it- 
self in the ventilation id' the thirty-two hundred feet 
of tube ill eacli span is the determination (tf a mean 
coefTicient of friction for air flowing in such a 
shaped incoming duct for such a distance and with- 
in walls of such a nature. After this coefficient has 
been detei-mined, then the amount of power and the 
size and number of ventilating fans can be detei- 
mined for use in the actual tunnel. Another detail 
to be ascertained is the proper spacing and size of 
the curb outlets for the incoming air in order to 
make a uniform liveable atmosithere in the tunnel. 

Keturning to the first problem, that of finding a 
mean coefficient of friction of air in the incoming 
duct, the scheme for solving the problem is worthy 
of attention. A little consideration will show that 
the friction coefficient of the air in the duct is not 
constant, but varying. Let us suppose that the fan 
was delivering 7000 cubic feet of air per minute at 
the water gauge pressure of seven inches at the in- 
take end of the duct. As the air escapes through 
the outlets into the tunnel, the pressure practically 
di-ojis to zero inches of water. It is therefore appar- 
ent that the curb outlets must increase iu area as 
the iiressure in the duct decreases, in order to kee]) 
a uniform atmosphere in the tunnel. Some law for 
the increase in the area of these curb outlets must 
lie deduced Iroiii the experimental work. 

The experiments with the model tube upon the 
air friction coetficient will be carried on in the fid- 
lowing manner. It is known that at the nuddle of 
the river span the pressure will be practically zero, 
the fan will be run at the proper speed to produce 
slightly over a zero pressure at the end of the ;{00 
foot model duel. TIumi the inches of water jtressure 
al the fan monlli will be observed. From this data, 
the riicti(ui coetficient will be determined. Next 
the far end of the duct will be somewhat obstructed, 
and the fan speeded up suB'icieutly to produce a 
lu-essure at the far end of the duct e(in;il to that at 
the fan month in the first trial. The new pressure 
at the fan mouth is observed and a second coeffi- 
cient i>( friction is calculated for these new press- 
(Concluded on Page 136) 



Coal Studies at the University of Illinois 



S. W. I'AHK 

I'roirsxiir of Appliril die mist 11/ 



Next to the ;ij;rii'ultunil iiitcicsis df tin- Slalc. 
the greatest asset possessed hy Illinois is in iicr coal 
reserves, which are comimted li.v the I'nilcil Slates 
(leological Survey to exceed in amount iliosc pos 
sessed by any other state in the nnion, not excepting; 
even Pennsylvania or West \'irginia. Techno»ra])li 
readers may be interested in a few facts connected 
with tliis material which is so fundanientally con- 
nected with industrial development. 

Coal was first discovered in the I'nited States in 
Illinois. The location was in the territory occui)ied 
at the time bj' the Illinois Indians, at a point ap- 
jiroximately ojtposite Starved Rock on the north side 
of the Illinois Kiver. At least the first mention of 
coal in the United States is found in the journal of 
Father Hennepin, who in KiT!) reported an ont-croi)- 
]iing of "Cole" not far from Kort Ci-evecoeur on the 
Illinois River, and mai-ked the location on the map 
accompanying his journal. Practically contempor- 
aneous with the earliest production of Anthracite in 
Pennsylvania and of Bituminous coal in Virginia, 
occnrred; the actual mining of coal in Jackson 
County, 111., on the Big .Muddy Kiver, a flat-boat 
being loaded at that point in 1811) and sent down 
the river to New Orleans. If the date for tin; be- 
ginning of coal production in the .'■•tate were a lit- 
tle more definite, we might with propriety take 
note of the 100th anniversary and fittingly cele- 
brate the event. The '2^Mt\i anniversary of coal 
discovery is very preciselv defined and occurs in 
1 ItL'O. 

The first investigational work dime at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois was on coal. Indeed, it is(lonl)tfnl 
if any work of a similar character had been done 
previously in the United States. In 1877-78 Mr. W. 
1). O. Rudy, under the direction of Professor Henry 
A. Webber, collected face sam|»les from 17 nnnes and 
snbjected them to ultimate aiuilysis. The results 
were published in the Trustee reports for 1S7S. Sjtec 
ial attention was also given by Rudy 1<> the sulfur 
in the coal, the amount volatilized in the pioccss 
of cooking and the residual sulfur reuiainint; in llie 
coke. : 

For ten years after the work of Rudy, tiie coals 
of the state received almost no study whatever. In 
1888-89, Mr. R. B. McConney and F. H. Clark worked 
out their thesis together on "The Heating I'ower of 
Illinois Coals." These students in Meclianical Engi- 
neering did their work under the direction of Lieu- 
tenant AA'ood detailed from the United States Navy, 
and lor a number of years serving here as head of 



I he department of .Mechanical lOngineering. The 
method of carrying oiit their experiments is of no( 
a little interest to us at the present time. The ap- 
paratus for determining the "Heating Power" was 
made liv them in the University shops. It is now a 
valued relic in I he possession of the writer. 1 1 is a 
calorimeter of the Luther Thonn)son type. The chief 
feature of interest from the standpoint of ])resent 
day operations is tlie fact that the charge of chemiciil 
ami coal is made \i[) in a receptacle or cartridge 
standing conveniently and detached on the desk with 
a fuse for igniting the charge. Upon ignitinu tin' 
fuse, the various jiarts are assend)led as (piiekly as 
possible and ^dunged into a volume of water, the 
temperature of which had been taken, nothing being 
said about the temperature of the cartridge and ac- 
cessories. Doubtless a compensation of errors was 
hoped for as between the burning out of the fuse. 
the delay in assend)ling, the various tem]ieraturi's 
inv<dved, etc. However, the results furnished a good 
article for tin; Technograph.* Also the apparatus 
furnished a good illustration of how the process, at 
least in some of its featni-es, ought not to be done, 
and so may be said to have initiated the work of 
developing more accurate appliances for such wurk. 
If time and space were available it would he inier- 
esting to reproduce here the cut of (he instrument 
as used by McConney and Claik, side by side with 
the instrument now in use for the same purpose and 
develo])ed here in our own laboratoi-ies. It will ]ier- 
haps serve tlie purpose of this reference to note that 
the early type of instrument was inve.stigated when 
it first ap])eared by Dr. Lunge, the Swiss .Authority 
of Coals, Coke etc., who reported that it had a lindt 
of error of about 1;")%. This factor on an average 
Illinois coal would represent about ISOO B.T.U. The 
more recent a])aratus should work within a range of 
errors of less than HI nniis in iL'dlMl. 

One of the rather odd circumstances connecte<l 
wilh in\estigational work on fuels occured in con- 
nection with the puldication of the first bulletin on 
the "Chemical Analysis and Healing Value of Ill- 
inois Coals." This bulletin, in addition to a discus.s- 
ion of coals and the interpretation of analytical 
results, end>odied in it a set of tables all of the re- 
sults of analyses which had been made in our own 
laboratory, and much other data from other sour^-es 
that .socmed to be iclialile. The manuscript was pre- 

(Concluded on Page 132) 
*Trchii()(/niiili No. .'>, IHDO-91, pp. 22 ami 23. 



Oil and the Engineer 

llAltol.ll 11. Osr.uKN. c. c. "lil 



The writer for llie past two siiiiimers has been 
ill file eniploy of two oil reliiiiiif; coriioratioiis. From 
his iihscivatittns and experience, this article is writ 
icii I'm- the iiiirjiose of descriliiiit; the |iriiiiarv stejis 
ill ihe prodiiclion and rctiniiif;- of ]hM roleiiiii ;iiid llic 
relation of tiie eiijuinecr to this indiistr.v. 

We are all familiar with liie products of iietrol- 
eiim which are a necessity of our modern civiliza- 
lioii. Tile principal products Mie j^asoline, kerosene, 
j;as oil. fuel oil, Inliricalinj; oils. <;rease, paratin, 
and tar. We are not, however, as familiar with the 
method (if production and retiiiiii';. 

Crude petrolenni is found in oil hearing sands 
and sedimentary i-ocks. AVells are drilled to the oil 
hearing strata in very much the same manner as 
water wells are drilled. In many cases the oil is 
under sulficient ])ressure to flow from the well, in 
some cases with such great pressure that great 
difficulty is exjierienced in controlling the flow. 
Wells flowing under very high ])ressnre are called 
"gushers." In case the oil is not under sutYicient 
pressure to flow, the wells arc (Minipped with pumps. 
The oil is piped from Ihe wells to reservoirs built 
of earth, or concrete, but more often consisting of 
large steel tanks with a capacity of r)."),()0(t libls. 
Here the oil Is held in storage until delivered to the 
refinery. The usual method of delivery to the refinery 
is tiirongh pipe lines, 4 in. to S in. in diameter, of 
which there are tlnmsands of miles in this country. 
The longest line in this country is from the Okla- 
hoiiKi held via Kansas City and Chicago to the Atlau 
tic seaboard, a distance of 1 ()()() miles. By means oi' 
these lines the oil in the crude state is transported 
to the market to be refined. Crude oil from foreign 
countries, jirincipally Mexico, is shipped in steamers 
called '-tankers," built especially for this purpose. 

The crude oil received at the relineries is stored 
iu covered steel tanks usually with a capacity of 
r>r),()00 bbls. The primary steiis in the iireparation 
of the petroleum for the market is fractional dis- 
tillation, the exact method depending on the kind of 
crude oil and the products desired. The general typi- 
of steel stills used for this puriiose are cylindrical 
steel shells set in brickwork, the upper half being 
ex])Oscd except for an asbestos covering. The usual 
dimensions are 40 ft. long by 1'-* ft. in diameter, with 
a charging capacity of about lOOO gallons. They 
may be either end or side fired, the latter being more 
desirable because they are more easily controlled. 
The fuel is either coal or oil: the latter, nsnally be- 



ing Ihe cheaper, is in more common use. 

.Vt the lop of the still is a dome 1' ft. high by '1 
\\. iu diameter fi-om which a vapor pipe, 12 to Hi 
inches in diameter, leads to the condensers. These 
consist of coils of pipe covered with running water 
contained in a steel box o])en at the top, about 40 ft. 
long by 12 ft. wide by 12 ft. deep. 

Pipes usually :i inches iu diameter, called "runn- 
ing lines", conduct the oil from the condensers to 
the "tail house." In the "tail house," inserted in the 
"running lines," are "look boxes" enclosed in glass 
.so that the stream can he watched by the still man 
in charge. Small cocks are fitted to the running 
lines so that sainjdes can be taken from time to time, 
usually once every hour. By testing the specific 
gravity of the distillate, the stillman determines 
what i|U:ility of oil is running. The bottom of the 
look box is connected to a manifold so that the dis- 
tillate may be run into any receiving tank desired. 
The contents of the various receiving tanks are 
tested iu the laboratory to determine the quality of 
oil. Some is redistilled in steam stills similar in 
construction to the stills described, hut heated by 
steam introduced into the oil throngrth ])erforated 
pijies. Some is jiumped direct into storage tanks and 
held ready for shi])ment. Some is treated in "agita- 
tors" with sulphuric acid and caustic soda to "sweet- 
en" it and clarify it. 

The uiarkelable oils are invariably triiusporfed 
iu lank c:iis with a capacity of alxmt 1(),0(»() gallons. 
In Ihe moden method of distillation, several 
stills are placed in series. The crude oil is iiumped 
into the first still which is maintained at a constant 
temperature. A fraction of the oil is vaporized, pass- 
ing off through the condenser. The remainder passes 
into the second still which is maintained at a slightly 
higher temperature than the first. Here a second 
fraction is vaporized, and passed ofl:' to the conden- 
ser. The oil continues through the .series, the tem- 
pci;itures increasing in each still and the distillates 
bccouiing corres|iondingly heavier. The oil is ]iiiiui>ed 
lioui I he last still through a coil covered with the 
"Iced" crude oil which is contained in a horizontal 
steel shell. The iirodncts from this process are nap- 
tha. gas(dine, kerosene, and gas oil, which are the 
distillates, and fuel oil which is the oil ])iiiuiied from 
the last still in the series. 

Iu the type of iilaiit with which the writer is 
familiar, there are eight stills in series. The 
cajiacity of the "battery" is lO.OOO bbls. of crude oil 



.Uarch, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



123 



every 24 hours running continuously. About ir)() bbls. 
of fuel oils are consumed in firing the stills and about 
the same amount in the boiler liouse. A plant of 
this ty]i(' is called a topping ])lant. As tlie name 
suggests, only tiie liglit oils are distilled here, the 
I'esiduiim being sold as fuel oil. A plant |)rodncing 
all the possible products of petroleum is too large a 
project to be considered in this article. 

The question of fire in an oil refinery is a very 
serious jtrobleni. Buckets of sand are placed con- 
veniently for use in case of fire. Fire hydrants are 
also spaced about 200 ft. apart throughout the plant. 
However, water is of very little value in fighting an 
oil tii-e, although it may e.vtinguish a grass fire be- 
fore it has reached the oil tank. There is a prepara- 
tion on the market called "Foamite" which has 
proved successful in extinguishing some oil fires. 
The "Foamite" played on the fire produces a foamy 
substance which will not support combustion, thus 
smothering the fire. Many refineries have a complete 
system installed throughout the plant with connec- 
tions conveniently located. All tanks are ecpiippeil 
with a fixed spray nozzle which will spread the 
"Foamite" over the surface of oil in case of fire. If 
an oil tank jmt etpiipiied with this apparatus catches 
fire, the only solution is to draw off as much of the 
oil as possible from the bottom before it gets too hot 
and let the rest burn. The problem of fighting oil 
tires is yet to be satisfactorily solved. 

The oil industry i)robably offers a greater var- 
iet.y of engineering problems than any other one in- 
<lustry. The structural engineer finds problems in 
the design and construction of buildings, tanks, stills, 
and condensers. The municipal and sanitary engi- 
neer nmst jirovide an adeipiate water sup])ly and 
sewerage system. Due to the location of manj- re- 
fineries this freipiently means a complete water col- 
lection, filtration, and distribution system. The de- 
sign of a machine shop and jiower plant offers prob- 
lems for I lie meclumical engineer. In ])lan1s cover- 
ing ((niNlderable acreage, the (luestion of road con- 



struction offers oportunily for th(> highway engi- 
neer. The extensive use of electricity for power and 
light requires the attention of the electrical engi- 
neer. An up to date refinery includes a car shop for 
the repair and maintenance of tank cars which, with 
its trackage, calls for a railway engineer. The op- 
eration of the stills and laboratories is purely in the 
chemical engineer's field. 

Although the oil industry is strictly an engineer- 
ing problem, there are comparatively few engineers 
in this work. The construction and operation of 
many of the largest refineries has been under men 
who have grown with the industry and who are said 
to ''know the oil game", but who have no technical 
training. As a result many plants in ojieration are 
very inefficient, although they may )><■ iirodiicing 
great (|uantities of oil. 

The writer spent the past sumnier in liie con- 
struction department of an oil refining corporation. 
The entire sunnner was sjient in remodeling and 
adding to the several refineries. Such problems as 
insufficient space for conibusti<m under the stills; 
insullicient condensing area in condensei' coils; in- 
sutficient flue capacity; excessive loads on founda- 
tions and structural members; and the lack of draw- 
ings showing location of pijie lines and details of 
construction are typical of those which were en- 
countered. A man of technical training employed at 
the start would li.ive prevented such disregard of 
fundamental luinciiiles and would have greatly in- 
creased the efficiency of the plant. 

Today. ln)wever, the engineer is becoming an im- 
portant figure in this industry. Tlio.se in positions 
of authority in the larger coriiorations are beginning 
to realize llie \alne of llic man with Icchnical train- 
ing. 

I'lidonlttedly tlie oil industry alVords a splendid 
opliortunity fur the engineer, especially the ni.in of 
general engineering abijily. Ix-cause I here is siicli a 
variety of phases to the work. 



A JIA(J1(' W(HH) 
There's a little word below, with lelleis lliree. 
Which, if yon will only grasji its potency, 
AAlll send yon higher 
Towards the goal where yon aspire, 
AVliich, wifliont its |)recioiis aid you'll never see — 

\()\V: 
Success attends Ijic man who views it right; 
Its back and foi-wnrd nieanings dillVr qiiile; 
For this is how it reads 
To tlie man of ready deeds, 

"Who spells it backwards from acliie\('nients lieight- 
WON! 

• — Aiionijnwus 



AN; APPRECIATION 

To (1. L. \ . Ml iji r. Ilir jiii-iiii r i ililnr nj llir 'I'l rli iiiii/ni /ill . a nili' of tliiniks i.s nffcrrd hi/ 
llir Uicnllji unit shnli III hmli/ of llir i'lilliiir <i( F, iii/i iii rri iii/. His i/riiKiiir rhardctir, inisil- 
jish iilliliiilr tiiininl his fi llnir si iiih iils. mill ii ii I i ri in/ iffnrts In iirritin /tlisli hurv hicn r.rciii- 
plifiiil hi/ till Ti rli iini/ni/tli of lliis i/iiir. Mi i/rr us iiii iitiniiiiiis is iinl lust to Illinois as mm 
of his riitihi r unit uhilili/ mil in Ihr irorlil ilir ii n ilssii lit iinij i list il lit ion. MitlJ his succ^'KH 
he irilhoill hoiinils! 

THE STADIUM 

l'iii\('rsit>- siMilhiiciit li:is (Icci-ccd lli;it :i stailiuiii lie Iniill. Is it iKit iiKist liltiii";- lliat siicli 
a sti-iictiii-c lie crccliMl :is a iiiciiHii-i:il 1c> tlic sciiis (if tlic Slate (iT lllinuis, who during the re- 
cent war gave theii- lives in llie service (if tlieir cdHHtry? We of tlie jiresent generation can 
never forget, hut as time goes on, jiuhlic ineiuory will heconie rather dim. Anun-icans have 
always been I<nown for their athletic sjiirit, and a sta<liuiii which iuiplies athletics of the 
highest type seems to he the most [irojier kind of a memorial to our men. 

As a monumental symbol of their lives, siaiplicity, emlurance, aiul iisefidness are features 
that should lie carried (Uit in the i)erfecting o/ the jilaus (d' such a structure. It should cer- 
taildy be built to stand for generations and ti accomodate the multitudes of ]ieo]de that will 
atteiul conference matches at Illinois in future yeai-s. Kecreat iiuial tields, an outdoor track, 
tennis courts, haskethall conits, an artilicial skating rink, anil an immense swimming ]iool 
are possible iu connect icm with the erection of the stadium. 

In order to erect a struct uie of this type, that will suriiass all others, money will he 
needed. lOvery true, loyal lllini will he expected to give to his utuuist. Students, alumni, 
faculty, and the jieople of the State of lllimiis will all he included in the drive. Kveryone 
id' \is should get out and do all within his power to aid iu the ei-ecti(m <d' such a nuuiument, 
a work of art, a Irihute to the- men who ser\-ed cmr conutr.\, and a necessity to the widfare 
(d' our posterity. 



AN "ALL ENGINEERING SMOKER" 

An "All Engineering Snniker" is being planneil by the student engineering council. It 
is hoped that by having affairs of this kind, nu-mbeis of the dilVerent departments and classes 
will have an opportunity to beconu' better acquainted with one another. The committee in 
duirge of the smoker is an active one, and every dejiartment is represented on it. Novel 
entertainment of a kind that has never been attempted before, "eats", and "smokes" will be 
plentiful. AVith great foresight, prei)ara I ions are being made to acc(uuodate the expected 
crowd of engineers by having the smoker in the ( iym Annex, livery engineer is to be in 
eluded in this "get-togetluM-." regardless of whether he is a student oi- faculty man. It is to 
be purely on engineer's event and deserves the support of <'veryone in the (Ndlege of Eugi- 
lU'cring. C.et back (d' it, IVllows, and push it over. 



March, 1921 THE TECHNOGRAPH ■ 125 

THE NEW CO-OP 

For several iiioiiths, we iiuve lieiinl nuiior.s of a cooperative store for engiueeriiig stu- 
dents. It is now au assured fact. Its success depends equally upon careful management and 
upon student support. This store has been organized in the belief that the privately oper- 
ated student stores have been enjoying undue profits, particularly in engineering supplies. 
Tile united engineering societies have organized the proposition and expect to commence 
ojierations this spring. The expectation is to sell books at regular pcImII price, to sell supplies 
at L'O percent above the cost price, and annually to declare a rcl.:ilc iu Septendier on pin- 
chases. 

The management must have the support of engineering students to conimeiu-e operations. 
Every student should feel a personal responsibility, and every student should take a mem- 
bership. Seniors, although they will not personally benefit greatly, should consider the move 
to establish a cooperative store one of sutficient merit to oblige them to ))uy a one dollar 
membership with the understanding that his sum will be refunded in September. The first 
year of life of the new enterprise will probably decide its success or failure. If the present 
established stores commence price cutting, students must continue to support their own store 
realizing, as they should, that their store is responsible for any such price reductions. The 
prices ottered by the cooperative store will always be the minimum that can be maintained. 
Assuming a wise management, it is for the students to decide tlie success or failure of this 
movement iu their behalf. They must meet this responsibility. 



With the new semester, departmental societies have been rcvivt'd with the usual abun- 
dance of vim. New ott'icers have been elected, and they are challenged to maintiiin student 
interest in their organizations. They are the leaders in their respective deiiartiueuts and 
they must realize and assume the responsibilities of leadership. They must manifest persis- 
tence, hard work, reliability, and ingenious thought. The ett'orts of the members of these soci- 
eties must be coordinated, and the societies organized to promote the ideals of the engineer- 
ing profession and stimulate thought of practical worth. A task jireseuts itself of devising 
methods for creating a closer bond of fellowship, not only between the students themselves, 
but also between the student body and the faculty. The leadersiiip iinisl l>c ett'icient and the 
acti\ity continuous if anytliiug is to be accomplished. 



Last spring, by corresponding with manufacturers and other employers, a faculty com- 
mittee secured a considerable list of jobs open to students during the suuuuer vacation. The 
students, however, did not properly avail themselves of the prottered employment and in re- 
fusing it, displayed their shortsightedness. Engineering experience, which some stiulents 
lack entirely at the time of their graduation, is a most valuable asset, both in understanding 
the work of the senior year and iu commanding a better salary upon graduating. Au engi- 
neering student is vei*y unwise when he refuses work ottering a wealth of engineering ex- 
perience by preferring to clerk, drive an automobile or loaf. A freshman engineer should real- 
ize that if he accepts even an unimportant position with jin established firm and returns for 
work each succeeding summer, he is ac(iuiring a place in the organization and is certain of 
a good position u])ou graduation. Mere salary is no criterion l)y which t(i judge (he value of 
a summer job. 



In filling the pages of a journal such as tliis, a considerable nunilici- >>( jiossible contrili- 
utors must be interviewed. These interviews would probably form an excellent basis for 
classifying the students as to relative value to an employer. Tliei'e ai-e of course, those ad- 
mirable persons who agree to have an article ready hj a certain date and really do so; there 
are those ordinary mortals who agree, but are not on time; there are tlutse who refuse; and 
there are those very unsatisfactory persons who cannot bring themselves to agree or refuse. 
Have you ever thought tliat reliability may spell desirabilily to an employer? It often does. 



Clay Deposits; Prospecting and Exploration 



II. 1.. I'kam \\ ki.l, ccr. 



Til Sdiiu- |M'<i|)lc. I lie i(lc;i Ilia! llicic is a well 
(li'vclopcil |ilan fur ]iii>s|ic(iiiii; and cxiiloriiij; flay 
(k'posits may cuiiu' suiiicwhal as a siir|irisi'. Sihmii- 
iiii;l,\'. lln' rci|iiisiic woiilil lie to timl a hank of cai'tli 
wliifli woiilil siicU lo one's sliocs wlicn wet ami 
which wlien sainiiliMJ and i)ui-nt'd would i>rodnct> 
laihcr a "ood clay jji-oiluct. The object of this ar- 
ticle, then, is to list and e.\])laiii briefly a few 
methods that are used foi- clay ])ros|iectin<; and e.\- 
jiloration. 

To show the direct aiipiicatiou of the methods 
<inlliiied, we shall assume that a com|iaiiy maniifac- 
tiiriiiii clay iirodncts in a certain section of the coun- 
try wishes to expand their business. They have 
fonnd that the market for a given clay product in 
a certain territory is good; hence if a suitable clay 
dejiosit can be located, the erection of a clay plant 
would be a ]irotitable investment. We might list the 
following factors as being of vital importance to 
the snccessful localiou and ojieratioii of the plant: 

1. A suitable and sulficient supply of raw- 
ma terials including clay, fuel, and water. 

-. An ade(|nate sujtply of labor. 

'■>. J'roj)er slii|(])iiig facilities. 

4. All ade(piate market within commercial 
reach. 

In order to show clearlx why the methods useil 
in e.\]iloration are necessary, we ought really l<i 
know the classilicatiou of clays and a few facts con- 
cerning their origin, formatio i. and deposition. 

Clay is the name ajiiilied to those earthy ma- 
terials, occuring in nature, whose most prominent 
property is that of plasticity. It is the [irodiict of 
rock decomjM)sition and ])hysically consists of small 
particles, mostly of mineral character, ranging from 
grains of coarse sand to those niicrosco])ic in size. 
It also contains colloidal material either of organic 
or ndneral character. 

There are many classitications. but foi- the pm- 
pose of this article we will select the most common 
one which divides clays into two divisions namely: 
residual and transported. 

Residual clays are those foiiml over the jiarent 
i-ock. Throngli the action of weathering forces the 
Vock disintegrates and forms a nuiss of clay. It can 
easily be seen that sudi a deposit cannot be uniform. 
There will be a gradual change in the de])osit the 
deeipcr the day is e.xcavaleil until tiiially the parent 



rock is reached. 

Tiansp(Mieil clays are called sedimentary, that 
is, they ha\c' been carried away from the parent 
rocky streams, winds, or glaciers. Sedimentary 
clays are divided into the following classes: marine 
clay (deposited on the ocean bottom (, estuariiie clay 
(laid down in shallow arms of the sea), swamj) and 
lake clay, river flood-])lain clay, terrace clay, drift 
or bowlder clay (formed by glaciers), ami aeolian 
clay I formed by the wind action!. Sedimentary 
cl.iys. therefore, will lie stralilied anil ciimmonly 
hear no direct relation to the umlerlyiiig r<ick on 
which they may rest. 

It is plaitily seen that clay deposits are not uni- 
form throughout; in f.ict. they may change consid- 
erably within a rather small area. For this reason, 
many |ilanls have discontinued o]»eration after a 
short run, the clay measnres having changed so much 
with continued excavation that the clay had become 
iintit for the production of the .article for which the 
plant was originally e(|uiiiped. 
J' ro.s pectin;/ 

We shall assume, as was stated, that the com- 
jiany wishes to expand and ]ilans to send a jirospec- 
tor into the territory in ipiestion. AVith this in nnnd, 
the first thing to be done is to send for (tovernment 
and State (ieological maps and bulletins. These 
maps will show the territory in (ieological areas 
with a description of the materials (clays and rocks) 
in each area. They will also show stratifications and 
irregularities, and will imlicate where possible out- 
crops are to be found. The topographical maps will 
give the contour of the country. By a study of these 
maps, we restrict the search in <iur territory to 
critical areas. 

Lord t inn of a Deposit 

Tlu! iirosjiector is now sent into the territory, 
lie should systematically examine the country over 
which he passes, sample every likely looking deposit, 
and enter in a field book a description of the place 
at which each sample was taken. He must .sample 
every deiiosii. sending the samples to a laboratory to 
be tested, since unfortunately, there are very few 
field tests possible to deternnne the nature of the 
day. Its value lies in its behavior on burning. 

The prospector must know the usual surface in- 
dications and also a system for getting information 
as to subterranean deposits. As surface indications 



March, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



127 



we uiay list: (a) outciuiis and washes (b) sti-eaiiis 
(c) highway and railroad cuts (d) springs. On go- 
ing into an area, the prospector will try to And 
washes or eartli slides on the surrounding hills. 
"Washes" are the small gullies where the surface 
waters and melting snows have run down the liill 
through the clay layers. Next he will follow the 
I'ivers or the streams flowing through the area. After 
tliis, he will follow the highways and railroads, 
studying the cuts and fills. Finally, he must watch 
very clo.sely for the occurrence of springs. Springs 
are often an indication of shale because underground 
water coming in contact witJi a hard shale layer will 
follow it to the surface. 

For subterranean deposits, the prospector must 
depend principally on well drill records. A good 
l)lan to follow is to talk with the owners of well 
drilling outfits, if in an area where artesian wells 
are drilled. A farmer, too, will remember the earth 
formation through which lie cut when excavating 
his well. A ])r(ispector amy also get information 
from coiitraclors rclalive to the uudcrlyiiii; layers of 
the area. 

Sdiiipli)!;/ 

Ill saiii]iliiig clay deposits, it is essential that 
the prospectoi' get a sam|)le which should be an 
average sample of tiie unweathered material. T(i do 
this, he may bore a ninnber of test holes with a min- 
ing hand auger, or he may sink a series of test pits 
on the jiroperty. Still another way is to dig a trench 
for a distance at right angles to tlie clay layers, 
cutting out the samples at intervals along the trench. 
If nil a hill, he should start the trench at the bottom 
or low elevation and work towards the top. 

A i)rospector, you might say, must be a ili]ilo- 
mat. He ought to keep the nature of his work 
guarded as much as possible, because if a bind 
owner imagines he has a deposit of value on his 
]U'operty, his jirice will immediately go up. 
E.rplonifioii 

The term, exploration, is applied to the work 
ilone in determining the size, extent, and position 
of a dejiosit and its commercial value. This work 
should be done under the supervision of a Ceramic 
or Mining p]ngineer. 

It has been shown that clay deitosits are not 
uniform thi-oughoiit, and one function of the ex- 
ploration is to show the degree of variation. In 
fact, we might list the f(dlowing as the princijial 
things the exploration ought to determine: 

( 1 ). The presence of water on the property. 

(2). The locatiim of the railroads near the 
property. 

(:!). The i)resence of any other clay on the 
property. 

(4). The suitability of the land for a factoi-y 



site. .^ ^3 

(.")|. The possibility of closing private roads 
through the property. 

|(i|. The amount of track llial would have to 
be laid to connect the ]ilaiil with the neighboring 
railroads. 

(7). If the siiriouiidiiig property <-aii be op- 
tioned at a reasonable ])rice. 

Siirrci/iiKj of Pro pert ji 

Perhajis the engineer in charge of the ex])lora- 
tion will have a survey made of the land, and a 
ma]i made therewith. This map should show all the 
property lines, location of buildings, streams, 
springs, and railroad lines, and shonlil list the 
names of adjoining jn-operty owners. 

U'hile this work is being done, outside parties 
are set at work obtaining options on the surround- 
ing land pending further investigation. By doing 
this, any possibility of the erection of a competitive 
plant later is eliminated. Many companies have 
suffered for this lack of foresight. 

If the iii-operty has been found to be clear as 
to title and all other conditions look favorable, the 
engineer will have a toiiographical survey made 
showing the elevation at leu foot intervals. Follow- 
ing this he will block out the land into 500 ft, 1000 
It., or liOOO ft. squares and at the corners of these 
s<piares he will drive a stake. The stakes are then 
niiinbered and the locations ])lolt(Ml on the topo- 
gi-aphical map. 

Now either a hole is drilled or a test pit dug 
at each stake. Whether a hole is drilled or a pit 
dug dejieiids, of course, on the nature of the over- 
burden and its relative depth. .Vii accurate record 
is kept of each drill hole so that I he nature, width, 
and depth of the layers from the suirace is known. 
The burning properties of the samjiles taken at 
each of the holes are also recorded. Referring to I he 
log of the drill records when I Ik; calculation is 
necessary, we might list the following uses of the 
topographical ma]* : 

(1). It will show the (lejilli of Ihe clay layers 
and whether or not the deplli of llie overburden will 
increase or decrease. 

{-). I'^rom the nnip ;inil log 1 k, il is possible 

to coinpute the tonnage or cubic yard:ige of slrip- 
liing. 

(".1. The niaji will show just where any body 
of clay should be opened in order to get proper 
drainage and economic disposal of overburden. 

(4 I. It will show the best grades for roads to 
jirovide for economic clay haulage. 

(51. It will show relatively how much in:i fer- 
ial your neighlior has sluiuld you wish to piii-chase. 
(Concluded on Page 132) 



Research in Mechanical Refrigeration 

IlllKACF. M ACINlIKi; 

.l.v.\7. I'rojissiir III h'rjrii/rnil inn I! iii/i ik < riilf/ 

.Mc<-li;iiiic:il rclri^fiM I idii. like elect ric iii:i<-liiii |ii-<)(liul inn. Tlie hm /irriil iin iii.i iiitniiied is ini cs- 

eiv. ;^:is ;iii(l nil eiii;iiics, .iilil I lie ;iir|ihine. is ;i seiiliill l';K'ti)I' ill I lie wmk. ami il is the most illipctr- 

iiiocleiu iiixciil idii. l-'iir siiiiie I iiiie, ill lirsl , I lie iiiiliis- tniit considcnit inn in llie ilesij;ii :nu\ llie clioicc of 

try la};j;eil anil ils use was mainly apprcciateil in the details of the power end of the ])lant, and the 

breweries (inly, then il develojied alon;; cold storai;e available choice is ii large one. If steam is con- 

liiies and aitilicial ice nianiilactiii-e an<l linally \cnieiit. the refrif;eratin}i' machine may be steam 

spi-eail into varied industries, until now there are driven bvineans of the steam engine, or the so-called 

i-elativt'ly few indiisl ries w lieie il is not snccesst'nlly absorption macliine may be used, while if electric 

niili/.ed. ]M)wer is available the electric motor is a convenient 

Hnt more pai'ticnlarly the last few years have ajjparatns to use. For low teniperatnres, I below zero 
seen a vast inci'ease in the devclopnieiit of refrigera- (leg. F.) the absorption machine is best, or the stage 
lion. Comparatively little natnral ice is harvested ammonia com])ressor with the proi)ei' form of inter- 
now, even where snch ice is easilv cnt at slight cost, cooler. Of late years, the carbonic machnie — ii.sing 




Fig. I. — Arrangement With Flexible Piping for Weighing Liquid Ammonia. 



The i-esiill is that ice nianiiract nre is of prinuiry im- 
l>ortaiice. The packing honse imlnstry is a big one,, 
but imjjossible (as we understand it) without some 
means of quickly reducing the animal heat, and 
maintaining the proper temperature of storage or 
shii)nient. Again, cold storage for fruits, vegetables, 
berri(?s, eggs, dairy products and meats of various 
kinds extend the natural season for snch eatables 
(and the market for the same) and preserve against 
the waste due to decay whicli would be very large 
were it not for the control of temjieratures and hum- 
idity such as is ])ossihle in the niodern iiietlmd of 
holding goods. 

Finally the industries are linding use for me- 
chanical refrigeration. The chemical industry re- 
qnires frecinenlly a cool process or cool water or oil 
during a part of the manufacture of the goods. Some 
industries recjnire a chilled air, oi' room, and others 
rcMpiirc! the maintaining of a constant cool tempera 
tnre. Some attempts have been made to cool audi 
toriums and other public gathering places, but eii- 
tii-e success has not been obtaiu(>d in this respect. 

With the develoi)meiit of the ai»plications of re- 
frigeration has come a di-mand lor its eeononiical 



carbon dioxide as a refrigerant — has been developed 
extensivelj'. It has been used in England and on 
the Continent for years with great success, but it 
is only being seriously taken \\\> in the I'liited States 
these last few years. 

Besides the above types of refrigerating mach- 
ines, the present demand has been for medium or 
high s])(!ed machines, self-contained machines and 
automatically operated systems. We desire to save 
engine room floor space and to connect directly to 
medium speed poi>iiet valve steam engines or to syn- 
chronous motoi's. Where two cooling lenipei-it iires 
are cairied in the plant it is desirable to carry two 
gas pressures on the suction side of the compressor 
and to operate so as to control most economically 
these two presui'es. The compressed refrigerant (am- 
monia, carbon dioxide, etc.) is discharged into a 
water cooled aftercooler, a ciiiiilciixrr. By care and 
proper design the size of the condenser can be re- 
duced to 'i or 1 1; that of the old style condenser, 
and the same is tine to a certain extent of all parts 
of the modern refrigerating system. 

Investigations on refrigerating apjiaiatns have 
not kept ]iace with the advance in the art ,and es- 



MaiTh, 1921 



THE TEOHNOGRAPH 



12!) 



I>i'ciall_v is this true iii the cases of the more nioderii 
designs. In fact the classic work of Professor Den- 
ton some tliirty years ago is still tiie anthority in 
many disputes even tliongli Ins conclusions were 
made with conditions wliicli recjuired the iiiticrin;/ 
of tile liquid ammonia, and an experimental deter- 
mination, at tlie time, of the si>ecitic volume of am- 
monia. As ammonia is a \i)latile gas. this form of 
measurement is subject to error. Realizing the great 
importance of the imlustiy. the crying need of re- 
search worlv to assist in developing ecouonues of 



Vulcanitt dri/Ud 

for- v^il^<ls 




Fig. II. 
Special Thermocouple Plug. 

operation and to he aide to understand more tli<u-- 
ougldy tlie ])henomena of tlie cycles, tlie Engineer- 
ing Exi)erimeut Station of the TTuiversity. under 
tlie direction of Dean ('. R. Ricltards. is planning to 
undertake a jirojiram of some magnitude' on refrig- 
eration iPfohh'llis. 

The relrigeral imi iiiacNinery in the department 
of Meclianical I'jigiiieeriiig axaihilMc for researcii 
\vorI< consists ot a HI Ion "'S'ork'" animoin;i com- 
]n-essoi-. a Id ton "N'ogf al»sor|i| inn machine, 
and (not yet deli\'ered) a Id Ion '•.Viitomatic 
< 'arhoiiic" CO^ maciune; this l;ist is lieing loaned 
f(M- research pur])o.ses, com])lete with condensers and 
lirine coolers. Tlie York cylinders heiug old and in 
had condition are being replaced with new ones of 
modern design and are being furnished especially 
lilted with means foi- investigating the behavior of 
the cylinder walls during operation. The absorption 
machine is new. The result is that there will be avail 
able by June lirst three dilferenl machines of eipiai 
capacity in jierfect condition for investigation. 

As mentioned, the tests to i)e carried out will be 
thorough. The ammonia machine tests will consist 
of weighing the amount of ammonia condensed in 
the condenser, fig. 1, the jiower delivered to the sliaft 
of the com])ressor, the indicated power of the com- 
pressor, and a complete set of temperatures in the 



cylinder walls, inside the conqiressor during the 
compressor stroke, and in the suction ami discharge 
pipes and the condenser. The condenser, for example, 
will have its temperature taken at eacli sectu)n, both 
for the ammonia and for the water, and the water 
will be weighed. It is hoped that u.se may be made 
of the i)otentiometer to the same degree of success 
for these temperature determinations as has been 
found i)ossil)le by Prof. A. P. Kratz In the work in 
connection with the warm air fnriiace imi'sliga- 
tions, now in progress and a projxtsed method of 
securing the amnujuia pipe temperature by means 
of a s])ecial device is shown in figure '1. This is ;i 
modification of the ordinary tiiermomeler well. 
btit will allow the thermo-couple to come into dii-ect 
contact with the gas. 

The temperature in the cylinder and on the sur- 
face of the cylinder walls will also be measured by 
thermo-couples but in addition — as a cycle is com- 
l)leted each second — there will be required a means 
of ''making'' the circuit at each particular angle of 
the crank, and by shifting the angle the leniperaluic 
of the gas in the cylinder and the lemperaluic of 
the walls may be secured for the entii-e cycle as 
illustrated in tig. 3. 

To complete the obser\ations for one set of con- 
ditions, the ammonia must be "boih-d" in the brine 
cooler, and the brine temperature ami its weight 
nnist be determined, and to lu-ovide an artificial 
load, the brine must be heated again with steam and 




DcvuL or Plim ron 
THeifMo- Coons 



Fig. III. 
Method for Securing the Temperature of Cylinder Walls. 

the steam must be weighed thereby provi<liiig sev- 
eral more liiiti hdldiirr.s on the machine. 

The relrigerating jirogram consisis of tests on 
ammonia condeu.sers of various <lesigns and various 
service conditions, with dilferent water tempera- 
lures and (|uantilies of water; of direct expansion 
piping with various service c(uiditions: of the efi'ect 
of air velocity and spray nozzles on the juactica.l 
refrigeralion of cold storage rooms: of the deconi- 
(Continued on Page 139) 



The Antioch Plan 



l\. A. ll.via K'l , colli. 



Artliiir !•]. Morpui, cliicr ciifiiiiccr of tlic ili.iini 
('onscrxaiicy Disti-ict ;iiiil nlso Pi-csidciit id' Aiiliucli 
Ciillcf;!'. Vclliiw S|(rini;s. Oliin, lias ]in)iHiscil and is 
lir(miiil<;aliiiii a radifally now sriiciiic of cdiuatioii 
wliifli slioiild lie of iiittrest 1o all oiij;iiicrriiii; cduci 
tors ami stiidciils. 

The jilan lias foiii- olijcctivcs : 
1. To tiaiii iniiiiaiily I'oi- i(ro|iri('torsliiii and 
nianafiiMiK'iit, not for siiliordinafc cniplo.v incut. 

L'. To devote jmi-t time to tlieorv in classes and 
pail time to actual employment iiiider conditions 
similar lo (hose in the coinmercial woi-ld as (tp]iosed 
to the ai-titicial conditions which exist in collejie life. 
;>. To fui-nish renuinerative work to stndents 
by (leveloiiinu industries on (lie campus in which the 
students will work and apply their (lieoiy. 

i. To fni-nish proper ]iliysical ami moral train- 
Mr. Morgan says there are two main elements 
in education, first, the acquiring of knowledge 
through study and instrtiction, and .second, the de- 
velopment of the mind and personality by practice 
in the actual problems of life. The first element 
seems to be the focus of our present educational sys- 
tem, while the second element has been almost en- 
tirely neglected. Through the development of this 
.second element at Antioch, coupled with the first. 
Mr. Morgan believes he can turn out men who need 
not have the capacity to design the most intricate 
structures, nor to comluct the most technical re- 
search work, but will have a reasonable acipiaiiitance 
with the methods and theories of engineering, com- 
bined with the point of view of the administrator. 
As stated in a recent issue of (lie l^iigineering News 
Record, to .some extent this concejit is found iii the 
courses in administrative engineering at the larger 
tedinical schools, but Antioch carries its thinking to 
a practical conclusion by c()iid)ining theoretical ami 
practical work in engineering and business. 

It is very difticult at first thought to see how 
these results are to be ol>taiiie(l, bn( Jlr. .Moi^nii lias 
the plan crystalized in such concrete form thai the 
whole idea seems perfectly feasible. Tiieii. we must 
reinend)er that Mr. Morgan is a big siiccessl'nl en 
gineer and one in whom the jteople of (>liio iiave 
intrusted the expenditure of millions of dollars. His 
first step will be the erection, around (he school, of 
factories which will turn out commercial ])i-oduc(s. 
These products will compete with others ali-eady on 



(he market. lOach factory will have its own sales. 
production, engineering, ami managing departments, 
ami ill each of these departments there will be a cer- 
tain iiiimlicr of students working tinder (he direc- 
tion of well paid s])ecialists. In this way the stii 
dents w ill handle sales correspondence and learn to 
apply, while yet in ccdlege, the tlieoiy taught them 
in courses siniihn- to our Khetoric 1((. The engineers 
will receive complaints and will be reciuired to settle 
these coin])laints either through proi)er adjustment 
by letter or by redesign and replacement. The stu- 
dents of economics will face such problems as "when 
to buy", how to s])eed up collections." and '•the best 
niethods of distribution". 

It is iimloiibteilly liar<l to imagine a Freshman 
with liis little green cap on the back of his head dic- 
tating a sales letter to a fair young co-ed. But will 
there be any green caps? A young man will enter 
such an institution with a full realization of the re- 
sponsibility to be placed upon his shoulders. Through 
clo.se association with the bosses and employees in 
the factory, he will come out at the end of four years 
with that knowledge of htiman nature which we, as 
college students, know so little of. We know each 
other, that is true, and we also know the professors 
and instructors, but how many of us after four years 
of Junior Proms and Senior Balls can walk up to 
a typical workman, out there in the shop and 
get the informal ion we want or give the orders we 
must give in a way that will inspii'e his loyalty and 
friendshiji. Sncli are the real problems of the mod- 
ern engineer. 

Mr. Morgan's scheme is woi-ked out for a small 
institution only, but why could not these same ob- 
jectives be accomjdished iu a school of large size. 
Certaiidy there would be enormous difticuKies to 
be overcome just as there are to any new engineer- 
ing lu-oblem. There is one method however tlirough 
which the student engineer might be brought into 
closer contact with the outside world (and after all 
that is (he keynote of Mr. Morgan's plan). We have 
heard about the new tunnel experiment which is 
about to take place on the campus. Why could not 
,1 Iiiixcrsity like ours undertake more of such jiro- 
jecis, then connect the students with these projects 
ill such a way that their work would closely resemble 
the work of any consulting engineer on the outside 
who would tackle the same job. Certainly such a 
scheme does not seem any more difficult than the 
.\ntioch rian. 



.Udich. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



131 



TKACTIOAL HINTS 
A. L. 1\. Sanders, c. c. 'L'l! 

Dm-iiij; iiiv viirioiis ]icri(H]s iiT ciiipluyiiu'iil in 
iimiiicipa] oii^iiiet'riiifi- work, T liavo ohsorved tlii' use 
of a iiiiiiihf r of slioi-t cuts or methods of saving time 
and eiu'rjiy in both field and oH'iee work. I will en 
deavor to set forth a few of tliese as they eonic lo 
my mind at tiiis time. T do not claim any great in- 
genuity in tliinking of them, bnt little snggestions 
(aken from an article of lliis natnre may often be 
pnt to iis(> in |ii-actice. 

One very foggy morning dnring the jiast sum- 
mer, 1 liad occasion to run a transit line for a sewer. 
Tlie excavator was set np and running and the tran- 
sit line Jiad to be run as soon as possible. My instni 
mentmaii was unable to see a fhig ])ole five hundi-ed 
feet away, our nearest possible foresight. With the 
naked eye one could see a telephone pole at tliat 
distance, but through a transit it was impossible to 
make out it's outline. We happened to liave a l'\)i-d 
car Willi us at the time so T drove it down to the 
f(U'esight, a six foot flag pole, and came up to it 
from tlie rear so that the flag was immediately in 
front of one of the headlights. T covered the othei- 
he;idlight and turned on the liglits. The instrument- 
nuni said tliat the foresight was easily visible and 
that he tliought it could have been seen at a thou- 
sand feet witiioutdift'iculty. 

During tlie summer we ran a nnndier of monu- 
ment lines o\-er jtaved streets. AA'itli a small crew 
it is rather hard to protect a three hundi'cd font 
chain from traffic. To make the maximum nundier 
of men available, the line was first run witii a tiau 
sit, and the three hundred foot intervals paced nlf. 
At these jioints the line was marked with lumber 
crayon. The instrument and flags could then be set 
aside and two men relieved to keep traffic from run- 
ning over the tape. 

Chaining pins are always being lost and ai-e 
rat]i(*r awkward to carry around. I have often used 
spikes where there is no grass and the ground is 
fairly smooth. If one forgets to pull a s]iiUe, there 
is no serious loss if it is possible to kee]) track of the 
tape lengths without counting the pins. S|)ikes are 
easily carried in the pocket and can usually be found 
near any construction job. 

(>u warm days it is rather h.ird to see a fore 
sight at a mile or more. A good s(piare of (U-ange 
coloied cloth tacked onto a lath makes a line signal 
both as a back ground and lor sending sim])le wig 
wag signals. I have often wanted to try iiainting a 
range pole alternately orange and white and trying 
the cond)ination in compai-ison with one of red and 
white nnirkings. The orange .seems to show up very 



much bettei- than the red in prairie countr\'. A 
party of drainage engineers was using range poles 
painted orange and yellow, but I never had the o)>- 
pDi-tunity to ask them their opinion regarding the 
matter. 

In looking toward the sun early in the morning 
or late in the afternoon I have found it helpful to 
lengthen the sun shade with a sheet of note book 
pa])er. This st(i])s the reflection from the bottom of 
the sun shade. 

Sometimes in tinishing the inking of ,i drawing, 
one has to wait for a line to dry before he can ])ro- 
i-eed with the work. If the line is sliort, the points 
of two ti'iangles can be used as piers on which to 
i-est a thii-d triangle, thus enabling the dr.iftsman 
to continue. As another time saver, pencil drawings 
can be made without regard to spacing on the fin- 
ished plate. Then by nniking the fi-acing a little 
larger than necessary, the drawing can be shifted 
around under the tracing to the desired position. 
By mounting the pencil drawing on a narrow strij) 
of paper, fewer thund) tacks are needed, and the ends 
of tlie stri]) make it easy to shift tlie drawing under 
the tracing. In making blue jirints of tabulated 
data, specifications, or similar matter, considerable 
economy of labor and materials will result by writ- 
ing with a typewriter on ordinai-y jiaiier beneath 
which a piece of carbon jiaper has been placed with 
the iiu))ression side up. 



Hubei- (\ (^roft came here in October, 1920, to 
assist I'rofess(u- Macintire and Professor Poison in 
Mechiinical Engineering Power Laboratory work. 
He was graduated from the I'liiversity of (\)lorado, 
Clas.s of 1918, having majored in Mechanical ICngi- 
neering. After gi-aduation he worked as Assistant 
to the Chief lOngineer at the Denver I'lant of Swift 
and Comjiany, Packers. He then entered the Air 
Service of the United States Army, returning in 
July, 1919 to resume his duties with Swift and Com- 
jiany. Fisher and Fisher, a lirm of architects in 
Denver and l>ni-bin ^'an Law. a Power iMigineer of 
the same city eMi|)loyed him until he accepted his 
jireseut position on the lOngineering Faculty. 



FOR THE <!0(U> OF THE PKOFESSION 

We have just learned of an engineer who started 
in poverty twenty years ago and has now retired 
with the comfortable fortune of |50,000. This moiu^y 
was acciuired through industry, economy, consci- 
entious efl'orts to give full value, indomitable per- 
severance, and the death of an uncle who left the 
engineer |;49,'!)99.,-)0. 

- — Official BuUclhi Cdlnnulo Sncittij of Eiiij'.s. 



i:{ii 



THIO TP^OHNOORAPH 



Marrh, 1921 



CLAY DEPOSITS KTC. 
(Continued from Page 127) 

(111. I( will show liow (lie (li"iiii;ij;(' syslciiis 
should lie i:i;<l out. 

iTl. It will show whctlici- or not wntcr will 
scc|) iiilo cxcjivaf ion pits oi' well holes in the kilns. 

(Si. It will sliow how nmch fji-idini; and lilliiii; 
will he needed foj- any. new Iniildinjis. 

1 1 is ex])ensive to have a to])oj;ra|iliiial iiiaji 
made of the property; hence the follow ill}; is some- 
limes done. Takiiip; a <;overninent niaji of the area, 
tiiid the section which contains the property. Oraw 
inclosiire lines with ink and ha\c a ]iho1o};i-aphei- 
mak<' an enlargement of it. Take this enlai'gment 
and your land survey map and lociitc a few common 
jioints on the two. Then with a pantojira]ih, trans- 
fer the contour lines from the enlargement to your 
ma)i. Tiiis method has heeii foniid rather satisfac- 
tory. 

Drillin;/ ami Vomimtiii;/ Ihc Vtihir of Dcpofiits 

Vol- horiiig holes, through clay deposits where 
samples are desired, wash drills are olijectionalile. 
In taking the clay it is necessary to determine its 
])lastic properties. If the clay has been once mixed 
or tempered with water and then thoroughly dried, 
it is not exactly the same when retempered. A core 
drill is therefore to be used whenever possible. 
>\"hen a core drill is used, the exact extent of the 
clay variations can be determined. The following 
are the usual methods of drilling used: 

1. ITand anger 

2. lOmpire drill 

:'. Hope or churn drill 

4. Hydraulic rotary drill 

."). .I(>tting drill 

(!. Diainond drill 

7. Chilled shot ilrill 

I'"or com|)iiting the value of clay deposits, var- 
ious methods, involving the use of dilVerent formu- 
lae, have been developed. These are all familiar to 
those in the mining industry, and space does not 
permit an example of their ap[)lication in this 
article. 



COAL STUDIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
(Continued from Page 121) 

seiilcd to Ihc IJoard of Trustees, who passed a resolu 
lion directly lh.it it be |>ublishe(l in i.aliii. The Uiii 
versity authorities refused to carry out liie order ou 
the ground that funds were not ,i\,iil,ible. Tiie ma 
terial was very kindly taken over l>y tiie Secret a ly 
of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics, who fur 
iiished 1000 imprints free and ga\c them a cover 
with title, and this constitutes the tirst "I'liiversity" 



publication on the ( "heiiiicil ( 'omposil ion of the 
Coals of the State. 

.\iiotiier sorl of study connected with coals was 
iiiaiigiira led here, probaldy antedating similar stud- 
ies ill Mils or foreign countries. This was an attempt 
Id produce a smokeless fuel similar to .\iit hracite 
out of l!il iiiiiiiioiis coals, especially those of the Ill- 
inois type. Its initial incentive grew out of tiie in- 
convenience and even distress which accompanied 
the great Anthracite strike of 1002. It is a little 
dilficnlt for us to appreciate now th(> effect of such 
a strike at this distance from the Anthracite fields, 
but with that fuel selling in Ihis legion for foni' 
dollars ])er ton, it can be readily understood that 
very many households depended upon it, and were 
wholly and frequently gorgeously equipped for using 
it. The tirst imblished reference to this work was 
made in the year book of the Illinois State Geolog- 
ical Survey for 1906. Under the somewhat high- 
sounding title of "Anthracizing of Bituminous 
Coal," Kesearch along this line has continued with- 
out iiiterrn](tion from 1902 to the ])resent time. 
Articles dealing with the results obtained are now 
])nblislied under the more a|)|nopriate title of "Low 
Temperature Carbonization." 

The laboratory investigations, carried out ou 35 
]iound samples for over two years have given a large 
amount of quantitative data, and stabilized the pro- 
cess to a point where it is considered ready for ex- 
perimentation as to appliances in a commercial or 
semi-commercial scale. The process is unique and, at 
least to the workers involved, extremely attractive, 
not to say fascinating. What is it and wdiat possi- 
bilities does it have in connection with our Illinois 
coal suiiplies, and their utilization? It would be too 
long a story and must be reserved for another time. 
It is perhaps sufficient to have touched uiwu a few 
of the high sjiots of more or less historical imjiort. 



I'rofessor C. AV. Ham came to Illinois in .Tanii- 
ary, 1921, as an Associate to Profess<u- Leiitwiler. He 
was graduated from the I^niversity of Kentucky, 
class of 1905, having majored in Mechanical Engi- 
neering. In 1908 he completed a year's work of the 
same nature at Cornell University. From 1900 to 
1908 he was an instructor in drawing and machine 
shop work at the University of Kentucky. "VMien a 
student at Cornell in 190S, he instructed classes in 
Machine Design. From 1909 to 191?> he worked for 
the General Electric Company, Schenectaday, N. Y. 
drafting, designing, aud estimating. In 1914 he be- 
came Assistant Professor of Machine Besign and 
Industrial Education at Cornell University. From 
-lime 1917 until his arrival here, he has been a 
.Mechanical Engineer for the Gleason Works, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 



March, 1921 



THE TEOHNOGRAPH 



i:« 



In January, 1921, Professor J. A. Poison became a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the College of Engineering. He 
studied Mechanical Engineering at Highland Park College 
from September 1, 189S to August 1. 1900, and at Purdue 
University from September 1902 to June, 1905, graduating 
with a degree of B. S. in Mechanical Engineering. 

Professor Poison has had considerable experience in 
l)otli practical work and teaching. From September 1, 1900 
to September 15, 1902 he was employed by the Murray 
Iron Works Company, Burlington. Iowa, where he held 
the position of chief draftsman in charge of the checking 
and design of all their Corliss Engine work. In July, 1905 
he entered the employ of the AUis Chalmers Company, 
working along the same lines. He has also done a great 
deal of consulting work, — from 1912 to 1916 he was the 
consulting engineer for the Novo Engineering Company 
of Lansing, Michigan, going over their entire line of fifteen 
sizes of gasoline engines, correcting clearance volumes 
and valve openings, and determining constants for the 
design of some of the engines. While in Lansing he also 
carried on experiments for the Michigan Miller Pire In- 
surance Company to determine the fire hazard from steam 
pipes and exhaust pipes of internal combustion engines, 
of various materials kept in warehouses and mill build- 
ings, and of slipping belts. In 1916 he designed a $5000 
heating plant for the Lansing Stamping and Tool Company, 
From September 1906 to April 1, 1919 he was an instruc- 
tor in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Michi- 
gan Agricultural College, being appointed Professor in 
charge of the department in 1916. Here he had a great 
deal to do in developing the laboratory, designing and 
building much of the equipment. 



I'lJOl'OSEI) CODE OK lOTIIK'S 

Tlic Idlldwiii!; code \v;is ]iic|):ii-(mI liy a .spcciiil 
OolimiittiM' of llic .\lii('fic;ili Sucii'ly <>r .M('cli;iiiic:il 
Eii<;iii('crs in 1 '.llJO : 

1. 'I'lic iiiccli:! iiicni ciiiiiiu'ci' should l)e gnidc'd 
ill all his iclat ions hy I he hijilu'st |)riiici])l('s of Iioiior, 
of li<lciily I" his cliciil., and loyalty to liis country. 

1'. llis liisl duty is to servo tho pulilic with his 
s|i('ciali7,cd .skill. In ]iroiiiotiiig wclCai-c of the soci- 
ety as a \vh(d(' he advances his own liesi intei-esls, as 
well as those of the whole engineei-iiij;' ])rofession. 

.".. lie should consider tlie ])i-otection of his 
client's oi' employer's interests in professional iii.il 
ters his essential ol)li<;at ion, provided these interests 
do not conflict with the |Mihlic welfare. 

I. lie shall refi"iiii from associating; himself or 
continiiiii}; to he associated with any enterprise of 
(piestionalile or illei;itiniate character. 

.">. lie can iionorahly accept com|)ensatioii, 
linancial or otherwise, from oidy one intei'csted 
|(arly unless all parties lia\'e aufeed to iiis recom 
|iense from other intei-esl<Ml parties 

(i. lie mnst inform iiis clieiils of any hnsiness 
coniK'ct ions, interests or circumstances, such as 
mijiht influence iiis jnducment or the (pi.ility of his 
services to his clients. 

7. lit! must not receive, directly or indirectly, 
any royalty, gratuity, or commission on any [lat- 



ented article or process nsed in the worl; njioii wliich 
lie is retained williont tiie consent of his clients or 
employers. 

S. He should satisfy himself before taking over 
the work of anoliier consulting engineer that good 
and snificieiil reasons exisi for making the e.xcliaiige. 

!l. lie mnsi base all reports and expert testi- 
mony on fads or npon theories founded only on 
sound engineering [irinciples and experience. 

II). He must not regtird as his own ;iny infor- 
mation wliich is not common knowledge or public 
property, but which lie oblained coiitidentially from 
a client or while engaged as an employee. He is, 
however, justified in using such data or information 
in llis own jirivate practice as forming a part of 
llis professional e-xjierience. 

11. He should <lo everything in his power to 
prevent sensational, exaggertited or niiw arranted 
statements abcnit engiiieeriiig work being made 
through the public ]iress. First descriptions of new 
inventions. |irocesses. etc. for ](nblication slKHild be 
ftirnished only to the engineering societies or to the 
technical press. 

12. H(> should not advertise in an undignilied, 
sensational or misle;iding manner, or olfer commis- 
sions for professional work or otherwise improperly 
.s(dicit it. 

13. He should not coniiiete knowingly with a 
fellow-engineer for eiiiployment on the basis of jiro- 
fessional charges or attempt to sii]iplant a fellow- 
engineer after detinite steps have been laki'ii toward 
the other's em|)loynieiit. 

14. He should assist his fellowcngiiieers by 
exchange of general inforiiialion aii<l \aliiable ex- 
]ierieiice or by instruction through the engineering 
societies, thesi-liools of .ijiplied science, and the tech- 
nical ]iress. 



We are all aware of the fact that most of the 
underclassmen do not become acipiainted with the 
\arious shops and laboratories until they are forced 
to by being registered in a course inxolving such 
associations. Underclassmen, tis well .-is u])per-(dass 
men will lind il both interesting and prolitable to 
\isil till' laboratories of the University. \'isit those 
of other departments and don't wait for the I'^iigi- 
neeriiig Open house to call you out. Von are a wel- 
come guest .it all times in the labs. You are missing 
a g<dden opportunity by not watching some of the 
e\|ierimenl iiig that is going on here. 



10. i;. : "How are you getting along with 
(ieorgiana ?" 

O. E.: -I love her still." 

E. E. : "Oh, she has a still, has she?" — Tiger. 




DEPARTMENTAL 

NOTES 



AKCUITKCTrKAl; xi:\vs 

Till' Architectui-iil Sociciv held ils lirsl incci 
ini; (if the sccoiul sciiu'stcr on Wc(lii<'s<l;i v iiijilit. 
I'clim-ii-y '.I. niid iiislallcil :i new iiri)ii|i of olVicers 
I'di- the sfiiu'stci-. ri(>rcssc)i- Ui'xt'unI Xcwcoiiih has 
Ill-en acting'' as tlip faculty achisor lur I lie society on 
tilt' Ijoanl of cxccntlvcs ami was icclcctcd to that 
office. H. V. Olieevei- "L'l. torinci- iM-esident of the 
society is sncceeded l>y U. I'. Siiicei- "l'l' of the Archi- 
tectnnil Enjiineering- departnient. Iv I-]. Valentine 
'22 was elected as Vice I'resident and -I. J. Bresee 
now Iiolds tlie office of Secretary and Treasnrer. 
(>. I']. Hninkow was elected as student represeiita- 
ti\(' to the hoard of executives and will serve with 
I'l-ofessoi- Xewc(ind» and the I'l-esident of the society 
ill. that capacity. 

At the precedinj; lueetinji held shoitly aftei- the 
the Christmas holidays, conunillees were aiijiointcd 
to orj;anize the society in its eifoits to produce this 
Sjirinjf a Year-Book of the work of students of the 
departments and also to lay the lirst plans for 
the annnal Fete. As yet, no definite idea of the 
Fete has heen formulated, hut we are of the opinion 
th.ii it will not only be an historical affair as it has 
heen in forniei- yeai's, hut that the syslem of decora- 
tinos will he a futuristic <me "Fxtraordinary". The 
date of the affair will he sometime in May. There 
is some talk going about that it will be held in the 
Gym Annex in order to accomodate the crowd of 
revellers, but this too, is not settled. 

I'rofessor A. H. Lybyer presented (he linal lec- 
ture of the series of six on Thursday, I-'ebrnary 10 
after a very successful program. .Ml of the lectures 
were well attended and many outside of the de- 
partment were regular afleinlanls. The series was 
ottered and managed under the aus]iices_of the Arch- 
itectural Society which will attempt to ])i'esen( an- 
other attraction of similar nature dnriiii; the (■(lin- 
ing mouths. 

In the last edition of the Tcchnogra|ili, we not- 
ice tliat the title of Trofessoi' \ewcoiiib"s lectni-e 
has been edited as "In the Balli of the Padres'". 
Either the typesetter has mixed nji his "irs and 
P's or was thinking of the old Roin.in I'.atlis in con 
nection with the California .Missions. .\|)ologies to 
I'rofessor Newcomb. 

Of late, horn-rinuued s]M'ctacles and gri/,/,ly 
blonde moustaches have apjieared on I lie connten- 



ances of many of the Seiiioi- lOngineers. Those who 
ha\c not heen in close connection with that class 
jierhaps have not noticed the moustaches, but they 
are there iie\-ertheless. 



Karnak Temple of Scarab Fraternity held its last 
meeting of tlie first semester on January 20, at the Alpha 
Tau Omega house. Election of officers for the coming 
semester took place and D. M. Arnold was elected presi- 
dent of the organization. 

Plans for the National convention to be held during 
the latter part of February were discussed and a dele- 
gate from the local chapter was elected to represent Ill- 
inois. The convention is to be held in St. Louis at Wash- 
ington University. Final arrangements were made tor the 
Beaux Arts Institute design competition to be held March 
26th. and it is hoped that this competition shall be made 
a national affair instead of a local one at Illinois. 

Scarab is laying plans tor a very active semester and 
aside from its two competitions, it hopes to stage a num- 
ber of social functions before the end of the^ term. 



KLI'.CTKICAL EXC.IXEERIXd XEWS 

At the .lannary 14 meeting of the Electrical lOn- 
giueering Society Mr. Horrell, a graduate of Illinois, 
gave an interestiug talk on the manufacture of elec- 
trical watthour meters. On February 11. new olVi 
cers were elected for the second semester. Those 
chosen were: 

I'resideut— L. A. West '21. 

Vice rresident — C. L. Conrad '22. 

Treasurer — F. C. Armstrong '21. 

Secretary— L. D. Zeek '22. 

The new ofl'icers were given the oath of olVice 
at once. F. J. Jirka, the retiring president, in his 
'swan song" thanked the society mendiers for their 
snjiport and cooperation. He especially thanked the 
committeemen, whom he had appointed, for their 
etforts. The cooi)erative buying committee, -1. C. 
Lindley and C. L. Conrad, was commended for its 
achievement in bringing about the cooperative store 
plan lor engineers whicli is now .starting operations. 
.\fter adjoniiiment "eats" were served. 

.V receiil addition to the 10. E. Lab. ('(|uipmeiit 
comprises a new iuot(n- generat(H- set. It has a direct 
current 2:!() volt 4:?.;") amjiere motor direct-connected 
to a 12."i volt .")(; amiiere direct current generator 
and is of the latest design. It is interesting to com- 



March . 1921 



THE TEOHNOGRAPH 



135 



paie the okl and the new in snch machines as tliis 
one. In place of large parts, brass trimmings, and 
elaborate design, the new types have small, simple, 
serviceable parts,. The machines are built compactly 
and substantially with a view to saving floor sjiace 
and reducing repair bills. 

Its compactness is essential in the laboratory 
where every scpnire foot of floor space is needed. 
The enrollment in the Electrical Engineering de- 
partment has doubled in the last five years and the 
((uestion of space and equipment is a pressing one. 
I'ormerly motors and generators were belt-driven 
liut in oi'der to make more room the flapping belts 
have been replaced by couplings attached to adjac- 
ent ends of motor or generator shafts when placed 
end to end. Much of the equipment is out of date 
but all new units which are installed are of recent 
design and manufacture. 



RAILWAY ENdlNEERINtJ NEWS 

At the meeting held on .lanuary tith the officers 
of the first semester were re-elected for another 
term. They are: — C. Wm. Oleworth, President, Wm. 
Overbee, Vice President, M. M. Good, Secretary, and 
Mason Leeming, Treasurer. 

The second semester was started out with a 
smoker on February J 7th. There was a large attend- 
ance and plans for the Club's activities foi- the re- 
mainder of the year were discussed. 

On February lOth Mr. (}. T. Martin, Assistant 
Su])erintendent of Motive Power of the ( -hicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul Railroad, visited the Univer- 
sity to discuss with Dean Richards the placing of 
Jtailway and Mechanical Engineering graduates on 
the Milwaukee system. 

The faculty of the Railway Engineering Depart- 
ment has recently been increased by the addition of 
ilr. H. N. Parkinson, Instructor in liailway Mechan- 
ical Engineering. 

.Mr. Parkinson received his elementary school- 
ing at (Jreen Bay, AVisconsin. He attended Carrol 
College at Waukesha, Wisconsin for two .years and 
graduated in Railway Mechanical lOngineering from 
Purdue University in 1918. 

Mr. Parkinson comes from the Mechanical De- 
partment of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. I'aul 
Railroad at Milwaukee, wlieir he has had five years 
experience as a draftsman and designer. 

MINING NEWS 

The most im])ortant news in the Mining Depai't- 
ment this semester is the addition of Professor A. E. 
Drucker to the staff of instrnctoi-s. Professor 
Drucker is a metallurgical and consulting engineer 



of international reimtation and the reading of his 
career is a romance in itself. The inspiration that 
an Engineer, who has been in charge of mines and 
mills in all parts of the globe, will have upon young 
mining engineei-s will greatly helj) him in the new 
jirofession tliat lie has undertaken. I'rofessor 
Drucker has constructed and oi>erated plants in 
Korea. Mexico, and C(dund)ia, and examined mines 
in Japan, and the Phillipines, Malay, States, Aus- 
tralia, South Africa, and other places. 

I'rofessor Drucker's wide and varied experience 
and his intimate contact with men of every intelli- 
gence, skill, and social standing have given him a 
rare opportunity for studying human nature and 
customs. To illustrate the conditions that a mining 
engineer is likely to encounter in a foreign country, 
let me cite the following example as ,told me by 
Professor Drucker of one of the mining customs of 
Koi-ea. If a native is killed, all Koreans innnediately 
desert the mine. The death is attributed to the 
devil. To a liaud of old Korean women then falls 
the task of driving the devil out. This is accomplish- 
e<l by striking gongs and all sort of hoirildy sound- 
ing instruments throughout the mine. After the 
ceremonies on the surface, the work is resumed. 

Professor Drucker has also originated two dis- 
tinct processes for the recovery of gold and silver 
anil is the invi'iitor of six ditlereut macliiiies used 
in milling. 



CIVIL ENGINEERIN(} NEWS 

A short business meeting was held by the C. E. 
Society on Tuesday evening, Febiuary 1."). for the 
purpose of electing officers loi' the ii'iii.iiniler of the 

year. The olficers elected for the sec I semester 

ai-e : 

President —K. \.. /ininier, "I'l. 

Nice {'resident — L. Jl. Dangrciiioiiil, '22. 

Sci letary^il. 11. ( )sborn, "21. 

Treasmer — A. ( ). llaUerson, "21. 

'i'echniigi-a]ili rcpri-sciiiat ive — M. K. .Ianssiin,"2:!. 

'i'hi' new organization is plauuing a series of 
\i'iy interesting meetings and among them is 
sclieduli'd a fred and niixi-r to be given in the near 
fnlMre. It is hujicil I ha I I'vcry civil engineering stu- 
dent will take aih.-inlagc of this oppoi'tnnity to hear 
some good talks ami to gel acquainted with his 
fellow enjiineei-s. 



136 



THK TECHNOORAPH 



March. 1<)21 



Till-: iiKiiiWAV i:x(!iM:i:inN;; shout 
corKSK 

llijUlnviiy I'lisiiHH'i's I'ruin the wlioli' sl:ilc iiicl 
lu'ic (liiriiif; tlic wct'k i>f I'Vliriuiry -l-l'C for ;i slmri 
coiirsi' in liij;li\v;iy (Mijtiiiccriiii;. Tliis I'cntiiri' nf ilic 
I'liiviTsity educational scin ice wliicli Iims aw :ikciic(l 
so niiicli interest in tlic jiasl was ('(inally as puimlar 
this year as was slrown 1p\ llic larjje rejiistration ol' 
over 450 men. riuCessor ('. ('. ^^■il(■v was in cluiii;!' 
of the course and lectures were ai-)-ani;<'d juinlly 
hy the University and tiie Slate of llliiKiis Ucpail 
nielit of I'nldic Works and llnildini;s. |)i\isi(in ol' 
Hif^hways. 

Dean C. H. Kicliards j{ave tiie u|iciiini; address 
of welcome at the l)ej;innin,n of the session. This 
was followed liy two introdtictory speeches, one hy 
S. E. Hradt, state sn[)eriiitemlant of iiij^hways, on 
"Proposed state and federal hi{;hway les;islation,'" 
and the other by Thomas H. McDonald on "Onr Kela- 
tions to the State". In the latter it was ](oinled out 
that the lii<;hway enfjiueer has a duly whicli iiivolxes 
jtublic service and that he must jiui in his liest ctVort 
in Ihe ])erformance of it. I<]ach address throufiliout 
I lie course was followed by an open forum on liic 
subject and this bron^lil omI many inleicsl ini; and 
beuelicial suggestious. 

The visitino; engineers were entertained at a 
smoker given by the American Association of Engi- 
neers Thursday evening February LM. The short 
coui'se ended February li(i with sc\fial lectures on 
road niachiiiery and municipal engineering. 



.MECIIANICAL EXCIXEKKIXt ; XKWS 

At a meeting of Hie student hraiicli ol' llic 
Aiiiericau Society of Mechanical lOugineeis, lield on 
February JT, an election of oflicers was held, i-esull 
ing in the following selecti<uis: II. I). Koseudale 'I'l'. 
President; P. F. Witle "L';!, Nice rresideul ; .V. 1). 
Sinden 'L'l'. Secretary: .\. .1. liigold "L'"_'. Treasurer. 
The new otlicel-s took hold oT the dnlies of adiiiinis 
tralion, and are shaping jilans which should make 
coming meetings very interesting and instructive. 

It is one of the purposes of the society to give 
to its members an op]iortunity to present before an 
audience papers on engineering matters. To encour- 
age more to take advantage of this op]iortuiiity, 
a seven dollar hand book will be presented to 
the student giving the most interestiilg talk. W- 
tempts are being made to secure motion |ii<lni-es lor 
several of the meetings. It is the inlciiiion ot Ilie 
new ott'icers, -with the aid of cai-crnlly selcclcd com 
mittees, to give a professional atiiiosplierc to the 
work of the society. .\t lendaiice ;il iiieclings. there 
fore, will be lime well spciil. 



.M.vTiii':.\i.\Ti('s cLi r. xi-:\vs 

The I ndergraduate Mathematics Club is ha\- 
ing a \cry successful year in its program Cur llie 
snr\ey <>l the ap])lica I ions of mathematics to com 
moll blanches of science. At the weekly meetings of 
last seiiieslei-, llic fiiiH-lions of mallicnialics in jiliys- 
ics , psyc-hology, asli-ononiy. electricity, relatixily, 
etc.. were iliscnssed by nieiiibers o{ the club and fac- 
ulty. The same general jirogram will be I'ollowed 
I lii-ouglioul this semester, and the sniijects coiisid- 
crcd will he of interest to engineers. Althougli iiieiii- 
lici-sliip in the club is limited to undergraduates who 
lia\(' shown e.\cei)tioiial ability in mathemalics. the 
talks are not highl.y technical and visitors are always 
vclc(Mne. The club meets every Tuesday ;it 7 1'. .M. 
in 4IS X. H. 



THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY VEHICUI^\R TUNNEL 
(Continued from Page 120) 

ur<'s. This method of speeding up the fan, reading 
successive ]>i-essures, ;.iud determining the friction 
cocil icieiil will lie continued until the thirty two 
hiindrcd IVel of the span has been covered and the 
Ian is working at pi-o]>ei- load. Then a law will lie 
evohcd li-oiii which (he mean coefficient of rrictioii 
of till' ail- ill Ihe duct can be found. After this will 
follow the determination of the size of the fans and 
the power necessary to drive them. 

The Xew York State Tunnel and Bridge Com- 
iiiision is bearing Ihe e.\])enses of these investiga- 
tions and the Inited States Bureau of Mines is lend- 
ing Prof. Willard and his statf, its assistance. The 
outcome of these ex]>eriments is awaited with great 
iuteresi since the success of the entire tunnel ]iro- 
jcct dejieiids upon the ventilation, and. if success 
collies of ihcse tests, a great advancenienl will lia\e 
been made in the science of ventilation. 



THE NEW DAM AT DECATUR, ILLINOIS 
(Continued from Page lOS) 

very few days when the workmen have been laid olf. 
FJiH-ii-ic lights have been strung across the ilaiii site 
and by this means it has been possilde to cariy on 
Ihe work both day ami night. 

\\'lieii the dam is linished, it will not (uily pro- 
vide a water supply that will last the city lor many 
yeais to come, but will also ]>rovide a lake that 
should make l>c<-aliii- one of the niosi jiopnlar sum- 
iiiei- resorts in the state. At least lhi> citizens of 
the city think that it will, and they are hioking for- 
ward to llic time when their lake will be attractitig 

to it I |ilc ri-iini all ]iai-ls of this region, in which 

so tew lioilies of water arc to be found. Tcrliaps 
llicii- lio]ies may be realized, hiil if they arc nol, the 
city can at least jiride itself upon having a splendid 
reservoir and water sujiply system. 




ALUMNI 

NOTHS 



i) 



The TEClINOCKAril irpivseiitativi- <lroi)|ic(l 

iiitd the ottico of the Chicago Hi-i(lf;e .-ukI Iron Works 

hist month and found ;i \critahle colony of Illinois" 

enijineei-s. Anionj; tlicni arc: 

.1/(7/ ./. Tnix. c. ('. '(IT, vicc-|in'sidenl and i;ciicral 
ma iiajici- of the comiiaiiy. 

//. /)'. Ilditdii. c. c. t'x'dS, li-casurcr. 

Chtirhs N. I'ill-sbiiri/, m. e. '01, is manajicr of o|)i'i.-a- 
tion. 

Connected with the sales department are the 

following: 

Lnris McDountd, e. e. "(IS. 

George »Sf. f<aii(/<liilil. e. e. 'K!. 

R(i1l)h Grcrii, c. e. '!.") 

Frank L. Cook, e. e. "(IS. 

In the di'aftinj; room are: 

\V. A'. Miinock, e. e. "lO, chief draftsman, and 

Fniiik Miissir, c. c. "HI. assistant chief di-aflsnian. 
In addition to t iiese I here is 

I). 1). WilHiiiits, c. e. "(I!), who is manaj^er of erection. 

(/. N. Tooi)n, c. e. ■(>(;. Word has reached ns that 
Mr. Toops has been appointed Chief Enfi'ineer of 
the Kansas, < >kiali(pnia, and (iulf Uailway < "o. 

Loiiin >S'. Bcnisti'iii. c. e. "11, is conneclc(l with the 
Niafjara Falls Power Company in the cajiacily of 
Desijjning- Kn>>ineer. He has recently lieen occn- 
]iied with the completion (tf the new a<ldition to 
the Hydraulic Plant of the company. 

(Ill)/ G. MilLs, c. c. "IL", has been with tlic pDrtland 
Cement Association (if Ciiicauo evei- since leaving 
the army. He is now moving to Cohunims, ( Hiio, to 
lake up a ])ositioii as Ceneral Manager nf tlic 
^^■yandotte Products Coni]iany. 

L. B. I'^rincUiif/, m. e. 'l;!, has been with the Ceorge 
W. (ioethals Company since Septendier P.M'.). His 
latest work has been to buy machinery and e(|nip- 
ment for the .Vnloniatic Straight Air P.rake ("(un 
jiany. 

ir. »s'. Middli 1(111. mill, "i;'., is operating a mine of 
his own at ( "aiitun, I llinois. 

C W. Siiiitli. mill. '1.'!, is chief engineer of the 
Xakomis Coal ('miipany and has his lieail(piarters 
in Chicago. 

.1/. L. Becker, min. ']'.'>. who has been with the I'.r.i 
den Copper Com|)any in South America since his 
graduation, is now in Chicago. 



ir. L(ri(lir, niin. "11, is district manager of the 
Cement (!nn Conipanx at Kansas City, Missouri. 

■hiliii Ij. Ahlcii, m. e. "14. has recently rclnrnetl to 
this country from Calcutta, India, w lie re he was 
Assistant iManager of llic .Mills dcpa li iiiciil: of llie 
J^ndlow .liile ( 'onipany, Ltd. 

/•'. /'. Dave. e. e. "II, is employed as electrical engi- 
neer by the ll(dt ilannfactnring Company., 
Peoria, Illinois. 

J. H. Grijlmr, min. "15, is with the United Insur- 
ance Company of Hartford, Connecticut. He rec- 
ently made a very interesting trij) to nearly all 
of the metal and ore mines of the ciiuntry to draw 
np standards of inspection for these mines sinii- 
liar to those used for coal mines. 

•/. .1/. SilkiiKiii, min. "1."), has remained in the army 
since the war ami is now a first lieutenant. 

//. /v. Wilsijii. min. "Hi, has oi)ened an engineering 
office at Thurmonil, West Virginia, and is also 
operating a mine of his own in the .New Uiver dis- 
trict of AVest Virginia. 

1j. M. Becker, m. e. 'HI, has been superintendent of 
of the Ellington Elecfi-ic Company until this year. 

1/. ./. liKil. mill. "IT, hustles sales for the Inger- 
soll-li.ind Drill ('onipany and has his heachjuai-.- 
ters at Boston, .Massachusetts. 

T'liii Fnixer. min. "IT, is assistant mining engineer 
for the I'liiltMl Slates P.iirean of .Mim-s. 

('. W . i'liiii [dull , mill. "IT. in addition to being min- 
ing I'ugiueer ami assistant to the chief engineer 
of the Old P.eii Coal < 'orpora t ion. of West Frank- 
fort. Illinois, is intei-esti'd in co,-il slri]ipiiig near 
Ih'iiton, Illinois. 

/'. ('. -hiliiis. mill. "IT. is with the .Mission .Mining 
Comitany at their mines in (>liio. His c.ipacity is 
that of mining engineer and lie is most interested 
at |>resent in steam shovel problems. 

II. ('. Ihirlticlil , min. "IS, is engaged in the con- 
sfructioirof metallurgical and other engineering 
buildings in St. Louis, .Missouri. 

L.J. Wexleiilidrer, mill. "1S. is located at Pittsburg, 
I'enn.sylvania. He is salesman and demonstrator 
there foi- the Chicago Pneiini.itic Tool Comi)any. 

U . N. Sidek, e. e. "IS, writes ns that he is i-e|)i-esent- 

ing the Ingersoll-Kand C |iaiiy at Santiago, 

Chile. 



1:58 



THI<: TKCHNOdKAPH 



Ma nil. IU.il 



.1. lUiukstniir, c. c. 'IS, has sintc i;r;i(lii.il idii. liccii 
il('si<;iiiiij; I'ailroad liri4lj;i's, mills, hiiiiiiiiius. |mi\\ 
IT stations ami oil n'tiiierii-s. 

Vtiin I). l>()(tlfii, vy. {.'. c. ''20. has hccii cmiiloycd hy 
the l*rest-()-Lij;Ii4: Oomjiaiiy in tJu'ii- electrical lah 
oratories. 

Htnrji (}. lliKikr. c. e. "I'd. is located wiili ilic Ki-cli- 
liiel ("om])aiiy, at I'limlmrsl. Illinois, where he has 
lieeil enyaucd in coal tipph' const l-tict ion. 

C/iii/il M. Siiiilli, mill. 'l.'((, who was formeily with 
Ihe .Vnacoiida Copper Company, now holds a posi 
tiou with the Intef;rity Mutual Casualty Com- 
pany. His work is mostly that of fjatlierinj; sta- 
tistics and reports. 

./. ('. f-'ilzixttrirk. mill. '20. is with the I'liited Iiisni-- 
ance Coiii]iaiiy at Ilartrord. Coniiecticnt. 

■/. /. luliniids. ()('>. is the manager of the foreign 
trade division of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
in New York. 

A*. 1). .hfiNKp, 111. e. "07, left last month for Tokyo. 
•lapan, where he is going to be with the AVestern 
Electric Company's branch for about- three years. 

I!. A. MartcU, e. e. '19, has been employed by the 

Kansas City Railways Co., Kansas City, Missouri. 

He has been secretary of the Illini Club in that city 

for some time. 

//. C. Wolf, e. e. "i:^, writes us that he is Assistant 
Chief l']ngineer with the ilaryland Public Service 
Co. 

n . N. A Hill rsiiii. c. e. '14. is district eiiginei'r for the 
Lakew(M(d iMigineering Co. in Cleveland which 
makes a specialty of contractors" machinery. Kec- 
eutly there was a contract let in Arizona for the 
const ruction of 27S miles of concrete road \\liich 
will cost approximately <> million dollars. This 
was the largest contract for roads ever let in the 
history of the world. Mr. Anderson went over the 
work and devised methods and recoinmended 
machinery for doing the \\(irk. and ultimately 
sold $110,()()() woith of machinery to the conti'iic- 
tor. This is the largest sale of such machinery 
that has ever been made. Mr. Anderson visited 
the University during the short-course in highway 
engineering, FebruarA' 21-2(5. 



SUMMER ENGINEERING WORK 
(Continued from Page 104) 

the nature of my task".' Have I sound cuncept ions 
of basic theory'/ Have 1 the necessary amount of 
practical experience'?" Intelligent action upon hon- 
est answers will not only .solve the in-oblems of suiii- 
nier work but also the other jiroblems which jire so 
vitally connecteil with the engineers' jirepiiration for 
service. ^ ]£• 



THE STORY OK THE ARMY TRUCK 

(Continued from I'ukc 11!M 

words, the engine would always sli|p the wheels. No 
more could be asked. 

The engine was of ihe large bore, slow sjieed, 
liea\y duly type which lias piii\f(l to be the best 
under conditions of hea\y load. The specitications 
as linally decided u]>oii calle<l for a 4% ''"''' l>"i'e 
and a f> inch stroke, giving a ])iston disjdaceinent of 
I2.''> cubic inches. The normal si)eed was lO.")!) r. p. ni. 
The maximum horsepower ^vas develoiied at I.")(10 r. 
p. lu. 

The gasoline system was designed with the 
idea of nciking it as nearly "fool jiroof" as possible. 
Two tanks were provide(l, giving a gasoline capacity 
of i!2 gallons. By means of a reserve arrangement, 
there was a reserve of gallons which could only be 
transferred from the reserve tank to the feed tank 
by drawing it off in a bucket and pouring it into 
the feeil tank. If the truck stopped because of the 
lack of gasoline, the driver always had a reserve of 
() gallons to enable him to get back to a tilling sta- 
ti(m. Because of the extra trouble required to make 
the transfer by means of a bucket, he was reminded 
that he must fill the tanks as soon as po.ssible. 

The chassis was designed to accomodate several 
designs of bodies, inchiding every one that would 
be required to till the needs of the service. The seat 
accomodated four men, with space for their kits. 
To prevent the enemy from locating a truck at night 
by seeing the headlights, small lights shai^ed much 
like a t<'lescope were provided in addition to the 
regular lights. These lights illuminated a siu.ill spot 
directly in front of the fi-mit wheels, at the same 
time preventing the reflections to be seen at any 
consideralile distance. 

The Class B truck is strictly a military truck, 
and although it can be changed slightly to be made 
adaptable to commercial use, it should be kept in 
mind that while for military jmrposes it has not 
been e(pi,illed, many features such as its poor gaso- 
line economy, render it unsuited for ordinary traffic. 
However, truck manufacturers have been quick to 
realize the sui)eriority of many of the features iii- 
coi-porated in the design, and several of the trucks 
now being put on the market carry indications that 
the ideas einliodied in it have been tried out and 
louiid to lie the best. 




lifdirJi. ti)21 



THE TECHNOGEAPH 



139 



PETER JUNKERSFELD 
(Continued from Page 109) 

liirl.v lliosf operating- in the Cliiciiiio imliisl riiil ilis- 
Irict. 'I'iio iiiiportaiicc of liis ct'iilriil station woric 
lias caused liiin to he leyanled as one of tlie nalional 
]ea<lers in tliat field. 

Soon after we entered liic war. lie entered I lie 
Construction Division of the Army as a Major. He 
i-ai)idly worked np to the rank of Colonel, from which 
he was discharged March :;. I'.MS. He returned dir 
ect to the Commonwealth Ivlison Company as assis- 
tant to the Mce-President hut left them in Ajtril to 
hecomc (tjierating Engineer for Stone & Webster, 
w liicli |iosition he now holds. 

Mi-. Junkersfeld has been awarded a I'rofess- 
ional Degree of Electrical Engineer for "disting- 
uished service in his profession" hy the Cniversity 
of Illinois, and has been President of the Alumni 
Association. He is an active member of the engi- 
neering societies that co\<'i- his held, and has con- 
tributed numerous papers and discussions to the 
technical press, the most recent of which is an 
article on the ''Effect of Load-Factor on Steam- St,i- 
tion Costs", in "Power" for Jan. 4. 



Tlie Annual Engineering dance is close upon us. As 
usual we are always foremost in the interests of the En- 
gineers. Therefore we have opened a office in tlie other 
unused room of Engineering Hall on the fifth floor wheie 
we will never be during office hours. Much criticism has 
been directed at the Engineers because of their unman- 
nerly actions, and their lack of the fiiner things, etc. ad 
infinitum. Therefore we have secured a charter from the 
Kollidge Of Komnierce giving us complete power to oper- 
ate and to instruct the Engineer in the technique of the 
toddle. Don't crowd boys there is plenty of time. 

In the first place we assume that you have obtained 
a ticket to the dance after the ags. and tea hounds have 
theirs. Practice putting on your clothes without your slide 
rule. But this must be started early so that you will not 
appear at the dance dressed in your slide rule. If your 
collar isn't dirty yet send it to the laundry anyway. Get 
your Sunday suit -out of hock and have it pressed by the 
Kollidge method — under the mattress for a week. It will 
be necessary for you to buy, beg, or borrow a clean white 



shirt. No, Theodore, an S. A. T. C. dress shirt will not do. 
Then just before the dance get a shine. If you prepare ;i 
beforehand it won't last. Of course it will be essential for 
you to get a hair cut this month, whether you had one 
last month or not. Practice for several days in the ne'v 
outfit and you will gradually become used to wearing it. 

Now we will take up the matter of the toddle. You can 
learn this most easily by the following patented method. 
Obtain three ignorant persons who can't read music. Give 
one a razzum, another a bazzoo, and the third a locomo- 
tive whistle. Then obtain a quart of unlabeled liquor and 
after giving the orchestra two thirds, drink the other 
third. The orchestra will play jazz and you will shake all 
over. But the authorities don't allow this, so you can 
shake in one direction only, that is up and down. No train- 
ing is needed for the feet since everyone will be moving 
the same way and you cannot move around the floor. It 
would be well in passing to ask the intended co-toddler 
if she intends to wear a bar pin. If so, you should buy 
another vest, or wear a cordorouy one. 

Now the fine arts or how to refuse a dance with a bum 
looker. Never say ain't, it ain't correct. Don't rush for 
the punch bowl between dances. Sit out one dance and 
drink all you can then. If you see a friend of yours with 
a swell date, don't yell across the hall, just play that the 
next dance is robber style. The best way to trade dances 
is to let your friends have the last few which are never 
played. When introduced to a gentlemen or lady don't 
say "Pleastumeetchu", with the accompanying grin. As 
soon as you hear the name make a run and grab for his 
hand, wrap your hand around it and squeeze. Lean as far 
over as possible at the same time pulling down on his 
arm. If the person is a lady, don't bow, just hold your 
hand at shoulder height and wiggle your wrists. 

Any communications should be addressed in care of 
the janitor. If occasion demands we will open other sec- 
tions which will meet Saturday nights at I'ollege. Bradley, 
and Odd Fellows HalLs. 



kkskakch ix mechanical 
ki>:fki(h:kati()\ 

(Continued from Page 121)) 
|iosilion and e.xplosibility of ammonia, etc. In the 
same manner the absorption macliine and the car- 
bon dioxide nnichine will be tested. It is expected 
that at least one full time i-escarch .issociate will be 
aj'iiointcd to help rairy on the work. 



Boys 



The New Spring Suits are here for 
your inspection 

Champaign 's Largest Store 

F. K. Robeson 

Church and Randolph 



Bidwell's 



'Best Candy on The Campus" 



/ 



V. 




'Your old men shall dream dreams, 
your young men shall see visions." 

Joel II, 2H 

YOUTH paints in brilliant colors. 
To older, {linimer eyes the wonder 
and the glory of life grey down. 

In engineering, the sciences or what- 
ever other work >'oii take up, you will 
go far if youth means to you enthusiasm, 
faith in your ambitions, the spirit that 
exults in achieving what other men call 
impossible. 

So while you plug away at those 
knotty [)roblems in hydraulics or conic 
sections, keep an open mind to the larger 
issues — visions of great achievement 
through great service. 

To the youthful Bell, as he experi- 
mented in the vibrating properties of ear- 
drum and tuning-fork, came in fancy the 
clear tones of human speech pulsating 
over wires from far away. Without the 
vision he could not later have evolved 
the living fact. 

You have a like opportunity now to 

think about your work in a broad way — 

and the bigger your purpose and your will 

to serve, the bigger your accomplishment. 
* * * 

The electrical industry needs men who 
can sec far and think straight. 



estet 



The part which for 50 years this Com- 
pany has played in furthering electrical 
development is an indication of the share 
it will have in working out the even 
greater problems of the future. 



/ 



THE 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE STUDENTS OF THE 
COLLEGE or ENGINEERING UNIVERSiny ILLINOIS 







roUNDED • EIGHTEEN • HUNDRED -AND • EIGHTY- FIVE 
VOL. XXXIII • PRICE • 40 ■ CENTS • NUMBER 4. 



FU«WONS 




We Will Be Glad to Send These Folders 
to Every Reader of THE Technograph 

This Set of Illustrated and Descriptive Folders Covering Our Line of 
"S" Fittings Which Includes 

Standard and Extra Heavy SCREWED FITTINGS, FLANGED FIT- 
TINGS, COMPANION FLANGES, FLANGE UNIONS. Plain, coated 
or Galvanized DRAINAGE FITTINGS 

i;\('ry csscnti;!! rc(niircni('n1 i>r (":isi lion IMjie Fittiiijis has been met as to strcii<;tli, acciirafy, 
linisli. iani;c (if ilcsiiiiis an<l sizes, with speeial facilities for takin.u tare of s])ecial designs 
when utlicr tlian mil- slock sizes and ]iallenis are rei|nii-ed. 

STOCKHAM PIPE AND FITTINGS COMPANY 



W. H. Stockham '85. President 

G. Petesch. '19, Assistant to Vice President 



II. ('. Slockliam. '09. Vice President 
R. Ilisley '20, Researcli Engineer 



GENERAL OFFICE AND FACTORY— BIRMINGHAM 

— Distrilnitin,e; Wareliouses — 



Busli Terminal. Brooklyn 



36tli and Iron Streets, Chicago 



The Technograph 



University of Illinois 



Xdlmiic XXXIll -May, r.ii^l Xinnhci- l\'. 

CONTENTS 

riywooil as a Xew .Malcrial of ('iinsiiii(tii)ii Aniiiii lOlimMiilorf U:! 

Acoustical Speciticatioiis of lliiildiiiiis K. K. Waisoii 147 

Testing Caiiiei-a Sliuttci- Speeds M. (". Hoice 141) 

The City of Holy Faith Hex fold Xewcomb 152 

The Mamit'actm-e of BedfonI Limestone W. S. Arrasinith 155 

Opixyi-tunities in Brazil ■<>• Miranda 15S 

Mining of tlie Upjier Mississipi)i Lead and Zinc Ores 1'. B. Bucky KiO 

Factors Relating to the Economical (Jeneration and Ise of Tower for Bhist Fnrnace 

Plants L. H. Breedlove \iU 

The Largest Municipal I>igliting Systein in the World . . . Oscar .1. Slander 171 

A Coal i'ile <'• C. Wiley 17:! 

Fditoiial 1T4 

C.eorge -Joseph Kay F. M. Wright 17(i 

ilathematics and Engineering Robert E. Moritz 177 

Modern Practice in Coal Jline Hoisting I']ngines -L K. Holmes 180 

Departmental Notes 184 

Alumni Notes 188 

STAFF 

_ Ralph W. IbenfeUit, '21 Editor 

Fred W. Scheineman, '22 Business Manager 

Kurt H. Siecke, '21 Assistant Editor 

Robert F. Doepel, '21 Assistant Editor 

Arthur J. Ingold. '22 Assistant Editor 

Hurlbert C. Cheever, '21 Art Editor 

Reginald F. Packard, '21 Assistant Business Manager 

Walter A. Mueller, '22 Assistant Business Manager 

William J. Klingberg, '22 Circulation Manager 

ASSISTANTS 

Martin E. Jannson, '23 William H. Moore, '23 

William A. Gurtler, '23 William R. Enyart, '23 

SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVES 

H. H. Osborn A. A. E. 

E. J. McDonald Architecture 

M. E, Jansson Civil Engineering 

J. M. Agnew Electrical Engineering 

D. A. Monro Mechanical Engineering 

C. W. Cleworth Railway Engineering 



Publinhcd quartcf}}! Vy the lUini PuhUshiny Cumininy. Entered us sccond-ckiiis mutter Octolier SO, 1920 at 
the postofficc at Vrbana, lUinoin. Office 213 Enuinecriny Hall. Vrbana, Illinois. Subscriptions $1.2.3 per 

year. Single copies 40 cents. 



Plywood as a Material of Construction 



Ai:.Mi.\ i:i.Mi;.\-|M.!;F- "14. .M. .S: S. Iv. .M.lv 



Much Ikis lioi'U wiitU'ii ivccnl l_v couccriiing tlio 
ai))ilic-ati"ii of sciciu-e (liu-iuj; the war in the dcveloii- 
iiu'iit of WAV materials. Ainoiig tlie tiiaiiv materials 
re(|iiire(l was one which would ffive streiijith with 
least weifiht, needed in particular for the construc- 
tion of airplanes and seaplanes. E.xperienee had 
shown that plywood fulfilled this recpiirement. Its 
e.xact mechanical properties were, however, very in- 
ade(|uately understood. It was for this reason that 
Iioth the I'nited States Army and Xavy set aside 
funds at the beginning of the war for conducting an 
elaborate investigation to obtain strength data and 
other information oti its ]iropei-ties. The data ob- 
taine<l. wliile originally intended only for airplane 



wood is made, is manufacl urcd l)y one of Ihi'ee pri)- 
cesses. It may lie sawed, sliced, or cut in large 
lathes. When made by the latter process it is re- 
ferred to as rot.iry-cut veneer. In order to rotary- 
cut veneer the logs are first sawed into appropriate 
lengths and then boiled for one or two days so as 
to soften the wood, after which they are mounted in 
large massive lathes. These lathes are equipped 
with blades e(]ual in length to the length of the log. 
As the I(tg rotates the blade is slowly moved for- 
ward and a continuous broad thin sheet or ribbon 
of veneer is i)eeled from the snrface. The wet veneer 
as it comes from the lathe is liroken into a])]ii-opri- 
ate widths and then di-ied. 







I 




Glue 



Fig I. — Airplane Having Plywood Fuselage 

designers, were ronml niter the war lo be equally By fai- the largest pail of llii' veneer used in 

a])|ilicable lo the in-ohliMns in many industries. the manufacture of plywood is i-ot;ii-ycut. 

JIany terms lia\-e been used in the i)ast to des- 
cribe what is now known as plyw I. Such words 

as veneer, veneered panels, laminated wood, and '''!'•' P'.vw I which is used in the construction 

laminated jjanels have each been used and are found of airplanes must i-esisl .severe weather conditions, 
in use by .some persons to this <lay, but are gradu- 't may be subjected to rain. <obl. sunshine, and 
ally going out of favor. The term "iilywood" is being heat,— and it must not separate under any of these 
used at the present time by technical men and man- conditions. Among the glues develo])ed in the early 
ufacturers when refering to the cond.inati f thin l':>"' of the war. jtossibly no glue fultills these re- 
pieces of wood ceincntcd oi- glued together, so that quiremenls m<Me thoroughly than that which is 
the grain of successive lamina1i(uis or plies cross "lade of blood albumen obtained from the stock 
each other. 

Rinr Mdliridls *Coii-sultin;^ Enijitinr, Ihislcilili Mintufarturhig 

Veueer, or the thin pieces of w(»od of which iily- Corporation, Chicago. 



144 



THK TECHNCKJRAPn 



Mill/, n).u 



varils. Al'Icr I lie lil>rin liiis lici'ii rciiiovcd ;il llic 
Slock V;ilils. |||<> lilooil is (hied .iiid .sliiiipcd In llic 
|):ni('l or jilywdod iii,'iiiiir:i('l iii'cr in liir loi'iii ol' lluii 
l>l;ick rial^i's. 'I'lic |i;iiirl or |il\\\iiod innniiracl iircr 
dissohcs liicsc ri;d;cs in \\:ilcr :ind ndds a small jicr- 
cciitaiif ol' causiic. The rcsiiltaiil j;lnc hccoiiics in 
soliildc ill water al'lcr it lias Iicimi snliji'ctcd lo a 
tcin|i('ral lire cxct'cdiiij; 1(1!) dc<;r('('s I'^ilircidicit . 
Miiniijiicl lire of fli/irrxid 
Heroic lieini; ^lueil inio panels of plvwuod, liie 
dry \cncer is liist cjiliped so as lo renio\e loose 
kinds and eliecks and oilier derecls. 'I'lie edi^e of the 
strips are I lien sawed slrai^lil in Jointer saws, after 
wlii<di tliey ar<' put tliron^ii a tapini; iiiaeliiiie, wliieli 
jjhies a si rip of pa[ier over each (d' the joints he- 




Kig. III. — Plywood Panel Bolted on One Edge and Carry- 
ing More Than 2,000 Pounds on Opposite Edge 

tw(>(»7i two strij)s. Wlii'ii a ]ian(d of ])lywood is to be 
made of tlircc jdics, the center ply is run through a 
jiliK'-siii-eadiiig luachiuc, wliicli coats hotli faces with 
a imiforiii spread of glue. Tlie faces are then added 
so that tlie grain crosses that of the core at right 
angles, and the comhiuation of three plies is inserted 
helweeii flat heavy steaui-heated phites, which arc 
lu-oiight together under hydraulic jiressure. After 
reiuaiuiug under pressure from three to five min- 
utes, the plies are firmly cemented together. The re- 
sultant i>anel is then put through resaws which trim 
it to correct dimensions. After trimmiiig, the ]>anel 
is run through a san<ling inachiiie in which both 
faces are sanded smooth. 

Properties of I'li/irood 

The shrinkage of an ordinary hoard when it is 

reduced in moisture takes place across the grain. 

In this direction the shrinkage of some woods may 

he as liigii as one inch in ten inches, when the moist- 



iii'c ronleiit is reduced from the soaked c(nidition to 
the oN'cn dry condition. I'mler this same recluctioii 
ill UKMsture the shrinkage ]iarallel to the liliers is 
found lo he negligilde. ( >ii acconni of the crossing 
of tile lihers in ]dywood. the shrinkage in (//(// direc- 
tion is i)ractically the same as that of wood paralUd 
to the grain, — that is, 1 he slirinkage of plywoocj is 
so small that it can only he detected with instru- 
ments of precision. 

(>n account of the iiisoliildlity of the .nine used 
in the manufacture of water-i-esistaiil plywood, a 
jianel may lie siilmierged in cold water or boiled 
without causing llie jilies to sejiarate . ( io\'eriimeiit 
specilications for airjilane plywoo<l iei|uire that a 
])aiiel may be boiled in water for eiglit hours, or 
soaked in cold water for ten days. 

As a result of the crossing <>{' the tibers. it be- 
comes very difficult to split idywood. A large nail 
may be driven very close to the edge witliout the 
least danger of splitting. A ten-penny nail may, for 
example, be driven as close as one-tpiarler of an 
inch fi'oiii the edge of a \{i inch panel without caus- 
ing if to rupture. 

AVhile the strength ])ro]K'rties of wood are tixed 
by nature and can only be varied by changing the 
moisture content, the properties of jilywood may be 
jiroportioned to suit special requirements. Hy . 
proper selection of veneer thickness, any ratio of 
bending strength parallel to the face grain and 
across the face grain of a 3-ply panel may be oli- 
tained. For a certain ratio of thicknesses, the bend- 
ing strengths in these two directions are eipial. An 
other ratio gives the same tensile strength, and a 
third ratio gives the same stiffness in the two direc 
tions. By selecting a high density, or heavy wood, 
for the faces, a hard surface may be obtained. Such 
heavy woods may be combined with low density, or 
soft woods, in the center, so as to obtain a thicker 
panel for the same weight and greater bending 
strength per unit of weight. 

The iilywood strength values, given in Table 1, 
wci-e obtained from exhaustive tests made at the U. 
S. Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wiscon- 
sin. The data given nnder column-bending strength 
may be used in computations in exactly the same 
way as the modulus of rupture of ordinary wood is 
used. It will be seen from this table that when all 
])lies of a ."i-ply panel are of the same thickness the 
bending strength i)arallel to the face grain is on an 
average about 4i/o times as great as the bending 
strength across the face grain. (Kher tests also 
made at the Forest Products Laboratory have 
shown that when the core is about two-thirds of the 
total thickness and of the same species throughout 
the panel, the bending strengths in these two direc- 
tions are equal. The stiffness parallel to the face 



May, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



145 



f;raiii. as shown. by the modulus of elasticity, is from 
teu to fourteen times as great as across the face 
j;rain when tlie plies in a :3-ply jjanel are all of the 
same thickness and species. In order to get the 
sairie stiffness in these two directions, the core must 
l)c aliout eight-tenths of the total thickness. In 
(inlcr to get tlie same tensile .strengtli in tliese two 
liircctions. it is apparent, of course, that tlie core 
sliduid equal tlie combined thicknesses of the face 
lilies. 

The streniitli data obtained at the Forest Pro- 



this manner. The linings for doors are also moulded 
by pressing. Dasli boards and instrument boards 
are iismilly made of five plies and the panels are % 
inch or % inch tliick. On account of the great resist- 
ance to splitting, bolts may be driven into the pan- 
el at various points williout danger of their break- 
ing loose. An.xiliaiy seals and disc wheels are also 
extensively made of idywo()(l. The sides of the com- 
mercial bodies made by many manufacturers are of 
plywood. 

The use of plywood for tlie liody of pleasure 




KiK l\- flywdod Panel Size 7 1-2 Ft. Ijy 5Z Ft. 



iliuls l.abiiratory and \t\ sudi private researcli lab- 
(ualoiics as that uniintained by the Haskelite Manu- 
lactuiiiig CorpoT'ation, now furnish accurate and ex- 
act infoniiation on the mechanical projierties of ply- 
wood. It is largely tlirongh the oii]ilication of these 
sti-cnglli (lata that jilywood is now coiiiiiig to the 
Iront as a structviral or engineering material. Since 
its strength properties are iu)w fairly well nndci- 
stood, it may be gi-onped with sucji structiii-al mater- 
ials as ccnKMit and the \;n-ions metals. 

I'nis (jf Plywood in Autoiiiohilc I'onntruclUtti 
At the close of the war tlie building of airplanes 
rapidly deceased, and at approximately tlie same 
time the manufacture of automobih's on a larger 
scale began. A method of moulding automobile roofs 
was ])ei'fected at the plant of the Haskelite Manufac- 
turing Corporation in which a -"i-ply panel was first 
suitaldy softened by steaming or boiling, and then 
])ressing tlie same between heavy dies. If the panel 
is ])ressed and then dried in the jiressed foi-m, it re- 
tains this form permanently. 

Many of the standard autonrobiles made in this 
country are now e(|nip](ed with roofs moulded in 



automobiles has received the a I lent ion of body engi- 
neers for several years. The use of metal for this 
jjurpose has, however, the advantage of a great 
many years of evolution, so that before plywoo<l 
will be used extensively in competition with metal, 
it will probably also have to jiass through an evolu- 
ti(Miary stage. Several experimental cars are now 
being made capitalizing the experience gained 
through the use of sheet metal and so the evolution- 
ary period for plywood will prolj.ibly be greatly re- 
duced. 

Plywood cannot be moulded lo conform to the 
severe curvatures of smue automobile bodies. The 
gentler curves found in other cars are, however, 
readily obtained by moulding. One manufacturer 
of a high-grade car is making liis sedan body entirely 
of plywood. The same manufacturer also uses a 
unique chassis I'rame inade of plywoo<l. 

As a material for automobile bodies, plywooil 
has certain structural features that are very desir- 
able. On the basis of tensile strength per unit of 
weight, it is superior to either steel or aluminum. 
The latter materials serve only as a covering for the 



I4(> 



Till-: TKCllNolilJAl'U 



Mdi/. 1!)21 



fraine to keep out the weather. Plywood, on tlic of llu' roimci- Ivjic are internally braced and the 
other hand, functions both as a coverinj; and as iiart 
of the strncture of the body. AVheroas no str«'sses 
are carried in metal coverinfi, jilywood may be de- 
pended npon to contribute to tlie strenj;tli of ilic 
body. The ])lywooil automobile l)ody may lie tic 
sijrncd s(i as lo allcri a \ci-\ iiiaicrini rciliu-i ion in 



jsaiicls are flat and screwed to ]on<j;itndinal mem- 
bers, called lonjicrons. The plywood for fn.selages of 
the latter types must be moulded to give the correct 
curvature. Il is usually mailc u]) in sections, and 
these sections arc lappcil or jointed together. The 
aifplanc rusclagc slniwn in I'Mgnrc 1. was made in 



TAKLE 1. — STHENGTH OF VARIOl'S .SPECIES O!" THREE-PLY PANELS. 











r 


5I.UMN BHKDI\ri' 1 
















.^Venice 


























Rpeeifir 
On>\-ity 




































■ ' ■ 


TRKN..TH 










of 




Oouvji.NriEMOiNO Manii.i's 












Spi.iTTtvn 




PIvwood 


Averaie 








Moorms op 










Resist ivcK 




Based 


Mois- 


^^— — 






EuASTieiTr, 
















Sporifs 


on 


ture. 








1000 Lh. PER SJ. 
















0\'en-Drv 
Weicht 

and 
Volume 


per cent 


Para 


Icl' 


Perpen- 


icular- 


IN. 


Parallel 


Perpendicular 1 
































at 




No. of 


Lh. per 


Xo. of 


T,l>, per 


Paral- 


Perpen- 


No. of 


I.b. per 


No. of 


Lb. ner 


N'o. of 


Per cent 




Test 




tests 


SI. in 


tests 


sq. in. 


lel 


dicular 


tests 


sq. in. 


tests 


sq, in. 


tests 


of Birch' 


Ash.lilai-k 


49 


9.1 


120 


7.760 


120 


1.770 


1,070 


96 


120 


6.180 


120 


3 .940 


240 


73 


A.«h. commercial white 


n 60 


10 2 


300 


9.930 


200 


2 .630 


1 ,420 


143 


200 


6.510 


200 


4.330 


400 


71 


Bassoood 


42 


9 2 


200 


7.120 


200 


1,670 


1 .210 


83 


200 


6 .880 


209 


4.300 


400 


63 


Beech 


0.67 


S,5 


120 


15,390 


120 


2 ,950 


2.150 


167 


130 


13 .000 


120 


7.290 


240 


94 


Birch, yellow 


67 


S.5 


195 


16.000 


200 


3 ,200 


3.260 


197 


200 


13 .210 


200 


7.700 


400 


100 


Cwtar. Spanish 


41 


13 3 


115 


. 6,460 


115 


1,4S0 


1,030 


84 


115 


5.200 


115 


3 .340 


230 


60 


Chcrrv* 


.i6 


9.1 


115 


12 .260 


115 


3,620 


1,630 


1.52 


115 


8,460 


115 


5.920 


230 


80 


Chestnut 


n 43 


11 7 


40 


5.160 


40 


1,110 


740 


75 


40 


4,430 


40 


2.600 


SO 


.74 


Cotton wnoil* 


46 


S.S 


120 


S .460 


120 


1 .870 


1.440 


109 


120 


7,280 


120 


4.240 


240 


85 


Cypress, laid 


45 


SO 


113 


S.S90 


113 


1,850 


1.220 


95 


113 


6.160 


113 


3.9Sa 


148 


«9 


Douela-t fir* 


4S 


S,6 


176 


9,340 


200 


1,940 


1 .530 


126 


200 


6. 188 


200 


3,910 


374 


6.3 


Elm. corl; 


63 


9.4 


65 


12,710 


65 


2 .500 


1 .9-:o 


130 


65 


8.410 


65 


5.500 


1.30 


99 


Elm. white 


0.53 


S 9 


160 


S.6S0 


160 


1 ,970 


1 .230 


109 


160 


5 .860 


160 


3,990 


320 


75 


Mr. true' 


40 


S 5 


24 


9.200 


24 


1,.<11 


1 .580 


100 


21 


5 .670 


24 


3,770 


48 


60 


Giim« 


54 


10 6 


40 


S.090 


40 


1,020 


1 .280 


113 


35 


6.960 


35 


4,320 


70 


55 


(iiim. cotinn 


.W 


in :! 


.SO 


7.760 


SO 


1 ,.5S0 


1 .300 


111 


SO 


6.260 


SO 


3,760 


160 


60 


Gum. red 


5t 


,S 7 


1S2 


9.970 


1S2 


2 .070 


1 .590 


130 


182 


7,850 


1,82 


4.930 


36 1 


80 


Harkherry 


n .Vt 


10 2 


.SO 


8.100 


.80 


1 .S,<0 


1,150 


99 


SO 


6.920 


SO 


4.020 


160 


84 


tiemloek. Wrslcrn 


47 


9 7 


119 


9 .2.50 


119 


1 .9i;o 


1 .5'tO 


112 


119 


6,800 


119 


4,580 


238 


63' 


Nfacnoiia* 


,iS 


S S 


SO 


10 ,S30 


SO 


2 .600 


1 .700 


13S 


.80 


9,220 


SO 


5.7.30 


120 


S5 


Maliocany, Afriran'" 


.92 


12.7 


20 


8 .070 


20 


2 .000 


1 .260 . 


144 


20 


5 ,370 


20 


3,770 






Mahogany, Philippine" 


5.'! 


10.7 


25 


10.160 


25 


2,310. 


1 ..S'30 


169 


25 


10 670 


25 


5.990 


50 


90 ' 


Mahoeanv. true 


4S 


114 


35 


S ..500 


35 


1,910 


1 .250 


117 


35 


6 ,390 


35 


3.780 






Maple, soft" 


.17 


X.9 


120 


1 1 .540 


120 


2,420 


1 .750 


145 


120 


S,180 


120 


5.380 


240 


106 ■ 


Maple, hard" 


68 


8.0 


202 


15 .WO 


202 


3,310 


2,110 


isy 


192 


10.190 


203 


6,530 


404 


lit 


Oak. fommerrial red 


n .50 


9 3 


115 


8 ..500 


115 


2,070 


1 .290 


130 


115 


5 ,480 


115 


3.610 


230 


70 


Oak, cnmmenial while 


IV) 


9 5 


195 


10,490 


195 


2,310 


1 .3111 


IIS 


195 


6,7,30 


195 


4 .200 


390 


S5 


Pine, siiear 


42 


9 4 


65 


8 ,0.50 


70 


1 .1.70 


1 ,3 111 


90 


70 


5,430 


70 


3 ,690 


140 


47 


Pine, white 


II 42 


5 4 


40 


10.130 


411 


2 .0-50 


1 .5711 


HI 


40 


5,720 


■in 


3 ,310 


80 


31 


Poplar, yellow 


.50 


9 4 


165 


K,.S60 


165 


1 .920 


1 .510 


115 


1.55 


7. 390 


105 


4,720 


330 


51 


Redwood 


42 


n 7 


105 


8.230 


105 


1 .5.50 


1 .l.SO 


lOS 


105 


4,770 


105 


2.960 


210 


43 


Spruce, Silka 


42 


8.3 


121 


7,710 


121 


1 .690 


1 .370 


105 


121 


5 .650 


121 


3,410 


224 


7S 


Sycamore 


56 


9 2 


163 


11,040 


163 


2,340 


1 .630 


130 


163 


8.030 


163 


5.220 


326 


77 


Walnut, black 


59 


9 1 


110 


12,660 


110 


2.770 


1.740 


141 


no 


8.250 


110 


5 .260 


220 


77 


Yucca species 


49 


7 3 


33 


2 ,960 


33 


•JOO 


560 


44 


33 


2.210 


33 


1.700 


66 


14 



■Parallel and perpendicular refer to the direction of the erain of the faces relative to the direction of the application of the force 
3The relative splitting rc*;istancc of the various panels tested depends largely on the holding strength of ilue 
«I*ro1ably black cherry. 
•Probably common cottonwoodr, 
•Coast type. 
'Probably white fir. 
•Probably black gum. 
•Probably (Evergreenl macnolia. 
loProbably Khaya species. 
iiI*robably tanguile. 
"Prnliably silver maple. 
I'Supar or black maple. 



weight. A plywood body is also very much more re- 
sistant to blows that dent a sheet metal liody. In 
case of a severe accident in which a (lancl is riij)- 
tured, a small section is sawed out and a new sec- 
tion inserted. 

Uses in Airplanrx 

The body or fuselage of airplanes made by some 

companies is made entirely of plywood. Fuselages 

may be rectangular in section, having flat sides and 

top; or they may be ellijitical or circular. I'uselage 



four .sections. These sections were fastened together 
ill the longitudinal direction on wooden members ex- 
ifiidiiig the full length of the body. 

Air]ilane wing beams are made in the I'oiiii of 
an 1-sectioii, or freipiently also as a box section. The 
webs of beams of either ty])e are very often made of 
]ily\vi>iiil. 

AVebs of wing ribs — that is. the wing members 
extending in the direction of flight — are also made 
of plvwoud, suitably lightened by cut-outs between 



Mini, 1!)21 



THE TECHNOGKAPH 



U7 



tlie wing beams ami between tlie beams and the rear 
or trailing edge and the leading edge. 

The sii])ports for the motor, referred to as en- 
gine l)earers, are made of i)lywood from % inch to 
I incli tliick, and consist of from nine to sixteen 
jtJies. Such sni)|iiii-1s are also ligiilcncd by ciituuts 




Fig. v.— Sea-Sled Made of I'lywood 

at ai>i)r<)|>riate places. Bnlkheads. lining I'oi' cart- 
ridge cases, instrument boards, and liraces of vai'- 
ioiis types are made of plywood. 

All-plywood wings have l)een made, but such 
wings usually weigh more than a linen c<ivered wing, 
and while they are very strong they have not come 
into general use. 

Cufx of /'lifiniud ill SJiij) (i)i(l jiixii ('iiiifilntcliiin 

On acconnt of the facility witli which |>lywood 
may lie lasleiicd without danger of i-\ipinrc, its use 
for itai-titions or lndklieails between slate rooms and 



along corridors of ships is gaining in favor. Panels 
for this purpose are usually aixuie y^; inch or 1 inch 
thick, and an' made in slabs so that only three sec- 
tions are reipiired for each i)artition between state 
rooms. A ty|iical ship Interior, in which the corri- 
dor walls are of i)lywood, is shown in Figure '2. 

The great strength of fastening of ship bulk- 
head plywood is shown in Figure 3. The panel un- 
der test was fastened along one edge by eight bolts. 
A load of over 2,000 pounds was carried on the op- 
posite edge. This is only a small fraction of the 
Total load such a ]ianel will sustain. 

Decks, liulkheads. braces, and ]iartitions in 
boats are also very fre(|iu'ntly made of plywood. 

Plywood about 1 | inch in thickness is exten- 
sively used for ship ceilings. It is u.sed here in ])ref- 
erence to other nuiterials, such as wood pulp board, 
on account of its superior strength per unit of 
weight, and because it does m)t sag. It may also be 
manufactured in very large sizes, as shown in Fig- 
ure 4. By scarfing the core veneer and pressing the 
panel in successive stages, it becomes possible to 
make very long panels of a width eipial to the width 
of the presses. 

Canoes have been made of plywood liy softening 
a large sheet of the material and pressing between 
dies. 

The powerful .sea-sleds, shown in Figure 5, were 
made of jdywood. These sea-sleds were designed to 
launch airplanes and were built to sustain very 
severe stresses. They attain a speed of 55 miles per 
hour, and are coiisiM|uently subjected to many shocks 
of striking waves. It was found that ])lywood was 
eminently well .idaptcil to resisting the stresses in- 
Irodnced. 



Acoustical Specifications in Buildings 



F. R. W.\T,sox 
I'rojcKsor of K-ijnriiiiciital Physics 



Acoustical defects in buildings are forced on sound energy. This restilts in an undue prolonga- 

the attention of the public in a considerable number tion so that successive .sounds, as in speaking, are 

of instances. These defects are sometimes fouiul in thus thrown in comiietitiou with each other and a 

auditorinnis where speaking or intisic, or both, are listener has dilficulty in following the seipieuce of 

heard at a disadvantage, or again in rooms where a speech. This prolongation of the sound, or rever- 

soiinds from other parts of the building become beration as it is calle<l, may be corrected or avoided 

noticeable in an objectionable way. by having a suitable amount of sound absorbing 

The usual cause of the defects in auditorinnis material in the room. For music, the defect is not 

is found in the hard, non-porous walls of the room >^'> objectionable, because musical .sounds can over- 

which reflect a large percentage of the incident I^'P and yet be acceptable f(n- most ca.ses. 
sound with a conseipient small absoriilion of the These principles may be illnstrated in describ- 



148 ■ THK Ti:('llX(>(iKAI'll Maij, 1!)21 

inn two iinditoi-iums recciilly Iniili :il the I'liivcr tics is llic sMlisfiictory rendering of vocal iinisic. 

sity wliieli iiK-ttrponiled acoiisi ic.il rciiiiiics .Icsiyncd Tliis was not aiitifipated, but it would seem that a 

1)\ till' wiiter in eooiieralimi willi tlic arcliitects. r i acce|>tal)le for s])eaUiug is also suited lor voeal 

111 liDili auditoriuuis. Ilic acdusiica! siiccilieat ions niiisic. I nst ninienlal niusic, sncli as that of a jiiario, 

were detaiieil in the plans lictori' Die idoiiis wcr-c is hcaid at a disadvantage. For lliis, t lie rouni is tort 

eonstrueted. "dead . 

One auditorium is tlieConrert Hall of llie Smilli The two au.litorinms described indicate .tiie de 

M\isic Building, for which Professor .lames M. White gree of develoi)men( of the acoustical design <if audi- 

was architect with .Mr. (ienrge K. Wright as asso- turiiims. Tlu' theory and practice have been tried in 

ciate architect. In this case it was desired lo have many cases with success. There ai)pears to be some 

a ro(MU witii (pialilies tlial w-aiid c -.jiiiate as fai- range of hitiliideiii the acce])table time of reverbera- 

as ii()ssil>le ill tlie acce|ilalile picidiict inn of iiiiisic. tioii and in tiie intensity of the resulting sound so 

For this ]Mirpose, as shown by the theory of the snb- lliat the ainount of sound absorbing material recoin- 

ject and illnslrated in the cases of auditoriums ab mended for a room may be varied within certain liin- 

ready buill and found sniiable lor music, the i-ooiii its withoiii prejudicing seriously the successful out- 

was designed with a moderate aiiioiinl of absorbing ciuiie. 

material so that the reverberation would be some- I ii addition to the ac(Uistical design of auditori- 

what prolonged. The walls w<M-e to be (piite reflect- nms. another problem in buildings presents itself — 

inff, with ventilators at critical positions to avoid namely, the .sound ]iroofing of rooms. Great anuoy- 

echoes and undue reverberations. The alisorbing a me and inconvenience is suffered because of the un- 

mateiial was located largely in the seals which were welcome iiit rnsioiis in a room of sounds coming from 

to have considerable unholsleiy. The results ob- ot her ])arts of the building. The noise of a i)iauo in 

taincd :iie inaccordanc.' with the pr<>dict ions. One an adjoining apartment, the liiiiii of ,i motor, the 

perlormer stated: "It is eas\ lo sing in the Hall— <'lick of tyi)ewriters, etc., are familiar instances of 

the notes flow freely and the xoice can be used al- sounds thai annoy people and reduce their elViciency 

most witluuit et1'oi-1." I nstrnineiital music -that is, in the pei-rormance of work. 

<-liaiiiber mnsic of moderate intensity— is also reii- The sound proofing of rooms to reduce this 

ilei.'d so as to produce a pleasing effect. .\ ma.ximnm delect is not a simple matter, nor is it atteiide<l with 

audience reduces the reverlierat ion somewhat with- the same certainty of success as in the ac(mstical 

out detriment to the acoustics. The room is not design of auditoriuni.s. Sound progresses along nn- 

suited lor heavy music of great intensity, since this suspected paths so that practical attempts to stop 

would be rather overpowering. Neither is it well it, even if based (Ui the suitable theory and in accord 

.suited for speaking bccau.se of the relatively long with other successful insulations, are not always 

]iei-iod of reverbei-ation. eltective. 

The other auditorium to be described is located In this connection, two kinds of .sound should be 

in the Weslev Foundation S<ici:il I'.nilding. This considered. First, those generated by the voice, a 

room w.is to 111' used pi-iinarily lor sjieaking: there- violin, etc., whcli originate in the air and |)roceed 

fore, the acoustical design was (|iiile dillereiit from through the air. These are reflected in large |U'o- 

the Concert Kooin of the .Music I'.nilding. The per- portion when they strike a continuous wall of some 

iod of reverberation should lie short in order that a rigidity, .\iiother type of sound originates in the 

spoken word after nmking its impression should die vibrations of a piano, cello, motor, etc., — iiistru- 

ont qnicklv. -Vs in the preceding case, here too, the nieiits which make an intimate contact with the 

theory of the subject with illustrative halls gave building st iiictiire. These vibrations travel with 

suitalile guidance for the acoustical prescrii.tion. It ease tlirou-li the contiiniity of structure and are 

was recommended that the ceiling walls of the room, conveiti'd into sound in air, even at distant jioints 

which fornu'd an inverted V. should be covere.l with in the building, when a wall or .some sliiictural 

a sound absorber, — a pulp board in this casi — that member responds in a I'esonant way to the vibra- 

could be easily installed and which ]ireseiited an tions. The insnlatiiui for this latter type of vibra- 

acceptable appearance. Calculations sliowe<l that lion lies in the interposition of some mediiim vary- 

this material wcmld give a reverberation acce|ilable ing in elasticity or density from the medium in 

for speaking for a room with the volume of the Wes which the vibrations are traveling. Tims, an air 

ley Auditorium. The outcome contirms the predic space inserted in nmsonry W(mld be ipiite etfeclive 

tion, Speaking is heaid distinctly even when only in stopping sound, ju'ovided the air space were not 

a few people are present. With a maximnni audi bridged over by solid material. But the lu-actical 

(Mice of about 700 people, the conditions are ini- re<piiieiiient of rigidity does not allow the iuter- 

](roved. One rather surprising feature in the aeons- (Coiuliuled on page 1S3) 



Testing Camera Shutter Speeds 



Al. ('. UUICE, c. 



-2\ 



All i-;iiiH"r;i sliiiltcrs arc .urcatlx (iNcrralcd in 
tlu'ir liijjher speeds. 'I'liis tact is nol iicncially 
liiKiwii, c\en .iiiioiifi pliotojii-apliers, and it was lor 
this icascni tlial llic following investigation was 
made. Several slinttcr testing machines arc in ex- 
istence, but tliey arc in the research lal»oiatorics ol" 
the camera and slmtlcr mannl'actiirers, and the data 
obtained there is not nsnally made ]inl)lic — for ob- 
vious reasons. The a]i[)aratus about to Ik; (U'Scribed 
makes no attem])t to obtain the light efficiency of a 
sliutter, nor to attain extreme accuracy in speed 




measurements. Simplicity of constiaiction and op 
eration, reliability, and reasonable accuracy were the 
([ualities desired. 

The theory invohcd is as follows: A point of 
light moving at a knitwu speed is photographed, us- 
ing the shutter speed to be tested. AVhen the ueg.i- 
li\e is (levelo])ed, the movement of the light appears 
as a dark streak; the length of the streak is ])roi)or- 
tional to the distance the light moved while the 
camera shutter was open. Therefore, knowing the 
velocity of the moving point of light and the distance 
it moved while the shutter was open, the time the 
shutter was open is easily calculated from the fnnda 
mental ecpiation s = vt. Obviously, the most con 
venient path for the light is that of a ciclc. If the 
vi'locity be expressed in K.I'.S., the distance as a 
fraction of a revolution, the time will be in terms of 
fractions of a secoml. 

Two forms of ai)paratns are rc(|iiircd — one for 
lens-shutters and the other for focal-plane shutters. 
The apparatus designed to test lens-shutters appears 
in Figure 1. Briefly, i1 consists of a small electric 
arc mounted on a revolvini; arm. A ' t 11.1'. motor 



rotates the ■■irni al any speed fr L'Od to L'DIKI K. 

r.Al. Coupled directly to the shaft of the motor is 
an electric tachometer for measuring the speed of 
the shaft. Immediately in front of the revolving arm 
is an IS inch disc having o2 equal-distant spokes up- 
on its ])erii>hery. (See tigure 1.) As the arc light 
passes behind these spokes, the circle of light is 
marke<l off' in :V2 nds. of revolution. A shoit jiiece of 
metal tubing, the rear end of which is closed by a 
piece of asbestos while the front end is open in the 
direction of the camera, protects the arc from the 
wind, which is considerable at 2000 K.P.M. 14 in. 
carbons are used and current for the ai'c comes in 
tlu-ough brushes and slip rings. The ammeter and 
the rheostat are used for the close speed control of 
the motor which is maintained over a wide range by 
means it\' a lield rheostat, and by two armature re- 
sistances. One is a coai-se and the other a line ail- 
justment. 

The actual manipidalion is simpdicity itself. 
The camera, pro|)erly focused and directed is placed 
on the stand at the right of the table (Figure 1.) 
The shutter is set at the desired speed and the stop 
adjusted according to the speed and strength of the 
arc light. After striking an arc, the motor is started. 
The instant the desired speed has been reached the 
camera shutter is operated. The proceedure is re- 
peated until all the shutter speeds are tested. I'pon 
being developed, the negative shows the path of the 
arc as a part of a circle in black daslu's. The next 
step is (o count the divisions in each lest, using 
dividers to estimate tenths. If N reiu-esents the num- 
hcr of divisions, the formula t = tilt \ :'.l' \ IM'.M. 
gives the actual slinttcr exposure in seconds. 

The speed of the motor for each test is deter- 
mined by the shutter setting. It must be so chosen 
that the light completes iibout half a revolution 
while tli(^ shutlei- is open. Even so, some shutters are 
so fai- below tlieli- rated speed that the ends of the 
light [lalh overlap, necessitating ;niother test. If the 
camera has a ground glass, the correct uu)lor si)eed 
is easily found by visual trials. For the slower shut- 
ter speeds, the camera must be swung during the ex- 
posure. This prevents the over-lapping of the light 
jiath. The curi'ent required by the are is determined 
by the speed of the motor. For speeds below 500 R. 
P.M., 2 or 3 anijieres is sufficient; more would ovoi- 
heat the arc housing besides recpiiring more frequent 
adjnslnient of the carbons. At the higher speeds 5 



ir>t( 



THI-: TECHNCMiHAl'll 



.)/((.(/, I'.l^l 



1(1 7 :ilii|M'lcs .ire |-i'i|n ii-cd In iiim illl;l i II llic MPc. A 
ilcvici- iiscriil t'(p|- iiiclic;il iiii; (in Ilic ii('i;;ili\(' llic lirsl 
of ii series (iT Icsis is the froslcd li^'lil Itiilli seen in 
(lie lowiM- riulil li;iii(l ((iriicr ol' llic Ironic sii]ii((ii-I inu 
liicdisc. I I'ijiiirc I.i A sicncilcd nnnicriil is phiccd 
in troiil (>r llic li"lil and the nciiativc cxpnscd al)(ini 



Shutter 



Speeds A A B C_ 



3 
2 
1 

5 

10 

25 

50 

100 

200 

250 

300 

500 

a 00 

1300 
3000 



Table 1. 
Make of Shutt er . 



7 

9 

40 

52 

73 

74 

97 



11 
70 



5/8 
2 

5 

12 
53 
77 



136 110 153 

140 
190 176 
339 223 

270 

306 



"372" 
2 
1 1.2 

3/5 2 
3 6 

5 
6 

40 
135 70 

175 



13 
71 



1 

2/3 

3 

34 
47 
81 



1 

3 

5 

7 

28 

54 

120 





G 


H 


I 


10 


Il- 






25 


ia 


23 


40 


50 


46 


50 


50 


100 


50 


50 




2 CO 


53 







At Mult i- speed 

B- Optimo 

C- Compound 

I>- Volute 

E- Ilex 

F- Compur 

G- B ionic 

H- Aotua & Ultex 

I- V. P. Kodak 

a second. Tiic lirst lest is tiicn made willi tlic iici;a- 
Tive in this position. 

Tiieie are only I wo sources of error present in 
lliis iiietliod of sluitter testing;, ol)taining the speed 
of the motor and nieasurinji tiie length of the light 
]),iih on the negative. It is evident that the jiereent 
ciror ill rile speed measurement will he least at the 
high speed, and that in the measurement of the ligiit- 
l)ath will be least when the i)ath is long. Under ac- 
Inal operating conditions, the combined error varies 
lidin (I lo '.',',. This error is so much less liian ijie 
inaccnracv (d' camera shnlters thai it i:iay be ignored 
altogether. 

A brief discussion (d' llie results obtained may 
not be out of place here, esi),'cially since llic actual 
speeds are so far from what the slintler markings 
would lead one lo expect. Table 1 gives llic com 
bined results of many tests. Those tests given here 
are tyjtical of lens-shutters of the various classes. 
The speeds of the better grade of ]iiim|i slintler. sncli 
;is the ()])linio and the ('omi)ouii(l, are appro\ini:il 
ely correct ii]i to ."illtli. of a second. .Vbovc that 
point, the actual sjiceds are frinii -;; to 'o the shut 
ter marking. The wheel i-cta rded shnilers. such as 
the Ile.\ and Compiir. are more accuiate at the low 
speeds: above the iOOth. they are no better than the 
jiunip shutter. The .Multisi)eed shutter is in a class 
by itself, both foi' s]>eed and for inaccuracy of mark 
ing. llowcNcr. its s]ieed is cej'tainly greater than 
that of any other lens-shutter, and ri\;ils that id' 
some focal jilanes. 

Turning now to the Jess e\|iensive piimpslnii- 



tcrs, we lind llial their inarkings .ire fairly accur- 
ate lip to .-I ."idlli, lint with only an (iccasi(nial excep- 
tion lliey are not capable of anything liiglier. The 
cheaper slinllers, haxiii^ but three speeds, niiglit as 
\V(dl dispense with their upper s|ieed, for usually it 
(joes not exist. The "i nsianta neons"' speed of box 
c;iiiicr,is runs between a -■ilMli. .'iiid a lOlli. of a second. 
Willi iiiosi cameras, a very rapid •'bulb" ax'eragcs a 
Till, and a rapid "lime" about a ."ith. The saving 
reatni-e of nearly all lens shut ters is the constancy 
(d' their s|pecds. no mailer how inaccnralc the mark- 
ing. In the great majority of cases the maximnm 
v;iriation from the mean is not over ;>',. 

I'ocal plane cameras cannot be tested with this 
form id' apparatus. The slit of a focal ])lane slintler 
moves directly in front of the ])late or tilni, and the 
combined eflect of the slit motion and the motion of 
the arc light is disastrous to results; by projier man- 
iinilation of the two, as many as three .segenients of 
a circle can be made to appear at once. The solution 
of the problem is to give the light a straight line 
motion in a direction i)aralhd to the edg(>s of the 
slit. This insures accurate measurement of the ac- 




tual exposure gi\-eii that portion of the plate. Fig- 
ure L' shows the ajiparatiis as reconstructed for the 
testing of focal-plane shutters. The revolving arm 
is replaced by a steel disc carrying si.v ecpially 
spaced incandescent lamps. These, viewed from 
.iboxc. gi\'e the straighl-liiie motion. The camera uu- 



Mat/. 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



151 



<l('r lest, lii'inj; jiliiccil ii|i(iii tlic ])icr in t'l-oni dI' the 
iiiiridi-. i-('ceives tlie motion of I he li<>lits as a hori- 
zontal straijflit line — pai-alic! lo iUv curtain slits. 
Tiiis is not trnc for a camera iiavin;; xcitical slits, 
of coiifse. Init tlie laltef type is in tiie minority. 

Close ins]iection of {•"i^nre 1.' will reveal small 
sliielils at each side of tlie mlniatm-e lam|)s. These 
ser\c to cnt otf the lij;ht from those lamjis which 
are not in upper third of the disc, r.e.'ause there are 
si.\ lamps, at least (wo will lie in \ lew of the mirror 





Ten 3 lor 


Shutt er 
Speed 


Actual 


P-o 


s,l3LGra 


flex 
5x7 

15 


ihutts 


Slit 


2ix3i 3 


ix3rl- 


3Tt3f 
23 


8x10 


1-1/2 


1 


10 


31 


2B 


30 




3 


15 














3 


30 


30 


33 


38 


19 


33 




4 


25 


32 












5 


30 




46 


33 








6 


35 


35 






34 


26 


aT4" 


1 
2 


40 
50 


54 


61 


47 


35 


45 




3 


65 


65 




53 


47 


43 




4 


75 




80 










5 


80 


75 




54 


55 


50 




6 


90 




74 


58 


58 


51 


3/8" 


1 


110 


130 




133 


97 


87 




2 


135 




154 






93 




3 


160 


149 




135 


loa 


104 




4 


195 




183 






101 




5 


335 


195 




153 




131 




6 


295 




305 


1-iS 


lis 


105 


1/8" 


1 


350 


374 




359 


281 


205 




2 


440 




487 






200 




3 


550 


437 




448 


373 


314 




4 


680 




557 


430 




214 




5 


835 








235 


231 




6 


1000 


490 


537 


475 


309 


S23 



Shutter size 


'8 


X 10 


3^x3 


'- 


Steed 


10 - 


1000 


£5 


110 


Top of plate 


13 


114 


33 




Quarter .vay down 




157 


31 


ISi- 


Hilf way dovvn 


oC 


239 


33 


130 


Tliree- quarters du"/r. 




3C3 


35 


140 


Bottom of plate 


37 


3-0 


36 





laml the camera I at any iiistanl. 'i'lie speed of the 
motor must lie such that the disc moves something; 
less than one-si.xth of a revolution (hirinj;' e,\]iosiire, 
lest the liiiiit jiath of adjacent lamjis over-laji. The 
motor colli rol and speed measurement remain the 
same for the tests of the lens-shiitter, lint the lif>ht 
ini;circnit is radically dilferent. .Miiiial lire lam])s of 
].."> Mills were chosen hecanse of the strong short 
and heavy tilauient required tu stand the vihration 
and centrifugal force of 1500 IM'.M. Since it was 
found that six of these lamps w<iiild not Imrii satis- 
factory when connected in series, they were put in 
parallel. Current for the lights is brought in 
through lirnslies and rings. A carlMin iiile rheostal 
gives a wonderfully snioolli voltage coulrol oxer the 
lamps. Tiie relay was highly satisfactory as a safety 
device, both for the lanijis and for the nerves of the 
o]ierator. With the six lamps already on over — volt- 
age, a failure of one would raise the voltage and the 
rest would go in short order. The relay was ad justed 
to o))en the lamp circuit at i.S xolts, which it <lid 
every time. Long, slim nails are i)laced in the head- 
board just above the disc and its lamps. These nails 



are so sjiaced as to cut the light ]iatli, as si'cii by tlie 
camera, into 4,Stlis. of a rcvoliili(ui. .Vbove the cent 
ral nail a mineatiire lamp is placed, for the purpose 
of iilentifying the first of a series of tests and also to 
insure the divisions of each succeeding test Iteing 
aiiproximately in line with each other. A swilch 
lights this pilol lani]i whenever needeil. 

A\'hile the camera is being focused and adjusled. 
the motor is running slowly with the lamjis at less 
than rated voltage. When the image on the ground 
glass is in the desired [losition and exactly parallel 
to the curtain slits, the shutter is set, the motor 
brought np to the desired s])eed, the lamjis raised to 
full brilliancy, and the exjiosnre made. The incan- 
descent filament is not nearly as bright a source as 
the electric arc, but this disadvantage is practically 
overcome by raising the lamp voltage at the instant 
of exposure, by opening the camera lens to F/i.'i, 
and by using very rajiid jilates. While the move- 
ment of two lamps in nearly every^ test, usually but 
one is complete. The nnniber of divisions is counted 
and the formula I = fiON / 48 x K.P.M. gives the ac- 
ttial exposure time. 

The percent error in these results may amount 
to twice that in the lens-shutter tests because of the 
comparative shortness of the light-path, but here 
again it may be ignored in view of the fact that 
focal plane shutters are far le.ss constant in their 
speed than even the lens-shutters. 

Table 2 gives tlie results of the tests ujion five 
focal ]ilane shutters, .\bout three generalizations 
may be made wliich will coxcr every focal ])lane yet 
tested. 1. The smaller cameras are faster than the 
large ones. 2. The actual sjieeds at low s])riug ten- 
sions are faster than the raletl sjieeds. and at the 
high sjiring tensi(Uis they are slower. ;'.. The high- 
est actual sjiced of any focal jilnae is about half its 
rated sjiced.' Ifere and tlu'i-e in Table 2 one liiids a 
sjieed which seems out of its order. This can only 
be exjdained by varying conditions of friction in the 
shutter itself. It stands to reason that the friction 
in the moving pju-ts of a focal i)lane would be great- 
er and more varied than in the watch-like mechan- 
ism of the lens-shutter. Table '^ exjilains why all 
the focal jilane tests were made within a narow 
striji at the center of the jilate. The curtain and the 
rollers are not feather-weight by any means and so 
cannot get uji to sjx'ed instantly. The larger the 
ciimera and the faster the sjjced, the greater the 
sjieed variation and coiise(piently the exposure — as 
the slit moves across tlie ]>late. This results in 
longer exposure towards the bottom wliich is not as 
undesirable as might seem since the sky portion of 
a jiictnre is at the bottom of the plate and needs a 
shorter exjiosure. Two focal planes were tested 
(Concluded on page 179) 



The City of Holy Faith 

J{KXI'(II!|i N'f.W TdMl; 

AuxikIii III I'rojtKsiir of A r<-liihcl iinil l/ishiri/ 



All inlcrcsliii^ i-nimnciilarv ilpDii llir ili'\clo|i also lake Ms nanii' rriiin llic Icriiiiiials of that nmlc. 
iiiciit III' a j;i'cal Aiiicrica ii railway syslciii is the In (iiir dav, iil' ciiursc, llic claiiii ol' llic .Missdiiri 
lad thai liiil <piic of llic cities tiiiit fjavc tlicir names Ki\cr cities In the cDniinerce ol' the jirairies is lai-f^e- 
tii the Alcliison, 'i'()|ieka and Saiila FO Uailway tiiids ]y iiistorie and the |)i-esent Santa Fe System licfjins 
itself n|Miii the main line of that i-ailroad at the at the <ii-eat Lakes and extends (in and beyond the 
present lime. 'I'his is due, of course, to the tad that "idd trail's end" at Santa Im- to Los Anj^elcs and 
the tci'mini ol' the jjreat simtherii trade routes ha\<'. I'acitic ports. Thus liolli Atchison anil Santa I'\'' 
in a measui-e, changed since the eaily days ol' over- Innc. in the develo])nient ol' the route, lieen left at 
land IralVic. W one lime in liie history of Ameri- one side liy the main lines of the railway. And the 

can cipinmeice Saint Louis was the point from which 

traiijiers and traders set oil' for the fur-bearing 
j;ioiiiids of the west. With the development of navi- 
.nalioii ii|Mni the Missouri, the river-ports of Atclii 
son, Lea\cnworlli, and later Kansas City, because the 
eastern termini of the overland tra<le and esjiecially 
id' that with the great southwest. 

If there were several starting points at the east 

ern end of the great overland route, there was, in 

the old (lays, only one western terminus and that 

was Santa Fe, the "Oity of Holy Faith" and the 

city which gave its name to the historic old trail to 

the southwest and, in onr day, to the glistening 

sfeel-shoil road that carries to the coast some of 

America's best eipiipped iiasscnger trains. 

During the ilavs of eail\ railroad building in 

Fig. II. — Palace of the Governor's 

\\riter is glad that, in the case of Santa h'e. this is 
true because otherwise much that is jiriceless iiis- 
torically and artistically would have been lost. 

Thei-e is a certain romance to the bygone and a 
certain inviting ajipeal to "the ojien road" es|ieci- 
ally if that road should lead to a city as full of 
romance .•ind historic lore as is old Santa l'\''. It 
was with great anticipation, therefore, that the 
write)', in connection with a bit of archaeological 
research, set out during the past summer for tiiis 
one-time "end of the trail". The one best thing thai 
he can say about Santa Fe is that it did not disap- 
point liini, for although the jilace boasts only some 
II), 000 inhabitants, a sni.iU minority of whom are 
Americans, there is so much of interest to be found 
here that one who cares at all for the old, the loman 
tic or the beautiful wall be well repaid for a visit. 
Santa Fe is in evei-y sense a unique city. It has per- 
thal paii of the country, the trade over the historic haps more surprises foi- one accustomed to the av- 
oid Santa I"'e Ti-.iil was in flourishing condition and er.ige American town than any other place within 
it was only natnr.il th.it the railroad to the south the confines of our country. In population it coin- 
west should not only parallel the wagon route but bines tlie three elements, Indian, Spanish and Ani- 





Fig. I. 



:>[(!!/. imi 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



15:i 



ericaii, tliat have made its history, and each element 
lias left its mark so indelibly impressed upon the 
town that its influence is easily traced. Especially 
is tliis true in an architectural sense. 

T(i the archaeologist or architect Santa Fe will 
prove extremely interesting foi- lu're arc to he seen, 
in addition to many remains of ancient Indian cul- 
ture, innumerable reminders of the beginnings of 
European civilization in what is now the T'nited 



point out that the sun shines an average of 9.1' Iiotirs 
every day in Santa Ee. 

The civic life of old Santa Fe is, as in the case 
of most Sjianish cities, centered about the I'hizit 
from which the streets, narrow and crooked, radi- 
ate in every <lirection. Geogi-aphically Santa Fe has 
not changed much since the old days of Onante and 
De Vargas and indeed the modern business activity 
of the city centers u])on this same old Phi^a which. 




Fig III. — Museum of New Mexico 



States. Here one may see the oldest house, the old- 
est church, and randjle through the rooms, corri- 
dors and /Kitid I court I of the old Palace of the 
(iovcrnoi-s which, reconstructed from an older Ind- 
ian building in 10()(j, became the capitol of the Span- 
ish province of New Mexico and remained, a seat of 
government with a brief interruption (1(J8()-!)2|, un- 
til the completi(m of the American capitol building. 
Santa Fe is beautifully situated at the foot of 
the southern extremity of the Kocky Mountains in 
the Sangre de Cristo (Blood of Christ) Kange and, 
lying at an altitude of some 7,000 feet above sea 
level, enjoys u delightful climate. The annual pre- 
ci[)itation amounts to oulj* fourteen inches and the 
air is clean and bracing even in such months as July 
and August. Some idea of the amount of sunshine 
is gained from the AVeather Bureau statistics which 



of course, in our day lias been improved as a jiark. 
In many parts of the present city (See Map, Fig. 1) 
the crooked streets, even to this day, have no side- 
walks and permit of the passage of but two vehicles. 
Most of the old streets, dating from the seventeenth 
century retain their Sjjanish appellations and such 
street names as Agua Fria, San Francisco, Canon, 
Don Gaspar, I'alacio, (ialisteo and Cerrillos are us- 
ually as troublesome to the tongue of the average 
American as the streets' torttious p.issages are to 
his "bump of location". The writer is free to confess 
that the Governors" i'alace, which serves as an orien- 
tating landmark, faced ,-i dilVerent direction every 
time he returneil frouL some new ex[)loi'ing adven- 
ture. 

In describing Santa Fe, as in exploring her, one 
must always start at the I'ldZd. Along the north 



154 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



May, 1921 



side of llic si|ii;irc cMciicIs llic |Miliic(. ol' 1 lie old 
l':iLirc 111' llic (lii\criiii|-s I l-'i^. L' I . ;i liiiililiiiu iiiiw 
lisrd lo liiiiisf Ihr cullrcl ions of llic 1 1 islorical Soci 
civ oT \c\\ Mexico ,illd llic New .Mexico .Mllsclllii of 
Ai-cIi:icoIc]l;\ :is well ,is llic olliccs iiiid sUnlios of 
llic School <d' Aiiicriciiii Arcliacoloj^y, coiiiliiclcd li.v 
Ilic Al-clKiiMdoj;ic:il liisliliilc <d' Aiiicric;!. Tlic liiiiM 
iiij; lias iwo wiiiiis iIniI, pi-ojccl iiii; liacU at cillicr end 
of llic hlock. iiicct a similar lony Imildiiic :ii ihc 
rear lliiis ciiclosiiii; a coiirl wliicli. iieaiil il'iillv 
|ilanlcd, alVords a pleasant outlook lor the \arioiis 




Fig. IV. — Residence on Palace Avenue 

rooms of the miiseiim or olliccs of tlic research stall'. 
'I'his old struct lire, aside Irom its priceless collec- 
tions and its memories of ohl S|iaiiisli and .Mexican 
jjuveriimeiital days, has still a I'urtlier interest tor 
Americans tor it was here lliat Lew Wallace, gover- 
nor of Xew .Mexico from IS7S to 1SS1 wrote tlie con 
cliidin;; chaptci's of his famous no\-cl IJeii Ulir. 

Just across from tlie I'aiacc and diaj;onall.v 
acr(»ss fi-om the northwest corner of the I'hi-.d stands 
the reci'iilly const rncted Museum of New Mexico de- 
\c)ted to flirt her collections of archaeological and 
artistic interest, i See {'"ii;. :'. I This liiiildiiif; has 
liceii designed in the characteristic Xew .Mexicin 
variety of tlie Spanish-Indian architecture, a style 
developed hy the Franciscan missionaries and the 
Indians whom liicy had under their charge. It ex- 
hiliils iiotli Spanish and Indian trails and. what- 
ever else may lie said alioiit it. is cmilieiltly adapted 
in line and mass to this country of almost i)er])et- 
iial siiiishiiic. Thai it may appear crude and liai'- 
liaiic to the a\i'iai;c .\ iiierica li is only to he cxpectecl 
1)111 that it cannot he Judged by any of the canons 
liy wliicli we cxaliiate classic a r<-hilecl iirc must 
he understood at the outset. The style has a silli- 
tlety of ciirxc and a i-elineincnl of line that is as in- 
teresting as it is miiisiial. and buildings in the style 
along siile of the common types of American street 
ai'chitectni'e make the .Vmciicaii lirand seem very 
ridicnlons and wholly exotic in this climate and 
set ting. 



The three rcma i iiiiig sides of Ihc I'hi^d are 
lined with Imildings of a type that straggle along 
Ihc majority of Middle West ".Main Streets" Imt it 
is proposed lo replace these with structures inoi'e 
in keeping with the ge(dogic;il, historic and ethno- 
logical hackgronnds of the jilace and to this end 
the I'liited States government has already had pre 
]iarcd plans foi' the new Federal Building while pri- 
vate iiitercsts are promoling a modern tourist hotel, 
Ipoth of these struct iires to accord with the miiseuiii 
in architect iiral style. Thus it appears that civic 
pride anil a realization of what is a|ipropi-iate is 
o]teratiiig to restore lo the I'Utiii something of the 
charm of the old, the spell and appeal of which has 
been so heartlessly marred by the Intrusion of gro- 
tesipie forms of American architecture better adaiit- 
e(l to the prairie towns of Kansas or Xebi-aska than 
to Old Spanish Santa Fe. 

If the l'l(r:(i'\\:\!i been ruined by a destruction 
of the olil, the reverse is true of the town in general. 
Xowhcie has the old been cherished as in the resi- 
dence portions of Santa Fe and especially is this 
tine along such a street as Canon I\oa<l. .Most of 
the residences, old or new, are of (iihihc or native 
stone so that they seem to belong to the landscape 
and blend with it in a very intimate way. Figui-e 4 
will present a jiretty good idea of the typical mod- 
ern residence in Santa Fe, built upon the lines of 
the older work which abounds everywhere in such 
profusion. As civic life centers upon the I'lii:<i so 




Fig. V. — Light and Power Company's Office 

the domestic life centers ii|ion the /idtio or court be- 
tween the two Literal wings of the house where, by 
nieans of a co\ered corridor along the rear wall of 
the central portion of the structure and a pergola 
in the coiii-t, shade is jirodticed and comfort abounds. 
The gardens of roses and orchards of fruit are in- 
variably at the rear of llic house and present a ])leas- 
ant \ista from /iii/ln nv portico. ^A'aler for these 
orcharcls and gardens comes down the hill from a 
reserxoir back in the iiionntains through the tyjii- 



.!/«,(/. n>.n 



THE TECHXOGRAPH 



15;-) 



tal acrquia or irrigation caual. The water after 
serving its purposes tinds its way eventually to the 
Santa Fe River which winds thro\igli the main por- 
ti(ui of the city and itself joins the upper waters of 
tlie Ki" (Irande some twenty miles west of Santa 
YO. 

Any word about Santa VO would not he com- 
plete witliont mention of Iter various chapels and 
churclies s(une of which are accredited with extreme 
age, as ages go in America. A century ago there 
were no less than five churches and three private 
chapels as follows : 

Church of San Francisco. li'.:2T. now replaced 
by the Cathedral. 

Church of San Miguel. (The ohlesl churclii us- 
ually dated 15-11. 

Church of C»ur Lady of (iuadaluiie. Iti4(t. 

Church of the Kosary. 1092. 

Church of Our Lady of Light. 17S5. 

Chapel of the Ortiz family. 

Chapel of the Virgiles family. 

(Miapel of Pablo Montoya. 

Of the five churches mentioned only tliree come 
down to us and all of these in a more or less changed 
condition. San Miguel Church partly for the ex- 
treme age attributed to its beginnings and partly 
for some ancient relics in the way of bells and paint- 
ings that it contains, is always a popiUar sight for 
the totirist. The church is less altered upon the in- 
terior than ujMUi the exterior and gives a fine ini- 
]pression of The attem]>ted splendor even in so far 



removed a provincial possession as New Mexico. 

But if one should attempt to recount all the in- 
teresting lore in connection with these old churches 
of Santa Fe it wotdd exhaust the space of many 
papers of this length. Let these few brief words 
serve to indicate that much of interest awaits even 
the casual visitor to the obi slirines of the "City of 
Holy Faith." 

Many of the Imsiness linns of Santa Fe are 
striving to make their modern structures conform 
to the universally approved New Mexican style of 
architecture and such corporations as the Light and 
Power Co., whose plant may be seen in Figure 5, 
and the wholesale grocery and implement concerns 
are having their plants, warehouses and offices 
erected in the style. Thus it would ajipear that at 
Santa Fe it is considered good Imsiness to have a 
local t^ije of architecture and to avoid heeding the 
whims of every passing architectural fad that sweeps 
the country. It is this unique spirit in the new as 
well as the savor of the old that makes Santa Fe 
totally unlike any otiiei- .Vmerican state capital. Let 
us hope that she will continue to preserve the ])rice- 
less relics of the i)ast and at the same time be guided 
in her new work by the.se very architectural suc- 
cesses and precedents. The beautiful and balanced 
unity that will result will oi)erate to make her, ever 
in the future, the charming and uni(pie city that she 
has always been in the past. American cities need 
more individuality and less uniformity than they 
have at the ](fesent time. 



The Manufacture of Bedford Limestone 



W. S. Auit.vs.Mrrii. aicli. 



During the past summer it was my good fortune 
to s|)end most of my vacation in and around Bed- 
ford, Indiana. While there I si)ent much of my time 
in the stone mills and quarries which are the larg- 
est of their kind in the country. 

It is the greatest of oolithic limestone in this 
region that has nuide Bedford known throughout the 
world. The great stone mills ami (piarries together 
form an industry that stipplies nearly every big 
Architectural ])roject in this c(uintry. It is difficult 
for the outsider to understand the stnpendcms scale 
on which the stone is quarried and cut. A trip to 
Bedford, however, will speedily convince one that the 
manufacture of Bedford lime.stone is (Uie of the 
greatest of our modern building imhistries. 

The maiuifacture of Bedford limestone can be 
roughly divided into three parts, namely: the quar- 
rying, sawing and tooling, and stone cutting. The 



beds of limestone lie close to the surface of the 
ground and very little iirelimimiry work is necessary 
in order to reach what is known as the real oolithic 
stone. First, the covering of earth and bastard rock 
must be dug and blasted away bef(U-e the channeling 
machine can be put to work at cutting out the lime- 
stone. The limestone • lies for the most part in 
straight grain strata. It can be easily cut ami split 
along its natural bed into convenient blocks that are 
readily hauled to the mills. After the covering of 
earth has been removed, the surface of the stone in 
the quarry is smoothed down ami the channeling 
machine placed on tracks that run along this surface. 
The channeling machine is merely a small engine 
rluit travels slowly up and down the tracks carry- 
ing u fly-wheel to which is attached an eccentric 
drill with a blunt cutting edge. This drill slowly 
wears a channel into the .stone. It is sometimes 



156 



THE TECHNOGEAPH 



May, 1921 



lU'cessai-y to drill iwd tu llircc ilays in older lo ol)- 
taiu a depth ol' from fom- to live Iwl into tlie stone 
(U'liendinji upon tlie lenf,'tli of tlie channel. After tlie 
eliannel has been eiit anotlier is run pai-aUel to it. liic 
desired thickness of tlie Mock to lie (inai-iieil deter 
niininj; this distance. When ihi' surface of llie stone 
lias lieen cut into the desired widths, cross elianneis 
are run in oi-der lo ciil llie sloiie in liie h'U^ths re- 
(|iiired. 'I'lie <Mids of one id' llic Idoiks once cut is 
s|ialled or cut out to a sufficient dejilli to in-riiiit tiie 
liooi< of a great steam derrick to he imheddi'd. I'.y 
means of tlie derrick tlie stone is s|ilii aloii.u its nat- 
ural Led at the bottom of I he block and hoisted out 
id' the i|uarries onto the cars that are \vaitiii|Li to 
take it to the stone mills. Stone in this form known 
as "mill blocks." It is now ready for the .nanji saws 
at the mills to cut into workable sizes. 

These mill blocks are of yreat size, being tliree 
or four feet square and from ten to twenty feet in 
length. It is necessary to cut these into small pieces 
to facilitate the handling by the machinery in the 
mill. For this purpose the gang saw is employed. The 
gang saws, or "gangs" as they are <-oiiinionly called, 
consist of big wooden frames into which are inserted 
thin steel strips . The width of the new blocks to 
be obtained governs the distance between these 
strips. The big mill block is jdaced underneath and 
the fianie of steel strips is ra[)idly drasvn backward 
and forward across the surface of the mill block by 
means of a long wooden shaft attached to a fly- 
wheel. A thin mixture of sand and water is at the 
same time made to flow over the surface <d' the 
block. The sand and steel thus we.ir narrow chan- 
nels completely through the block subdividing it into 
as many small blocks as there were spaces between 
tlie strips. This process is extremely slow and it 
may take one to two days to saw through a four 
foot block. The stone is now of the desired thick- 
ness, it remains to bring the other two dimensions 
to the reipiired measurements. This is done with the 
Diamond or Carborundum saw. The Diamond saw is 
a circular steel saw ranging from two to live or 
more feet in diameter with rough diamonds inserted 
around the cutting edge. The saw is driven at a 
high velocity and is capable of cutting through stone 
very rapidly. Carborundum is sometimes used in 
place of the di;imonds as it is less expensive and 
will maintain a sharper line on the stone. The Dia 
mond saw, however, lasts longer and will cut more 
i-apidly than the other. The stime is ]daced on iilat- 
fornis in front of the saw and dinieiisioii lines very 
accurately drawn on its surface. The Diamond saw 
is then run against the stone along these lines. This 
process is comparatively ra]iid, but great care must 
be taken that the diineiision lines arc accurately 



fidlowed. .\i the slightest inaccuracy the stone must 
be discarded and recul. The stone is now in the de- 
sired size for ashlar. Curved ashhir or voussoir 
stiiiK's are cut in the same way by ])lacing the stone 
on rotating jila I forms. After coming from the Dia 
niond saw llie ashlar must be hand iiolished with 
water and c.irhorundiini. after wliicli it is jiacked 
a lid shipped to its dest iliat ion. 

ill case nioiildiiigs are to be cut into the stone 
the slab from the gang saw is ]ilaced on the ]ilatforni 
id a iiiachine known as a planer. The planer con- 
sists of a platform bearing the stone which is drawn 
back and forth against a steel blade having the re- 
verse prolile i>\' the mouldings to be cut. This pro- 
cess is slow. The block must be drawn against the 
blade many times until the complete prolile has been 
cut. .Vs the block is drawn in past the blade it is 
pressed tightly against it. but on the rever.se trip 
when the block comes out the blade is drawn away 
as it has but one cutting edge. The block being 
liinily spiked lo the platform the blade is so ad- 
jiuted llial it cuts from one-eight to one-cpiarter of 
an inch farther into the block every time it is drawn 
past. Care musi he taken that the blade does not 
move into the stone too rapidly as the spalling which 
results from the planing is likely to injure the 
mouldings. These steel edges must be cut into ex- 
tremely accurate reverse patterns to those furnished 
by the Architects, and must be continually sharii- 
eiied in order to maintain a sharp prolile of the 
moulding. 

In the iiiaiinl'acture of columns the mill blocks 
are taken directly lo the lathes. The einls of these 
long blocks are provided with steel cores so that 
they can turn freely on the lathes. Powerful elect- 
ric motors then turn the block against a sharj) cut- 
ting hlaile that slowly moves down the side of the 
block cut ling aboul a ([iiarter of an inch to each 
revolution. .Vfter the cidnnin has been turned on 
the lathe it is then ready to be fluted. This is one 
of the most complicated processes in the business, 
as the flutings extend the full length of the columns 
and are only .ihout a half an inch apart. The entasis, 
which was obtained on the lathe, is used to advant- 
age in determining the depth of the fluting. The col- 
umn shaft is lirnily wedged into position and a cup- 
sh.iped revolving blade cuts the fluting. This blade 
is mounted upon a small straight track and moves 
slowly along the length of the shaft. The entasis on 
ihe (011111111 makes the fluting become shallower as 
Ihe small end is reached and keeps the spacing be- 
tween the flutes in proportion. The shaft is now 
taken lo llie Diamond saw and sawed into drums of 
llie reipiired length. The drums must then be hand 



Mill/. I!)21 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



157 



nil)l)('d with carboruudniu and water, after wliicli 
tliey are ready for shi[)nieiit. 

Ill tui'iiinj;' the bases for the cnliuiiiis tlic mill 
blocks arc cut to tlie desired thickness in the fianji 
saws and liieii put on the lathe. Here they are 
turned ajjaiiist a steel cutting edge. This edge has 
been , careful ly- cut in a reverse i)rotile of the l)ase 
moulding as sup])lied by the Architect. 

We will now consider tlie stone cutting. This is 
a science in itself and is done by hand willi piieu- 
niatic tools. To become a tinished stoue cutter a 
man must serve at least four years apprenticeship 
until he has trained his hand and eye to the point 
of accuracy that is so necessary in this business. 
The st(pe cutter may have for his model merely a 
blue ])rinted drawing from the Architect or a ])las- 
ter of I'aris detail to be carved, and from these he 
must make an e.xact replica in stone. The details 
are roughly penciled on the block of stone and then 
cut directly out by hand. In case of column caps 
and other circular ornamented details, as much of 
the work as ])ossible is turned on the lathe before it 
comes to the cutter, but this does not sim|)lify his 
task very niiicli. An observer will readily ajipicciati' 
the fact that a stone cutter must be a trained artist : 
one who must work rapidly as well as accurately. 

Stone cutting includes all ornamental details 
that are irregular in pattern and which, for ihis 

reason, cannot be produced by ■hiiu'iy. No part 

of a building is so much noticcil or ciiiiciscd ;is I lie 
ornamental carving and for this reason great care is 
exercised in bringing the work up to the e.xact speci- 
lications of the Architect. No piece of stone leaves 
tiie mill until it has been carefully checked and 
measured for any irregularities that niighl lalcr 
throw it out of alignment on the building. So skilled 
are the men in (heir wink and .so carefully is the 
work checked that very lew pieces of stone have to 
be returned to the mill for l-eciittiiig. 

It is very interesting to watch the niannci- in 
which the huge slabs of stone are handled in the 
mill. <licat electric cranes travel on tracks con- 
structed overhead and fi-om tliese cranes are sus- 
pended hooks and piilh^ys that can quickly carry 
the largest block of stone to any jiart of the mill. 
On the larger blocks of stone steel hooks are placed 
at the two ends joined by a chain, and the stone is 
lifted in much the .same manner as ,i lump of ice 
in ice-tongs. The smaller blocks of stone, such as 
ashlar, c(dumn caps and bases, ct,-.. aie lilied by 
having a hole drilled into the center of one side. 
This is known as a Lewis hole ;iiid i< used both for 
handling the stone in the mill and in swinging it 
in jiosition later on the building. The hole is bored 
triangular in section with the apex at the suif'ace. 
Curved steel tongs are inserted into this hole and 



when the stone is lifted they are drawn tightly to 
the sides, thus lifting the block. Great care must 
be taken that the Lewis holes are correctly drilled, 
and sjM'cial men are detailed for this job. In case 
the drilling is not accurate the grappling tongs may 
pull out, which means that the stone will be broken 
beyond I'ejiaii- and ]iossibly cause gi'eat injury to 
aii\ woikmen who may be below. 

The packing, oi' blocking of tlie stone as it is 
called, is a very intricate job. In shipping stone, 
low side, wooden gondola cars are preferable. Each 
stone must be so fitted into the car that it does not 
rub against its neighbor, and yet so tightly packed 
that in transit it cannot slip or move in any way. 
Any appreciable play in a car loaded with stone 
would mean that many of the jiieces would be so 
biidly cracked before reaching their destination that 
they would have to be replaced. Each block of stone 
is set individually on small wooden runners and c.x- 
cellsior tightly wedged between adjacent blocks of 
stone making everything as tight as possible. After 
the car has been thoroughly loaded and braced, 
stone dust is carefully sifted into all the remaining 
cracks and every care taken that the contents are 
com|iact and s(did. 

The cliafting room is anotlu'i- i)lace of interest 
aliout the mill. Here the blueprints from the Archi- 
tects are received and full sized details made from 
them. After the full sized details have been made 
the ])rotiles of all mouldings are carefully pnncheil 
through onto sheet tin. and this outline carerully 
cut out. These till sheets are then taken to the 
blacksmith shop where re\crse patterns are made 
into steel cutting edges for the planers and lathes. 

In the mill ollice the superintendent has tiled 
away complete blue |n-iiils of every job in the mill. 
L]\-er\- job has its number and is referre<l to by this 
number throniihoul the mill. ICvery ]iiece of stone in 
exery job ;ilso has its number, and in this way 
accurate track is kejil of the daily output. .\s the 
stone is cut and slii|)]ie(l it is marked otf of the cor 
responding blue|irint in the office <ind by looking at 
these ]uaiits anyone can (piickly tell how near the 
job is to completion, just what stones have been 
shipjicd and those that remain to be cut. 

The keynote of this industry is accuracy to the 
smallest detail. When we consider a large ollice 
building, I'Vi'vy stone of which has to lit perfectly 
into its place, it is remarkable that so lew correc- 
tions lia\-e been necessary to faulty work at the mill. 
For exam])le, in a facade of a building the width of 
every stone joint must be accuratel.v figured and d';- 
ducted from the overall sizes of the stone, and w!ic-i 
we consider the numerous breaks, mouldings, ami 
(Concluded on page 183) 



Opportunities in Brazil 



( ). M IKA.NIlA. colli, 'L'l 



lliiw iii.iiiy ciillc^c iiicii know .i iivl liiiii; iilmiil 
Hrnzil, oilier lliaii iIniI il is ilic phicc \\ licrc riililicr 
iiiul coflVc conic Iroiii. and as I lni\c ol'Icn heard in 
\aildc\iilc sliowN. "Ilic place wlicl-c ilic mils coiiie 
I roin '.'" How niaiiv lia\e heard anviliiiii; alioiii il 
oilier lliaii llial il is the coiinlry in .'■miiiiIi America 
where .Mr. iioosexcll hiinled wild animals, and where 
tluMT are two ii\crs. Ihe .Viiia/.on and ihe •■l\i\cr 
of Ddlllit"? How many lia\e read anythinj; alioiit 
Hiazil? 

1 do iiol hiame the yoiinji Xorlli .American 
people lor this pitiful lack of knowledge and wrong 
inipi-ession of Brazil, for when one reads a story 
about a foreign conntry one natnrally becomes nioic 
interested in conditions which )(reseiit a contrast 
to his en\ ironmeiit and most of lis like exciting 
stories. The men who lia\e written hooks abotit 
Brazil — the same is true of books abont Sotith Am- 
erica in general — have realized that exciting stories 
about daiigeron.s iinnts, hardships, heroism, and 
ditlicnlt traveling throngli almost impenetrable .jung- 
les, have a greater demand than descriptions of 
modern cities or acconnts of social and commercial 
conditions, and they have written tlieir books on 
that basis. Then too, there are a number of explor- 
ers who never visit a city, prerering Ihe wilderness, 
because it is diti'ei'ent and furnishes more material 
for an exciting story. These, of course, write about 
that which they see, but unconsciously give 1o their 
readers the erroneous impression thai the whole of 
South .\merica is but an enormous jungle full of 
disease and inhabited by cannibals. .\s to Ibis 1 can 
\('ry sincerely say that neither 1. nor the many re 
bilious ami friends thai 1 have tliroiighont iJia/.il, 
ha\('e\('r seen a Brazilian Indian. Of coiiise. there 
are Indians in Brazil — as there are in this coiinlry 
— but they are conlined to the reinotness of the \asl 
interior. .Mllnnigh I lia\e never seen an Indian. I 
ilo not iloiibl that some of them look tierce, but I 
do doubt that there are cannibals, for cannibals 
were not found aiiioni; the inaiiy tribes when llr.i/.il 
was discovered and settled. Il is not my piir]iose. 
however, to defend my coiinlry from the injnslice 
that has been done. It is my aim to st.ite in a \ cry 
few words why Brazil of today is called "The Land 
of Opportunity.'' 

Just at the entrance of Hie harbor of Kio de 
Janeiro, the capital of Brazil, there is a series of 
nionntaiiis which when viewed from a distance in 
the open sea, i-e.semble a giant l.ving lui his back. 



fast asleej). This resemblance g.ave rise lo the nam- 
ing (d' this series of inoiintains "the (iiaiit .Vsb'eji". 
.Xoihiiig lo my o])iiiioii is more symbolic of Brazil 
than this "gi;int asleep", for Brazil is a country 
enormous in ils size, emiably rich of soil, and 
s|ileiididly fascinating in its natural beauties. It 
is a conntry whose jiatriotic and jirond sons only a 
few years ago started to awake from their delicious 
dreams to the realization of the fact that the untold 
treasures hidden in the bosom of their great mother 
were destined to make her one of the most import- 
ant countries in years to come. 

The TTnited States of Brazil today is the United 
States of America of about 40 or 50 years ago. Our 
relative poptilation now is about the same as that 
t)f the United States then, and we are undergoing 
the same economic changes. 

Brazil resembles her big northerr, sister in 
many respects. There are episodes in otir history 
similar in nature and outcome to episodes in the 
history of this country. We too are a free land and 
f(tr freedom we stand. Our form of government is 
almost the same as that of this country, but we have 
only twenty States, one territory, and Hio de .lan- 
eiro, the Federal District. The only ditference in 
our States from those of this country is that ours 
are separated by their natural limits — either rivers 
or mountains being the line of demarcation between 
tliem — so that with a territory about 200,0t)0 s(piare 
miles larger than that of the continental United 
States, we have twenty-eight states less. Contin- 
ental Brazil is larger than any other country in 
the world, except the United States with its terri- 
tories and possessions, British Em])ire, China, and 
the former Kussian lOmjiire. Three of our states are 
over twice as large as (Jermany as she stood before 
the (Ireat \\'ar. and. in fact, six of our states are 
larger I ban any conntry in lOiirope, except Russia. 
The .Maiajo Island at the month of the Amazon is 
Ihe size of Switzerland. How can the small number 
of ::o.l)IMI.I»l)t) peojile be distributed over such a vast 
land? We are lo\ers of nature's beauties and noted 
for a ilesire to be comfortable, so we all seek the 
coast, wliicli furnishes us with both beauty and com- 
fort, ami we leave the interior of the country almost 
iinseiiled. It is mostly in the interior, however, 
where we tiiid our inumerable mineral deposits, 
wonderful water falls which will some day be turn- 
ed into mechanical energy, and virgin forests from 
which we can secure the liest of wood for the manu- 



M(i)l, IU21 



THK TKCHXOCHAl'H 



facture of liigh-grade furniture and many other pin- 
poses, including tlie extraction of dyes. The ii.inic 
Brazil came from the great abundance of red wood 
from which a red dye is made and wliich is also 
employed on expensive furniture. 

Our ]K»pulation is nol pri>]>(iitii)iial to the size 
of our country and we need i>eople from other lands. 
There has been a steady increase in imnugration for 
the last twenty years, l)ut we are not satisfied, ^^'e 
are anxious to have the large population that we 
need in order to take longer strides in progress. 1 
have compared Brazil of today with the United 
States of some 50 years ago, and I emphasize my 
statement by saying that we are now really under- 
going an Industrial Revolution similar to that ex 
])erienced by this country in its progress. 

Before the Enro])ean War, we imported nearly 
all of our manufactured goods from European 
countries, especially from Germany and England. 
Very little trade was carried on with the United 
States. We, in turn, ex])orted our raw products. 
This exportation, however, always exceeded the im- 
portation ])er ton of merchandise. When the war 
started, we found the doors of Europe closed. We 
could no longer obtain enough manufactured goods 
to supply our needs, and we were comi>elled to do 
what most of us ha<l never thought of doing. W'v 
were forced — by the (li-ace of (iod — to rely upon oni- 
own resources and to display our abilities. A great 
campaign took place for the encouragement of the 
cidtivation of the land, and of the manufactiiring of 
goods if) satisfy our wants. As a i-esult, it was not 
long before the goods manufactured in Brazil be- 
fore the war but sold as "imported goods", began 
to appear in the market on larger scale and to be 
sold as ".M.idc in the U.S.B." Goods we .lid m.i 
manufactui-e befoir tlie war are now being nianu- 
factured with sjilendid results, as siiowii l>y the in- 
crease in deiiiaiiil lnr llicm. cm'ii by those having 
the theory that "imported goods :ii-e better than 
those made at iiome." 

As our imports decreased with the increase of 
our industries, our exports increased witii the great- 
er need of the European countries and of the United 
States. We already ranked first in exportation of 
coffee and of rultber, lint with the war we became 
tii'st in the eximi-tal ion of manganese ores and sev 
eial other raw materials. IJrazil became e.viiorler 
of rice and other food stuffs instead of im])orters. 
Refrigeration ]ilants were built, and we began to 
supply the Allied Nations with frozen meats and 
hides. So, in a word, the roar of the cannons in 
Europe during the war seems to have awiikened the 
"giant asleep". It will take him many years yet 
to fully rise, but he is moving faster eacli day. 

It may seem at first as though I have not as 



yet told of the op])ortnnities in Brazil, but does not 
what has Ix'en saiii ali-eady justify the title of this 
article? Can there be better or more opportunities 
elsewhere, than in a vast and rich country awaken- 
ing to in<hisiii:il ]u-ogress during a time when more 
help from and cooi)eration with other countries 
is needed? 

OplMirtunities aic almost unlimited in any 
blanch of work you may be interested in. Xew rail- 
ways are being built while the old are being im- 
proved; rivers are being dammed and waterfalls 
utilized for i)roduction of electrical energy; projects 
have been approved for the electrification of two or 
three of the most important railroads; roads are be- 
ing oi>ene(l throughout the country; and cities are 
being rebuilt with the most up-to-date conveniences. 
Mines are being discovered and coal has been found 
and is being mined though on a small scale as yet. 
Land is being cultivated and factories are being 
erected. So, there are plenty of o|p[)ortunities for 
the engineer, for the cheiiiist, for tlie farmer, and 
for the btisiness man. 

The gates of Brazil are open to tiiose who ar(» 
willing to help tlieni selves by helping us. A capable, 
honest, and earnest American is always welcomed 
to oui- country, and I do not think I exaggerate if 
I say that an .Vnierican is always more welcome 
tiiaii a Euro|iean, for after all. South America and 
North America are parts of the same continent. We 
have many characteristics of our North American 
brothers and our social customs, although, molded 
after those of Europe, are now hardly dill'erenl from 
those of tliis country. 

The ICuropean war has no doubt i)l;iyed a great 
|iart ill tlie strengthening of tra(litional friendshi]) 
between oiii- countries, for, although (piite handi- 
cajijied at lii-st liecanse of our ditfereiit business man- 
agement and our ililfei-ent tastes, the American man- 
ufacturers have taken great pains to study these 
ililference and tiiey have, in a very reniarkal)le way 
easily succeeded in satisfying us to almost the full 
extent. Trade between our countries has increased 
very markedly during the la.st five years, and there 
is nothing that can bring two countries to better 
understanding and more wholesome ties of friend- 
ship than tills nnitiial cooperation. 



"I am not much of a mathemat i<-iaii."" said care- 
lessness, "but I can .VDI) to your troubles, 1 can 
SUBTH.\(T from your earnings, 1 can MULTIPLY 
your aches and |ialiis, and 1 can DH'IDE your at- 
tention. I can take ! XTEKEST from your work 
and I>IS("(>rXT your chances for success. 

The Center Punch. 



Mining of the Upper Mississippi Lead and Zinc Ores 



1'. I). IJrcKv, mill. 'I'l 



'I'lii' (rriii niiiiinji is licrc iiscii in llic lir<i.i(l i-ciisc I. Where jiiiil liiiw dues ore ((cciir? 

;is iiieliKiiiii;, |ir(is|)ect iiij;. e.\ca\ .-il ion, ami miliiiiii'. II. W'lml is llie mellioil eiii|il(iye(l in jtical iiii;- 

.Miniii;^ is an aiicienl (pceii|pal ion. Inil it is ever ore lioilies llial can he wori'Ceil at a ]n-olit ; i. e. the 

chanj^in:; ami ohlaininj; a new lease on life wlieii methoil of |iros|)ec1iii};? 

seeniiiijily al)oiil to die in a jjiven district. New III. How is the ore veiiioved Iroiii llie iindi'i-- 

iiielalliii-<;ical processes and inodei-ii iniiiint!; iiietliods jiioniid : i. e. the ininiiig method? 

are the eli.vei-s wliicli seem to iierpetnate the youth I\'. IJow is the oi-e prepared foi- the market; i. 

of (he miiiiiit; industry. This article cannot cover e. what is the niilling method? 

the entire lield of lead and /.iiic iiiiniiif;'. However I It is an accejited fact amoni;' the ^('olo>;ists and 

will eiideaNor to uive the reader a general idea as to miniii" men that the ore ()euosits of this district are 



P/TCHE3 <f FlHT^ 



JyrE3 OF D^P03IT3 
DlSSCMINHT^D 



OecviCE. 





ne. 1. 



ne. £, 



ri6. 3. 



how iiiiniiiL; operations are carried (Ml with reference due to the de|iosilioii of ores liy the circuhiliiig 
to these two metals. {ji-ouiid watei's of this district. The tyjies of ore de- 
The civil, electrical, or mechanical eiiiiineer posits met with are termed, crevice depo.sits, honey- 
may liml many lields in the iiiiiiiiif' -ame for the ex- f"'»l> veins, pitches and flats, and disseiniiialed de- 
ercise of his talents. The inimpiiif-' of water, con- posits, (see illustration ) . 

struction and upkeep of tracks, and mechanical dilli- A crevice or -ash vein deposit is due to the de- 

cnlties of power transmission, all are problems position of zinc and lead ores in a |)re-existins fis- 
whicli lia\(' lieen oNcrcome to a lar.nc extent, hut in 



all these lines there is still i^reat oportunilv for 
impros cmeiil . 

The zinc ami lead deposits of the riip<M- .Missis 
sijipi \'alley lie in the southwest jiortion of Wiscon 
sin and in adjacent parts of Illinois and Iowa. The 
mines of this district were worked as e;irly as KilMt 
and a (ri|> to some of the old woikini;s around Dn- 
l)U(]Ue is of much interest. Uiirini; l'.)l!t the district 
jirodnceil ahoiit (III, 000 tons of Zinc ore and ahont 
10,000 tons of lead (U-e. 



sure or crack in the surface of the earth. Tlu' 
water has, hy dissolving the rock, wideiu'd the crack 
and has tiiially dejiosited ore in the enlarged open- 
ing. These ga.sli veins are much in evidence and can 
he noted in a great many jdaces in the mines. 

.\ honeycomh \ein may he detineil as an irregu- 
lar ore hody found .at the intersection of an ore 
horizon with a xcrtical tissiire. 

I'itches and flats. Fig. 1, form ,aii interesting 
type of ore hody hotli from the staiid|ioiiit of geology 
and miiiiiiii. On this tvpe the action of the ground 



water is readily traced and deiiosits of this kind are 
The average student will prohahly ask himself r.ither rich, 
the following questions: A disseminated deposit, Fig. 1', is one in which 



Mai/. I'J21 



TH1<: TECHINOGRAPH 



161 



tlic oie is (lisseminatcd throiijrii tlii' rdck in siiiall 
t|ii;nititii's. 

Ill piosiiectiiig for zinc ami lead ores we make 
use of the knowledge and experience of men like F. 
(). Buckley, N. S. Grant, H. Foster Bain, and others 
who have written extensively njyon these ore de- 
|)osits. They conclude that lead hecaiise of its lesser 
s(diil)ilily in water than zinc lias ira\i'lcd down- 
ward with tlic gi'oundwater and has liceii precipi- 



^ 




PL/J'-i OF 5/ii9rT 




Fig. IV. 

tated in ca\ities at or above the oil rock, which he 
cause of its chemical composition acts as a |irc(i]ii 
tant for the snjihides in aqueous s(dnlion and also 
licia\ist' it is non-porous we should not expect to 
tiiid ore deposits in a horizon below it; tliongh in 
certain cases a crevice may let some thinngh. 

Another consideration pointed out by eminent 
f>i'(do};ists is the relation of topograjihic features to 
the occurence of ores. It is an observed fact tliat 
the s])ace beneath synclinical or trough like struc- 
tures is a favorable place for the retardation of the 
flow of water, the precipitation of ores and consc- 
(piently the formation of ore bodies, 'fhis fact is 
l)Ut to good use in prospecting foi' ores in Ironghs, 
synclinical, and canoe shaped basins. Tlii' method. 
however, of really determining what yon ha\c nn- 
dergronnd if the surface indications are good is hy 
a vertical shaft, shallow test pit, or churn drill. The 



churn drill is commonly used in the district because 
of speed in drilling and the low cost per foot drilled. 
The cost now is |.7o per foot. By the use of this 
drill we drill into the earth, take out a small jior- 
tion of what is there, examine and analize it, ami 
then i)ass onr opinicui as to the relative worth of the 
material nndcrgronnd. It ninsl not be taken for 
granted that one or excn ten holes determine an ore 
body. The iimnhci- of drill holes required depends 
on the nature of the deposit and the experience of 
the man in charge of the drilling oi)erations. Enough 
holes must be drilled so that the ore is fairly well 
outlined, and so that a large enough quantity of 
ore is assured to pay for installation of machin- 
ery, and mining and treatment of the ore, and a 
fair return on the cajiital involved. 

When you have ol)taiiied and are fairly certain 
of the existance of a large enough ore body, the 
next question that presents itself is the removal of 
ore. T^nderground work includes not only the ac- 
tual removiil of ore, hut also development woi-k, 
which consists of driving tunnels, raises, and wings. 
whose purpose is to segregate lean from rich oi'e, to 
provide means for the trans])ortatioii of ore to the 
shaft, and to provide further information as to the 
extent and value of the deposit. In this district ow- 
ing to the character of the (le])osits development 
work is rarely more than two months ahead of act- 
ual mining. 

The ores lie at depths of from SO to \:M feet and 
the method of getting to them is by a vertical shaft 
of the single or double compartment type. The shafts 
are usually sunk according to the center or V cut 
system, Fig. -1, and are 10 to 1.^ feet lowei- than the 
mine level to provide foi' a drainage sump from 
which the mine water is pumped to the surface. 
Cribbing or support for the sides of the shaft is 
used only for a short distance and nsually consists 
of conci'ete down to the ledge. From then on the 




l''!R. v.— I'riiiu'rs 

rock is (d' g I chaiacler. being solid rock which 

|)rescnls no ditficuKies to the miner. After one 
shaft li.is been sunk and the mine has been worked 
to sncli an extent that the cost of ore transportation 
to that shaft is excessive, another shaft is sunk and 



Ui2 



THE TErHXOGRAPH 



Mdi/, nt.21 



the mill is iiiuvcil IriiiM ilic olil sIkiIi \i> iIic m-w (inc. 
\\'li('i-c a sccMiiil shall is iii't'ilcd llic shall is mil sunk 
ri-tiiii the iii|i (liiwii liiil riom \\u- IkiIIomi np. When 



^rcc. The cDsi per loiii liir i-aisinj; a slialt is ahoiit 
Ihal of siiikiii;; dim'. 
Many tviics ol' idck drills lia\c hccii used. The 



Tile iii'i>c('f(lm<' Itillowcil in shall raisiiiL; may 



a sliaft is cxcaxali'il in lliis maiintM-, il is ii-i-mci| a "rislDii diill" in which the drill sleel is connected 
raise. clirciily In I he |(isl(in has lieeu rei)laceil 1o a large 

extent hy the haminei- drill in which the drill steel 
is not connected to the |iisicni but rests against the 
lace III' ihc rock and on which the piston acts as a 
hairinicr. The liaiiinici- drills nninnl'actiired liy the 
IngersollHand Coiiiiiany are efficient machines and 
well liked hy the miners. The depth of hole drilled 
will vaiy with the kind of rock, character of rock, 
and size of the opening in which drilling takes jilace. 
Holes however are rarely drilled over Hi feet in 
dejith in stopes. While in drifts and tunnels, drill 
steels ten to twelve feet in length ai'e often used 
and these generally give and axcrage advance of 
eight feet. 

Holes for lilasting iPiir](oses must he jilaced. 
loaded and tired scientifically, so as to get the niaxi- 
nnim \aliie from the explosive and the time spent in 
di-illinu. A skilled minei- iilaces loads ami lires hides 




Prospecting with Churn Drill 

lie e.\]ilaineil ,as fnllows: .\t the new lncalinn and 
from the surface a liore hole is put down liy means 
of a churn mill. .\\ the aliii\e hole a temjiorary three 
post head frame is erected and a steel cable passeil 
through tile above hole lo the underground wmk 
ings. The cable .snjiports a jilatform on which the 
drilling machines are j)laced and which can be 
raised ami lowered to any desii-ed height. The plat 
form plus the maehiiies and men is hnisted iuln the 
drilling position the ])latform \\edged lightly iiitn 
j)!aoe and drilling commenced. When diilliug is 
finished, the holes are loaded, wedges removed, fuses 
lighted and ]datforni and men lowered. The use 
of this mefhoil does away with the high cost of 
shoveling in a small shaft and gives a clear sjiace 
for drilling operations immediately after the smoke 
of the shot has cleared ; thereby increasing the speed 
of raising and efficiency of workmen to a marked 





Mining by Bench System 

•<cieiililically e\cn though he would ]probably feel 
[ilVeiided if you inlormed liiiii he did it ihat way. 

The ex|)liisi\e used in the district cniitaiiis 



Mai/, 1921 



THE TECHXOGRAPH 



163 



4(K; iiiti-ofjlvceriue. There is tisiinlly a store lioiise two sticks are ailded I lie second time and tlie above 

or iiia<;aziiie on the surface at a safe distance from proceednre repeated. 

the mine and adjoinin- property in wiiich several rj.^^^ si<etches <;. 7. an,l S iUustrat.. the -eneral 

m.mth-s supply is kept. Underground ,s locate.l a j,,,,,j ,,,. ,,^,.,„,„i„„ ,.,„,,,oved in the .li.striet. 

small maoazine capable of h<.ldin- a day's supply of ^^.,,j,.,, „,.,^. ,,,. ,|,,^,.,.i|,i.,i .^s follows. Ahm- a devel- 

])owder, caps, and fuse. o|,meut drift between two sections picked out for 

The method of loadiuj; a hole is as follows. lOacli jiillars a raise is di-iven which goe.s to the top of tlu' 

stick of dynamite before being idaced in the h(de is ore. From the top of the raise a heading is driven 



1 


-1 — — ■ _ 


Teiic4 


r 


Oerz 


3 


jie£ 









: 






— 











Pig. VI 




Plrn or HoEKir\'6s 
Fig. VII 



Section Tneu'flB " 
Fig. VIII 



first sliced down the side with a knife so liiat when 
forced against the back end of the hole it will s])rea(l 
out to cover the entire cross-section of the hole. It 
is then stuck on a (5 inch copi)er needle which is 
fastened to a long wooden bar and forced against 
the back end of the hole. After a sutficient number 
of sticks have been loaded the primer or cartridge 
containing the cap and fuse is inserted. (Three 
nietliods of making primers are shown in Fig. o). 
The primer is followed by two or three sticks of 
dynamite and loose dirt. The loose dirt which is 
put in at the front of the hole is termed the stem- 
ming, it serves to keep in the ga.ses fornu'd by the 
burning tliereby increasing the cM'iciency of e.\]ilo- 
sion. 

A\'hen all the holes of a ro\ind arc loaded, the 
fuses are cut to ditl'ereut lengths so that the e.xplo- 
si\c in each hole will explode in the order determined 
by the driller. Shots are usually tired at the end of 
a shift so that the gases may be cleared before the 
men return to work. 

The actual mining metliod is best illustrated 
by the Figures (1. 7, 8. In the longitudinal vertical 
section (Fig. (>) hole A is a scpiilibed hole. It has 
more work to do than any of the other holes, and 
therefore the back end of the hole is enlarged so that 
it may hold more powder. The method of enlarging 
oi' s(|uibbing the hole is as follows. When drilling 
is completed, a stick of dynamite is inserted in the 
back end and fired, this enlarges the hole at the 
back end. The hole is then cleaned of the loose 
material caused by the shot by inserting a cast iron 
|)ipe in the hole till it reaches the back end and 
blowing conipi'essed air through the liipe. If <>ne 
slick of ])owder does not enlarge the hole enough. 



which at this stage is only a tunnel or drift. (Fig. 
(i|. This heading is always kejit at least ten feet 
ahead of the stope or bench and is widened and 
curved to conform to sections allowed for ])illars. 
In the plan of workings. Fig. 7, the heading H. will 
be driven to ccniform to the section of pillars I', 




Fig. IX. 

and IV. The jiillars will have the same cross-sec- 
tion from i-oof to floor, ("ai'e is exercised in shoot- 
ing the bench so as nol to destroy the |)illar. It can 
be readily seen that wiicn holes I, '1. :!, 4, in Fig. 
(■), are fired there will be a nuiss of broken ore dust 
where the bench was and the bench will have moved 
ahead. Tracks are laid np to the loose material and 
it is then shoveled into ore cars or cans which hold 
about 10(10 pounds of material and when loaded are 
l)ushed by hand to a parting by the shoveler and 
then hauled to the sliaft either by mule or electric 
locomotive. The hoists in this district are rapidly 

(Concluded on page 183) 



Factors Relating to the 
and Use of Power for 



Economical Generation 
Blast Furnace Plants 



I,, r.. I'.i;kI':ih.(i\ ::. lu. c. '11 



The powiM- n'(|iiir('iii('iits nf :i l)hisl rmiiacc 
]il,inl ami ilic fiviu'ratioii of a lar.uc aiiKiniii n\ \>n\\rv 
Iriuii I lie ,uas iccovfi-cd li-dni I lie rurnacc as a liy 
|]|-(iiliicl iircsciils a scries <ir iiilcrcst iiii; anil xaricil 
lirolilciiis lor llic pdwcr <>\- plain cii-inccr, ll is llic 
liiii-liosc of lliis article to Inicllv luiicli iijioii tiicse 
jH'oliU'liis wiliiiMit any ani'ni|il lo discuss llie (lesii;n 
or (iiK-ratiiin »( tlie I'nrnace. 'i'lie lilasi inrnacc ile- 
]pai-tnient is usually acconipanieil wiiii a by |iv(.ilnct 
cdi^e plant. ()])eii hearth and rollinu mills ilejiart- 
menls. ail nf wliich have hy|)r<idncts nseful to geii- 
eiate iiuwcr. The risiii<i costs of coal, dillicnlties of 
ti-aiis|iorlatioii. and the ])ossil(ilily of closer niarjiiiis 
of profits have (piiekened the elVort to utilize all 
availalile heat units. It seems |)rol.alile that the 
])lant of the fnlnre, consistiiiii of the above dei)art- 
inents. will lie .so designed that no fuel excepting 
coal for the coke plant need lie hiought in as there 
will be .siiltifieut c-oke for the furnaces; small coke, 
breeze and blast furnace gas will be used under the 
boiler.s; coke oven gas and tar in the open hearth 
furnaces. The conditions surrounding each plant 
vary considerably and each case must be considered 
sei)arately. For a plant having the full comi)lenients 
of departments and no existing power plant to con- 
sider, the prejiaration of detailed calculations and 
estinuites covering operations and costs lias con- 
vinced the writer that all the jiower necessary may 
he piodiiccd coinniercially without the bringing in 
of fuel other Ihan the coal for the coke l)lant. To 
discuss this statement <m Ihc basis of an .assumed 
design of a complele plant would rc(piire great 
length and will not be atteniitted here. 

Tlie most economical coke blast furnace to build 
and operate on the basis of cost p;'r ton of inm 
produced is the large furnace, having a bosh diaTii 
elei- of .1- feel and being !)() feci in hciglil from the 
iron notch to the stock line, if there lie ,i market for 
the iron when the furnace iiins continuously, ("on- 
tiiu)us operati(Ui is very important in the matter of 
cost i)er ton. Although, this si/,c of fninaci' is rated 
at ."01) tons ])er 1'4 liours. its luoilucl ion will depend 

(Ml liie kind of ir lesired. characteristics of the 

chargcil materials and the rale of driving .and the 
burden, wliicli is the lechnical expression for regii 
lating the dilVereul materials used in the charge 
and the |)ro|>ortions of each according lo ihcir res- 
pective chemical conii)osilion lo bring abiml the sue 
cessful oi)eratioii of llie furnace and to proilnce llie 



kind of iron desired. Itiast and gas volumes for as- 
sumed a\erage coinlilions f(U- the dill'erent rates of 
]iroc|iiclioii are shown in I'ignre 1. The blast ])res- 
sure is compose<l of llie pressure drops through the 
(■(dd IdasI main, sto\c. hot blast main, tuyeres, fur- 
nace charge, aii<l the ]iressure recpiired to force the 
gas from llie furnace through the gas cleaning e(|ui|i- 
ineiit and the gas mains. The pressure reipiired at 
the liiyeis will deiiend on the design of tlie furnace, 
liiyers. etc. and is usually specified largely from 
|iiactice liy the engineer who desigus the furnace. 
bill at raling mi the .")llll ton furnace will be between 
U and 1.") lb. per sq. in. gauge. The pressure losses 
with 4t>,(U)() cubic feet through the cold blast main 
should not be over one pound; through the stove 
and hot bl.ast main from tj to Vu pound friclicui 
loss, thereby making the required pressure at the 
blower about Hi lb. gauge for the usual operation. 



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Fig. I. 

however, the Idower slioubl be cajiable (d' delivering 
l'."p lb. in an emergency in order to take care id' a 
••sick" furnace. 

Sliives for heating the blast are highly devel- 
iqied regenerative heat transfer equipment. These 
consist of a cylindrical steel shell lined with lire 
brick which forms .-i number of flues or passages ar- 
ranged in two. ihree or four passes. The furnace 
g,-is is burned at I hi' bottom, the products id' com- 
bustion ir.iM'l through the jiassages and go out at 
Ihe slo\e cliimne\. and the blast forced through in 



Mai/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGEAPH 



165 



the ()|)|i(>sitf clircction; l)iit tlic (wo (ipcrutions do 
iiol occnr at tlic smiiic time. Due lo certain iiliciioiii- 
ciia occurring in tlic liirnacc, more fncl can lie 
saxed than is necessary for tlie iirodnction of the 
Ileal hronj^lit in by liot blast, and tlie inore the 
bl;ist is heated the cooler the top of the liirnace 
becomes. Each additional 100 dejj;rees temperature 
ill tlie blast will decrease the coke rate per Ion of 
iron from 50-(i0 ](onnds. For that reason it is desired 
to maintain as hif;ii a blast temperature as consis- 
tent witii stove maintenance and cajiital cliarjjes. 
Tlie present trend is to have fewer, lari^ei-. and more 
ert'icient stoves jx'i- rnrnace which in turn allows 
more gas to go to the power system. One of the 
latest stove eciuipiiients consists of three four jiass 
stoxcs, the checkerwork of each jiass decreasing in 
size to correspond to tlie drop of temperature of the 
heating gases, of ll'S,.")!) s(|. ft. U.S. each. I']acli is 
cai)alih' of heating -tO.OOO en. ft. of air to i;!00 deg. 
1'. for two hours with chimney gases at ."JOO deg. F. 
with an apparent tliermal etticieiicy of \yi percent as 
against (iiJ-77 percent for the older tyiies, neglecting 
radiation in both cases. Stoves for basic iron will 
consume about :>:> jiercent of the total gas produced, 
for foundry iron about ."iS ]iercent, the rest being 
available for jiower. \\"\\\\ liot diy gas and efficient 
hiirners tjiese tignres will be somewhat reduced de- 
pending on the cii-cnnistaiices. 

Xearly one half of the total heat of the coke 
inlroilnced into (he furnace is contained in the hy- 
product gas as it comes from the top of the fur- 
nace. The a nnt of gas produced and its com 

position will dep<'nd on the rate of driving, blast 
volume, ,-ind burden, but foi- an assumed case as 
shown ill Figure 1., the only combustible is the CO 
which becomes CO^. The calorilic power is low due 
to the large iierceiitage of nitrogen and \arys from 
S7 to 08 B.t.u. per en. ft. with the average in this 
conntry of about '.):; IJ.t.n. per en. fi. at standard 
conditions. The gas leaves the furnace at from :>()()- 
47.") (leg. F. with a jiressnre of lli -;{.") inches of water. 
The heat contained in the gas at these temperatures 
increases the calorilic power of the gag from 4.5 to 
8.0 percent. In general, 150,000 cubic feet of gas pei- 
ton of iron produced or in a 500 (on furnace at 
rating about 5:!,000 (aibic feel of gas per minute are 
appro.vimately correct and for the pnrjjoses of cal 
culation, both volumes being at standard conditions. 
This gas ju-essure is utilized to force the gas through 
the gas cleaning e(|uipmeiit and usually through (he 
gas mains to the boiler liou.se. The gas should be 
(lelivei-ed to the gas biii-ners at the boilers at a pi-es 
sure of not less than six inches of water. The pres- 
sure loss through the gas cleaning e(|niiini<'nl and 
mains should be as low as the efficient cleaning of 
the gas will permit in order that a top pressure iiny 



higher than absolutely necessary will not build up. 
A pressure loss of from 1 I to L'4 inches of water is 
not excessive. 

The blast furnace gas as it comes from the 
fui'uace contains fi-om .'I (o 10 grains of dus( con- 
(ent and aboiH (i.5 grains of moisture per cu. ft. 
There are two types of gas cleaning (Mpiipment, 




Fig. II. — Sectional View of Boiler Unit, Ford Plant 

namely, wet cold and hot dry, and they may utilize 
one or more of the following ]irinciples; tempera- 
ture rednclion, sudden i-ednction of velocity, sudden 
cliaiige of direction, cenlrifugal force, increasing the 
weight of the dust particles by water, filtration, or 
electrical means. The gas cleaning is usually carried 
out in two stages — primarily and tinal. The pri- 
mary stage usually consists of the dnst catcher 
which opeiates on the hot dry change of direction 
l)rinci|)le and will extract about 1 ■; of the total dust 
content mostly, however, composed of the larger 
particles. AVet washing is accomplished in towers 



Kili 



THE TKCHNOIJKAPH 



May, 192J 



<ii- iiiccliiinicil waslicrs. In mic Ivpc nl' idwrr Ilic ciiMas l);ij;s has ln-t'ii iiscil lu somh- cxlciil in ( icr- 

«al('r falls <ivi'r staj;j;i"iH'il slals or lialt'lcs niin^iin^ rnan\ nnly. The Klin-i-Wcildlciii di-v };as ck-auer 

with till' ;;as and cai-rvin}; the dnsl particles ddwii passes ilic yas lliroiif^li mats tilli'd willi sti-cl wool 

I" a sump. ]ii anotluT tvpc Ilic walcr is liiokcn np nn \\ liicli ilic dnsl pailiclcs collfci ilnc in mai;nctic 

liy iwolviii}; scrreiis, sprayinj; or atonii/.inL;. 'I'licsc alliariion i-atiici- llian Ilic lillialiipn iirincipic A 

typi's will use Crom O.! to 10(1 yailons nt water al III li. p. nioinr easily dri\cs t lie opeiat iiij; nieclianism- 

."Ul to .")() II). per s(|. in. per l(M)(t cii. I'l. of yas cleaned. llial licin.i; llie only cliarjic licsides maiiileiiaiice. 

Mec-hanical washers fjive the f;as a wliirliiii; iiiolion The electi-ical precipitation nielhod has noi as yet 

eitlier tiirowiii}; the dnst particles inio a rcxohiiiii; jiroveii satisfactory, commercially. 'Phis iiielliod will 

stream ow water or wliii-linji the i^as and waler in use about KMl k.w. contiiioiislv for the 500 ton fur- 




Fig. III. — Bird's Eye Wew of completed Blast Furnaces 



a line misi to^cilier. .Mechanical washers will use 
from 17 to :!l gallons of water jicr lodil cu. fi. of 
gas cleaned and from A)'2 to .07 kw. Iirs. Willi low 
ers tlie dust content will be reduced to (i.lii to 0.;!1 
gr. per cu. ft. in the various types, and with mech- 
auical washers to 0.07 to 0.2y gr. per cu. ft., how- 
ever, the latter have rather high opei-ating exi)eiises. 
In all wet washers the gas is cooled to approximately 
(50 to SO deg. F. causing a direct sensible heat loss of 
about 8 percent. The sludge from these cleaners is 
also hard to handle propei'ly. Hot dry cleaners op- 
erate on the centrifugal principle, filtration, or by 
electrical means. In the whirlie type the gas is car 
ried by its own pressure through a special <lesigned 
throat which imparts a ra])id whirling motion fol- 
lowed with a complete change of direction. I'snally 
about three of these are in series. Filtraiion ihionuh 



iiace. (ias for the stoves slioiihl liax'c less ihaii I). I'll 
gr. per cu. ft. dust content, and while boilers may be 
operated on dirty gas, it is not now commercially 
advi.sable. The niaxiuiuni boiler load is dependent 
to a certain extent on tlie dust content and the limit 
is reached with small boilers on dirty gas at about 
11).") ])ercent load and one tube blowing each shift. 
To illustrate a case in which washed gas is consid 
I'l-ed to raise the boiler load, the HOO ton fninace 
is ca|)able of generating ulOO H.h.]). which al \i\') 
|)ercenl would reijUiTe olOO B.h.p. installed. If the 
boiler load were raised to -00 percent say, 2(il)0 B. 
h.]). installed would do the work, the loss of sensible 
heat at the boiler house would amount to about o 
l)ercent and cut the evaporation 2()() B.h.p. which at 
.''itO.OO each li.h.]>. would make a loss of about ^<l(t. 
(HKI besides tlie extra cost of the cleaning eipiipnient 



Maij, IU21 



THE TP]CHNOGRAPH 



1()7 



so 1li:il llic s;i\inj^ of uiic boiler iiiij^lil he :i ii<';i\v 
loss. \\\\\\ liol dry .^iis clcjUH'd lo liood clficiiMicy 
and Willi i-casiinahii' cosl. Iiii;licr lioilcr loads may 
l)e farrit'd and a <i('"»»l in'olit sliow ii o\ci- ijic ciilirc 

installation. Di'iicndiny npon tlit- ly] I' lioilcr and 

«lic scllini; lo a lai-j;c cxlcnl, llic lar.^iT liii' lioilcr 
]'atinji llic cleaner llie i;as slioiiid he. in general, 
howt'vei- O.l-'ll i;r. |iei- en. I'l. is considercil snlVieieiil 
wliicli t;i\es a Inlic lilow inj; each Inrii or less. 

In lliis eoiineclion a dcsoriiit ion ot one oT llic 
lalesi liol dry yas clcaninji- c(|ui])nienl iMi.!;lil lie ol' 
jntercsl. Tliis dcscri|ilion is taken in j^cnci-il Ironi 
an ai-liele liy (he \\i-ilcr pnlilislicd in the Animal 
J\c\ic\v nniiilicr of the Iron Age of •lauuary (i. lilL'l, 
which desciihed in detail the constnictioii and the 
test resnlls of the gas cleaning eiinipnient of the 
Ford Fuinaces at River Ronge. The photogra])hs 
illnsti-ate the aliove installation. Every precaution 
to insiH-e a niiuiuiuni amount of dust content in the 
gas at the stoves and Iioilers was taken in the de- 
sign. Tlie top of the furnace is equipped willi a 
patented donneomer whereby the gas is taken ver- 
tically upwards for a certain distance and the two 
downcomers hroiight together through a special cast- 
ing before being taken downward fi-oni the furnace 
thus throwing some of the larger particles of coke 
back to the furnace. The two downcomers connect 
to a dnsi calcher of tlie hour glass design, in whicli 
the dnsI e\lract(«d by the dust catcher is thrown 
down thi-oni;li Ihe necU ol' Ihe hour glass inio Ihe 
lower hojipcr onl of Ihe palh of (he gas. l>'nini Ihe 
dust catcher Ihe gas is carried to a bank of whirlies 
consisting of twelve units arranged in four pai-rallel 
rows, there being three in series. From the whirlies 
the gas enters the KlingA\'eidlein l>ry <las Cleaner. 
The clean gas manifold of the dry gas cleaner is 
connected at one end to tlie stove gas main and at 
the other to the gas main leading to the boiler house, 
a distance of about 250 ft. The dry gas cleaner is 
built on Ihe unit construction ]ilan, each unit having 
a capacity of from 10,000 to 12,000 cu. ft. of gas jicr 
minute which in this case would I'cciuire live. Si.\ 
were installed (o iirovide a sjiare in case of emei-g- 
ency and to ^ive .i better cleaning efficiency. Each 
unit is e(|iiiped with the iMaunfaclurer's Slandai'd 
S(eel Wood .Ma(. The shaking niechanisni is located 
in a iient house directly above the cleaner bodies, and 
is driven by a high sjieed shaft running lengtliwi.se of 
the pent house. The anlomatic operation is obtained 
by a high sjiced shaft whicli actuates the cams, 
clutches and shakers arranged in single units over 
each shell, by which the hammer blows are delivered 
to the mats when the flow of gas through one cleaner 
unit is automatically cut otF for a predetermined 
interval of time .In this equipment alxnit 08,000 
pounds of dust was recovered each dav and the i-as 



left llie e(|iiipiiienl with a diisl content of O.IS-I gr. 
cu. ft. at standard conditions. .Ml the dnsi passing 
the cleauci' is easily passeil throngh a ;!00 mesh .scive. 
This means that about ISOO lb. of dust w.is carried 
|i,-is( (lie cle.-iiiiiig eipii]inieiil each d,-iy in the 72 mil- 
lion en. 11. ol' j;as produced. This amoiinl of dust 
did not cause tronlile in the operation of Ihe boilers, 
however, a certain amount of dust was removed 
each day by tiie dust pockets of the g.is mains. 

The gas mains conducting the hot dry gas to 
the boiler hoiise must be of the larger diameter due 
to the volume at the higher temperature and should 
have some sort of insulating lining usually a low 
grade of tire brick, while with washed gas they 
may be about half the diameter ami uulined. The 
larger mains increase the capital expenses consid- 
erably, however, provided that the sensible heat thus 
conserved can be utilized efficiently, the increased 
ca]iital outlay may be retired within a comiiaritively 
short time, depending on the efficiency of the boiler 
operation, boiler loads, distances of transmission, 
number of furnaces, etc. In the case of a four fur- 
nace plant having the above items properly taken 
care of, this charge may be written off the books in 
about one year. In the installation described above 
the gas reaches the boilers at about 250 deg. F. while 
to the stove burners at about 275 deg. F. This 
i-epresents a saving of approximately four percent 
of total heat availalde in the gas as it leaves tlie 
furnace top. 

The ideal gas burnei- would ndniil al all (imes 
Ihe theoretically coi-rect ([uantities of air and gas, 
and comjdetely mix them, thereby ]»roduciiig a maxi- 
mum flame temperature at the point of ignition. 
A great numlier of burners of various designs have 
appeared but no one design seems to stand out from 
(he odier. All burners are of two types, namely, 
the aspirating type in which the air necessary for 
combustion is aspirated by the velocity of the gas, 
and the pressure type in which the air is sujiplied l)y 
a fan. In the formei' type the as])iration velocity 
stands in direct relation to the velocity in the mix- 
ing chambei- (irovided that all friction is eliminated 
wliich tends to absorb the aspirating effort, and to 
bnrii the gas with the minimum amount of excess air 
necessitates some sf>r( of draft relation since the gas 
inessure will vary with the irregularities of the fui-- 
luice o|iei'a(ion. Asjiii-ating burners founded on the 
veiitnri ]irinci])le seems to have given the best re- 
sults, however, no aspirating burner has ]>roven en- 
tirely satisfactoT'y. In the pressure burner the air 
for combustion is snp]ilied by a motor or engine 
driven fan, tiie speed of wdiich is controlled by the 
gas pressure. With a good regulator a burner 
efficiency of 99 per cent can be obtained with 



I(i8 



THE TEOHNOOKAPII 



Mati, 1921 



tlii'sc liiiincrs lor loiij; |ii'rii)ils. Tlic jHcssurc loud, while lor the |iiii|ioscs ol' j;ciici:il iiiiicli'cl rical 

iiiinici-. Miliiiil I iiii; llic :iii' ;iiiil yus in lliin nl- ciicruv 1 lie (•()iii])arisuii is more iilf;il I'oi- llic liii-hinc 

Icrii:il(' l.-iycrs willi ;i sli;;lil ilcl'lfil ioii lownril iiiiit. A comimi'lsoii sliowiiij; tiiiil one lv|ic oT unit 

tlif }{iis sliiMiiis ;jiii| willioiil iiilcriiiiiit;liii^ liilics is I lie (■coiioiiiic one Tor riiriiaco lilovvili^ l)\ no iiic;i lis 

will probalily jii\c llic licsi results ol' all llie iiivohcs the (■oiicliisinii that the same type is best 

hni'lUTs. Tests (HI lioilers lia\iliji setliilj^s have siili Tor llie i;eiiei-al ion ol elecliical eneii^y. 'I'hiis we 

staiitiated this \ie\v laifly well, hut tests on exislinu have the aihoeates of llie socalleil niixeil power 

stoves havi' iiol. prohalily tliie to the design of the plants. In a plant having; the lull eonipleiiient of 



coniliiist ion eliainlier, 
which had lieeii de 
sij;iied lor ot hci- liiifii 

CfS. 

The choice id' Idow- 
i 11 '^ o r ^eiicfal hiii 
eipiipnieiit should he 
made si rict Iv li-om an 
economic hasis. Tlic 
Ljas hlowinfi unit while 
slightly siiiiei-ioi- al m- 
iH'ar full load in tliei- 
uial etficiency to the 
sleam clrivcn tiirlio 
Idovver al the same 
load has several inher- 
ent cpialilies which 
must he cai-elully 
weighed. The gas en- 
gine is capable of only 
slight ovei-loails and 
very little change in 
spee<l. It is most ec- 
onomical at lull loads 
while at lesser loads 
Of ovefloa<ls the heat 
consiiinpt ion c ii r v e 
rises rapidly. It is 
necessary to wasli the 
gas to fit it for enirinc 



mills wliere excess 
power is necessary in 
addition to that gen- 
erated from the gas, a 
coniparison of unit 
power costs carefully 
made and taking iii- 
lo account all I'actiu-s 
as capital. o]ieraI iii.u 
and su|iervision char- 
ges, plant loads, etc. 
w ill show the econom- 
ic advisaliility of sel- 
ecting the steam diiv 
en tnrho lilower and 
the tiirho generator 
units, A coni|)arison 
made in detail by the 
writer for a plant hav- 
ing the full eoniple- 
iiient c)f dejiarlnients 
all eleclricallv driven 
resulted lavoraldy to 
the steam plant for all 
plant loads iireseiit 
and fiiliire. however, 
it ninst be pointed ont 
^ that each case must, be 
decided seiiarately in 
light of the snrronnd- 

iise. thereby sacrilicing about .") percent of the total ing circnnistances. In the steam plant within very 
heat of the gas due to the loss of sensible heat. In recent years, great improveiiients have been made 
jilants having (uily (uie or two rnrnaces due to the in the thermal elficieiicy of the aiiparatus thereby 
variations in the tpialitv and ipiantity of the gas it giving a iiinch better overall elficieiicy, and units 
is necessary to have gas producers as auxiliaries are now built of large ratings, while the iirogriv.s 
while with lour or more furnaces this is unneces in the gas engine has been comparatively slow. In 
sary. The initial investment is much larger wilh llie s(dection of the si/.e (d' units it must be (dearly 
gas engines than with Inrbo blowers, the cost of remembered thai llieelfect of lixed charges, so com- 
oi)eratiiig and supervision higher, and the deprecia moiily pidnted mit in reference to large units, de- 
lion due to the strains in the gas engine stand in iieiids cut i rely (Ui the load factor (d' I he jilaut. Creat 
the ratio .dS i.ercent as compared to .") lor the turbo- i^n-e slMuild ,ilso be lakeii in compiling the liasic 
blower. The tni'bo blower possesses relialiililv n( op- ''•''■i I"'' >^'i<li '■nuparisons as a large portion of the 
eration and has a comparativelv flat heat c.nisiinip- P"''";'"^'' li-^i"";"^ •"■c inaccurate. One blowing nnit 
,. ., ,.', , „, . capable ol caring tor each lurnace should be iii- 

tion curve over a wide raiifie (d loads. The coinpari.- . ,, , •,, •, !■ x • i i i ■ 

■^ stalled with one iinit for spare to iirovide blowing 

son of the two tyiies „f prime movers f,n- pundy ,..,,,.,,.5^,. ;„ ,..,,,, „,■ ,.,„e,-gencv. A gas unit of the 
furnace blowing is probably more ideal lor the .-as j,,.,,,,,.,. ^jy,. ^y[\] average about 2(U)() Hr.li.p. while 
engine than for the Inrbobbjwers, due to the steady th,. turbo Idovver will devidop about L'S.")(I Hr. 




Fig. IV. — Dust Catcher and Centrifugal Cleaner 



May, nmi 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



109 



The present trend is to ndopt complete steam ous operation at liij;li temperatures tlian at hi<;li 

e(piii)meut or a mixed system of gas blowing units pressures because for any given total temperature 

and steam generating equipment, with i)rol)ably tlie of steam more heat is available for conversion upon 

stronger tendency towards the former. Formerly e.\|iansioii to a ccrtaiu vacuum with liigh pressure 

no com])rehensive design of the ])ower plant or the and moderate superheats tliau with lower ])ressures 

distributing sy.stem was (-(uisidered necess,n-y, aud and high supei'lieats. Steam at LMl) lbs. and I'OI) deg. 

as a residt the ])ower house just grew until It housed superheat |ii-ol)ably repi-eseiits the latest practice. 

a number of small and inelficient units, but within 'I'lie trend is for large boilers with ecomimi/.ers \\\) 




Fig. V. — Dry Gas Cleaner and Stove Platform 



the recent years the electrical i-cMpiiremonIs have in- to 'ITMO H.h.|i. latings and large turl)iue units 

creased so rapidly that mechanical and electrical around I'D.IIIKI kw. .\ large nnnduM- of plants h.ive 

power engineering must follow a very broad |)(dicy .separate stoker tired and gas lired boilers on the 

and the design should be com]irehensi\'e of the |U-es- giound so that better ecoiKuny and lower mainten- 

ent and futur conditions. Tli power jilant if possi ance are secured. Tlu' writer does not agree with 

ble should be located near the center of the rnrnaee Ihis. unless, the boilei- settings are properly designed 

group to shorten gas and blast lines, and should to handle the two fuels. In the writer's experience 

house all e(pii]iment iiossible thereby cutting down .settings were designed for old verticil boilers for a 

the cajiital outlay, the super\ision and operating temporally power house to burn lour fuels, namely, 

charges. The boiler loom is usually arranged be- tar. blast fui-nace gas, coke oxen gas, ami coal tired 

tween the generating and the turbo-blower rooms. Iiy hand, aud good economy was obtained with the 

The trend in steam pressure is towards higher pres four fuels going at once. Pulverized coal for boiler 

sure lathei- than extreme superheat as it is more liring, which has been adopted only in one big plant, 

dillicult to design eciuipment to wi1lisl,-ind contin allows the u.se of a lower grade coal of lower cost. 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



May, 1921 



Mild llic 111 iliy,:ii inn <i\' ilic lokc lirci'/.c iiinl (Imiicslii- ol' llic |iiil\ crizcd coal (lie (•iriciciicy cin-vc is very 

cdUc (>r wliich .ilioiil I'OO III L'.'iO t(nis arc jiroiliiccd in llal rnmi ."((I lo 1(1(1 jxTccnl of ratiiis'. 
liic coke jilanl each day per rnriiacc. Willi pnlvcr- 'I'lic prcspiit Ircnd is to ficiicrntc al (Kill!) volis 

izcd coal all demands in excess oT ilial |irodiiced and lo Iransinit lo suh stal ions localed near the 

liv llie j;as on liie lioiler may lie mel inslaiitly willi load ceiilers ol' llie dilVei-eiil dcparl ineiils. 'PJie ]iei-- 

ease and without the heavy standby charf^es of tlie forma nee of anlomalic siiji slal ions in hydroelectric 

stoker tired hollers es])ecially where the load varies and railway work lias |iro\cii Ilia I I hey may he 

consideraldw ("oals haviii'i up to IT',' moislure and used to ciil down the lalioi- cliarj;cs liiil as yet haxc 




Fig. VI. — Dr.v Gas t'leaner — Close View 



227, ash can he nlili/.cMl at a cost of pi-eiiaral ion of not he adoiited lo any extent. Transmission at titJOt) 

iT) to 40 cenls per Ion and niainlain a furnace elfici volls is ecoiioiiiic,-il up to ahout six miles. The elec- 

eiicy of !IS |o !(!)', . The liijili leinperalure developed trical disi rihiil ion sysleiii should receive close study 

Willi- pulverized <-oal has made it dilVicult lo main ''^ H"' '"^^^'"'^ "I' 'ii>^lril'iil ion in most planis are .'X- 

tain the h<.iler setlin- hut used in cuijundion will, '"^^i^''- '" '""■ l'''"" i'lvesl ijialed by the writer the 



blast furnace 'f^us liaviuf; a lower flame leni|pcra I inc. 
th(^ resulting combustion space temperature is 
lowered sufficiently to maintain the brick work and 



losses a\('rai;(Ml o\-er IT'i and the salvage of llie old 
large cahles would have purchased all the new cop 
iier lor liigliei- voltage, hut would not inst.-ill it, and 



the \\h(de ch.irge could liave been retired from the 
at the same time the b.dlcr leuip.-ralnre rang., is |.^ .^^ |^,^^ ,|^^^^^ ,^^,^^ ^^^^^ ^,,,^ n.anagen.ent of 

increased thereby giving a higher thermal elVici.-ncy. ,1,,, i,,.,,,, i,^,,.,!!, r;,ils to" realize these lo.sses as they 

With 2/3 pulverized coal and 1 .■; bias! fni-nace gas ,|,, .ij,. |,,sses which make a noise or steam losses 

tlie tempera 1 11 re in the c(Uiibnsliou sjiace is .-iboiil wjiicli iii.iy be seen. The .")(l(l Ion furnace will have 

;M.")() F. Ill a boilci- Ihiis lired willi piopi'r handling from 1 1(111 lo KiOd II. 1'. ca]iacily of motors connecled 



Mai/. 1921 



THE TECBNOGRAPH 



171 



including all niaterial-haiKliinfi ciiuiiinient. The 
load factor is aroiiud 40',; and llic demand factor 
aroiiiid SO'"; of the coiiuected load. 

Fij;ni-(' - is a jiartial sectiou through the speci- 
ally Idiilt Ladd boiler installed at the Foi-d Kiver 
Kouge Plant. Each boiler contains l'f!,4T(t s(|. ft. of 
heating surface exclusive of superheater oi- future 
economizer, making in all aliont (ii , miles of 'AV^ 
in. tubing. 

The furnace is ap])roxinia1ely L'l! by L'4 wide 
inside and T).! ft. high above the ash pits. The com- 
bustion space exclusive of the ashpit is about .") cu. 
ft. per normal rated horsepower. The total height 
of the boiler from ash pit floor to top of the sujier- 
heater setting is Si) ft. 10 in. The superheaters are 
I)lace<l in the first pass of the boiler to protect them 
against the high tenijjerature and to avoid over- 
heating. The steam is generated at L;4() lb. gauge 
and I'OO (leg. superheat. The boilers will be tired 



with a condiination of blast furnace gas and pul- 
verized coal. It is expected that cue furnace will 
care for 150% rating on this boiler and all loads 
up to 45G% will be carried by the coal, the usual 
load will be about 250%. A pulverizing plant using 
air separation nulls will be installed and the coal 
will be fed to the boilers from this plant by screw 
conveyors. Eadi boiler will be equipped with 12 
"Lopulco" feeders and 4 "Lopulco'' triplex burners 
tiring the coal downward from the top. There will 
be eight gas burners of the |>ressure type for blast 
furnace gas which will inject the blast furnace gas 
horizontally through the side. The gas flame and 
the pulverized coal flame meeting at the proper point 
to greatly increase the efficiency of the gas burning 
and the overall combustion efficiency. The pulver- 
izing plant has not at this time been finished and no 
test results are therefore available on the condiina- 
tion of fuels. However, on gas this boiler has shown 
verv good i-esults for about four months. 



The Largest Municipal Lighting System in 

the World 



Ai; J. Stattiek, m. e. '21 



\\'ithiii the space of a few yeai's, the growth of 
elect lie street lighting systems has been phenom- 
enal. A good example of this unprecedented growth 
is that of the Municipal Street Lighting System of 
the City of Chicago. The growth of this system dates 
liack to the year of 18S7 when the lirsi iiiuni(i]ial 
electric light i)lant was establislied in the basement 
of a tii-e engine house located at Washington and 
Clinton Streets. This ijlant had its modest begin- 
ning witli 105 open arc lamps which served to light 
tlie i-iver front and the downtown streets. The ecpiiii- 
nient consisted of one 125 horse power steam engine 
and four ;{() light low tension arc dynamos. From 
tliat time on, the systeiii has grown by leaps and 
bounds until today it is the largest and most effici- 
ent Municipal Street Lighting System in the world, 
operating over 50,000 lamps. 

Until IflOS the power for the system was fur- 
nislied by a number of inuniciiial jilants located 
throughout the city, which used steam engines as 
|)rime movers. On July 15, 1!)07 a contract was 
negotiated with the Sanitary District whereby they 
wei'e to furnish the power for the street lighting, 
thus displacing the steam equipment. Changes in 



equipment for this transf(n inal ion wei-e comjileted 
about the middle of lilOS. 

The power is now generated at the Sanitary 
District's Hydro-Electric plant at Lockport, Illinois. 
Power is generated at tiOOO volts and transmitted to 
the distributing station at :!lst Street, and Western 
Ave. by means of ;{ three jihase 44,000 volt trans- 
mission lines su])[)orted <ui steel towers. This line 
is 291/) niiles long. From the distributing station, 
the energy is sent at 1200 volts by means of under- 
ground cables to the various substations located 
throughout the city. These sub-stations and uuder- 
gi'ound cables are owned and ojuM-ated by the city. 

1']) to this time the additions to the system had 
been along the line of flaming arc lamps. The rapid 
development of the nitrogen tungsten lamps, how- 
ever, soon demonstrated the s^ujieriority of this type 
of lamp -with the result tlmt all the following exten- 
sions were in the direction of gas filled lamjis. Con- 
siderable trouble was experienced with the flaming 
arc lamp due to the slagging of the carbons and the 
etching of the inner globes. This slagging resulted 
in an excessive nuudiei- of outages, and the etching 
of the globes residled in jtoor illumination. The 



172 



THE TECHNOGEAPH 



May, 1921 



1y|if 111' iiitroficii l;iMi|i used was :i liO aiii|)cic tKMI 
i-iiiulli> power. As all tlii' city siil>staf i(iii (M|iiiiiiii('iil 
was for 10 ampere circuils. an suitotraiisrorincr lo 
boost the cuiTciit was iiiomitcd in llic lixtiirc of each 
lump. 

In 1;HT, all Ilic rt'iiiaininj; arc lamps in'scivicc 
were rcmovcil and rcidaccil with fjas filled lamjis. In 
this case, however, 1(1 ampere lamps were instalicil. 
tlins eliminating any need for anio l raiisroimcis. 
Since the eircnils are si'ries, some means had lo he 
])rovi(led to (Mil the lam]i out of scr\ ice when it 
Imi-ncd out. in oriler to picveni the shntlilif; down 
(d' the cntife circuit. Tills was acconii)lishe(l hy 
e(piii)iiin,<; ea<-h tixture with a tilin socket. Thus 
when the i,im]i hums (Uit. the lilm punctures there- 
hy closing; the circuit. The lirst cost of this in 
stallation was imnh lower than tiiat of the I'd am 
perc lanijis. As the auto-transformers wear out, 
they are bein}^ replaced with these straight series 
fixtures for lamps which will oiierate al the current 
in the circuit. The installation <d' the yas tilled 
lamps also resulted in a .ui<'at savini; in mainten- 
ance as it is possible for one man to care lor almost 
as many lamps of this type as of arc l.iiups. 

Jn business districts, tlie lam])s ate sp,-iced stag- 
g-ered on lioth sides of the si i-eet and undefjifonnd 
construction is used. When the aerial coustriiclion 
is used, lamps are ])laced on one side of the sti'eet 
only. On some of the older residence streets, where 
the trees are well grown and would tend to obstruct 
the light, a system of underground cable with 100 
candle ]iower, 4 amjiere lamps nnuinted in opales- 
cent globes on old gas ])osts, has been installed. Be- 
fore the .streets were illuminated by electric lights, 
gas was u.sed. When the gas was displaced, a recep- 
tacle to hold the lamp ,ind globe which could be 

mounted on tl Id gas post, was designed, and the 

posts are now used for electric lights. The lamps 
are spaced about \TA) feet apart staggered on Itotli 
sides of tlie street. Tiiese himps are also e(piippi-d 
with tilm sockets and olierale at IL'.MI volts. .\s the 
center of the ligiit source is (udy 1(1 ft. C in. above 
Ihe ground, iitimerous cases of miscliie\-ous l)oys 
climbing the poles to renuive the lamjis presented 
themselves, often resulting in serious consecpiences. 
Many cases occurred of automoliiles knocking tlie 
jMists over and the peojde coming into contact with 
the dangennis ecpiipment. This resulted in many 
.serious accidents and in several deaths. '!"o eliunn 
ate this serious objection, a grouji lighting system 
was designed. In this system each circuit is really 
conipo.sed of several groujis of smaller ciicuits. .\ 
.")000 volt feeder supplies small I rausfoiiueis in ser 
ies with Ihe oOOO volt circuit. The 1 1 iiiisrormers are 
installed in manholes in the center of three or four 
gr(Ui]i circ\iits, thus reducing to a iiiiuiiiiiim Ihe 



amount ol cable and Ihe number of maidudes re- 
(piired. In this iiistallat ion. the ma.ximnni voltage 
to the ground is l.")0. .\nolher ilecided advantage in 
this system is th.it in case of trouble with a lamp 
rec(»i)lacle or of a post being down, only one group 
of IS lo :'.(l lamps is out of service, whereas in the 
oilier system, the entire circuit of 2~A) or oOO lamjis 
would be shut down. The lamps operating on the 
group system are a (i.(i am])ere 100 candle power 
type and are also eiiuipped with a film socket. 

In r.nii Ihe \oters of Chicago expressed their 
.approval of the floating of a .¥:j,7r)0,0()0 Bond Issue 
to be used for Ihe further extensions to the system. 
Work (Ml this bond issue was completed in the h'all 
of I'.ir.l. With (his nujuey :> new sub-stations w ere 
built and l!(l,000 lamjjs added to the system. 

The total nund)er of lamps in .service at the 
present tinu^ operated from ll' sub-stations is .").".,."):.' 1 
classified as follows: 

111 lamps L'O am|>ere 1000 candle power. 

1.1, ((Tl! Iain|is 20 ampere (iOO candle power. 

10, SSI lamps 10 amjiere (iOO candle ])ower. 

IS.S."))! lamps (i.ti ampere 100 candle power. 
S,(i()S lamps 4. amjiere 100 candle power. 

To carry out the work of nniintenance and con- 
struction satisfactorily, the Department of Electric- 
ity, which controls and operates the system, found 
it necessary to perfect an engineering organization. 
This force of uhmi surveys the city's street and defin- 
itely locates the i)osition of each lamp, prepares 
estimates and specifications for the various materi- 
als used, compiles accurate nm])s and idaiis. and su]! 
ervises all constrtictiou. 

The work id' maintenance is carried on by sev- 
eral groups of Mien. The city is divided into routes 
and a ]iali(dmau is a.ssigned to each district. It is 
his duty to pallid his route ever_y night and note 
the outages. Some districts ai"e patrolled with auto- 
mobiles while others are covered on foot. The next 
day the pal roliiia ii makes an inspection of the lamps 
that were out the previous night and makes neces- 
sary rejiairs to jilace them in service again. There 
are a large number of automatic hangers in service, 
by iiie.ius ()f which the fixture may be cut out of the 
circiiii and lowered to the street thereby enabling 
the paliolmau to make the i-ejjairs necessary to 
lilace the l.imp in service the same night. Con.sid- 
eiable trouble, however, has been experienced with 
the hangers, because rain, sleet and dirt frequently 
prevent release. 1 1 is the p(dicy of the department 
to remove these old llxtures and replace them with 
stalioiiaiy liaugeis as they wc.-ir out. If the cause 
of the outages is id' such a nature us to necessitate 
the sending of the lixtures to the shop for repairs, 
(he patr(dman telephones this fact to the office and 

(f'oiicluded on page 187) 



A Coal Pile 



C. C. Wiley 

Asxt. I'raf. of Hii/liinii/ l-Jiii/i nicriii;/ 

Tlicic lias rccciifly been iuldcd in llic cxliiliils of Eiigineci-iiiK was orijiiiially Ihirty feet long and 

llic J>('i)aitiiient i)f Civil Enginecriiij; a cuianiis and received abont tliirty lionrs of driving. Its present 

instrnctive specimen. It j;i\es a visible example of length is 8.5 feet. The npjier fonr and a half feet 

some of the difficulties of engineeriTig construction are ai)parently undamaged, but the lower part is 

and at the same time, indicates on a small scale the bulged out inio a bulb nearly two feet in diameter, 

niclamorphic processes of natui-e. This specimen is Part of this bulge is simply splintered wood, i)art 

a i>ile. Origimilly a sturdy stick of oak, thirty feet of it is pai-lly carboui/.ed. but a large i>r()portion of 

in length, but now only a stunted remnant less than it is a]i|)areully laiil ranging in ai>])earance from 

nine feci loiio with the lowei- portion expanded into that of anthracite coal down to bai'ely charred wood. 




an ungainly Imlb. Hut this is not all; the bulk of 
the bulb itself is to all a|ipearaiices comiiosed of 

C(t(tl. 

In 11)20, a grade separation between seven 
tracks of the Sante Fe H. K. and the State Highway 
neai- ( "hillicothe, Illinois, was undertaken. The plan 
of construction was to drive jjiles for a temporary 
trestle to carry the tracks, while the eai-th was ex- 
cavated and the i)ernmnent structure built. It was 
thei-efore essential that the piles be dri\cn to a deidh 
of about thirty feet. 

The piles were of .seasoiiecl oak and were |)ro- 
vided with a steel shoe and the nsual ring and jilate 
ca]) for driving. A hea\y steam hammer was used to 
di'i\-e them. The driving was \-ei-y difficult, and in 
many cases 2-1 to :>() hours of continuous hanuneiiug 
were necessary to get a i)ile down. .Ml of (he piles, 
however, apparently i)enetrated to the full depth, 
and it was not until e\ca\alion was started that 
anything unusual in the behavior of the |iiles was 
discovered. 

The tnalerial into which the piles were dii\cn 
was a well graded, compact bed (»f gravel free from 
boidders and lying above normal watei- level. N\'lien 
excavation was begun, it was found that many of 
the piles had failed to penetrate this bed. More 
than half of them had luickled, s|dintercd, oi' been 
compressed into all manner of slia|)es, and it was 
ultimately necessary to redrive over tM'yi of them 
in order to complete the structure. 

The pile received by the I)ei)ar(meut of Civil 



One of the i)hotographs herewith shows the 
entire pile and gives an excellent idea of the change 
in «hape. The secomi pliotograi>h is of a small frag- 
ment and shows it abont full size. On one side of 
this j)iece can be seen the filter and grain n( the 
wood, the only evidence of change being that the 
wood is dark brown in coloi-. ( >u the other side is a 
dense, black, blossy layei- of a]iparently high grade 
coal. In between, the mass shows all stages of 
transition. 

A |)iece of the coal is hard bi-ittle. and shows 
absolutely no (race of the gi-ain of the wo<i<l. It sinks 
in water, and while no accurate determination has 
been made, it has appro.ximately the weight of ordin- 




FiR. II, 

ary coal. II burns in the chaiiU'leristic manner of 
coal leaving a while ash. In no manner does it re 
semble charcoal, beinu heaviei-, denser, and free 

(foncliuleil on page 187 



AU REVOIR 



Witli tliis issue, the n\>cliii()gi-a|)li will luiw ;i])[)eiiic'd lor llic last time of tlii' f()ll('jj;iate 
year. 'I'lic year, ici^ardlcss of the diltienlties eiifountered, has been a most successful one. 
The sliicleiil liody and facidty have conti'ilnited niiselfishly and have j;i\('M their whole- 
he.irled sniipoil ; Ihe slalT lias, indeed, woi-ked in a most exemplary manner and is deserv- 
iu'fi of rec(if;ni(ion wiiieii the editor is incapidiie of expressing- in woi'ds. At the close of 
this school year the majority of the stall' will he i-elimpiishing their reins and Ihe Imrden of 
continnini; the same stan(hird and (piality in the Technograph will de\olve upon the i)resent 
juiuors and niiderclassmen. Let ine urge that everyone in the College of Engineering exert 
all hiis possible si)arc elVorls in behalf of this imblication. Tt can be made to assume, again, its 
position among the leading magazines of technical schools, a place that it occupied previous 
to Ihe war. It will mean work, but this slM)uld in)t he a hindrance when we realize the wealth 
of material conlainiMl in Ihe College of EngiiuH^ring. With hopes for a bigger and better 
'rechiiograph. 1 wish lo exjiress my appreciation to Ihe faculty, student body, and staff. 



IN APPRECIATION 



Allei' IS years of service rr<ifes:.(jr I. O. ISdau' has sent in his resignation to take effect 
Ihis snnimer. This is indeed a great loss lo the College of Engineering. His work in attempt- 
ing to imjiress upon us Ihe \alue of |ierseverance, initiative, leadership, individual thought, 
and execulive abilily has indeed been very elfeclive. His dei)artnre will be keeidy felt, but 
he will be remendiered bv all who know him. 



SENIORS! 



In .lime l:'.:'. seniors in Ihe College of fhiglneei-iug will take their deparlure and become 
alumni of this institution. The .severing of Ihe bomls that have sprung up between one an- 
other among tlie students and between Ihe slndents and the faculty will be a hard task. The 
faculty lias, indeed, .sacrificed much foi- us; they have shown a keen interest in us, and that 
interest will be numifested even in years lo come. They have exjn'esscd the desire to receive 
word from the alumni at frequent intervals. J I does seem as though it were the duty of each 
alumnus to keeji the ('(dlege authorities informed as to his change of occui)ati<m and resi- 
dence and other infornnition regarding himself so that a complete record of each man could 
be kei)t in the office of the Dean. This wonl<l no doubt prove beneficial lo bolli Ihe graduate 
and the college, and the selection of a class secretary for each deparlmeni would prove 
successful iji carrying out Ihis plan. With this scheme an annual Idler could be written 
bv each man llnis aiding iai the revising of Ihe College Records. ' 



Mill/, 1921 THE TECHNOGKAPH 



ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES 

111 nil earlier miiiibei- of the TecliiU)j;rapli was published an exhortation to increased act- 
ivity addressed to the newly elected officers of the various engineering societies; it pointed out 
the benefits to arise from their efforts. Whether these men took their cue from that editorial 
or not, the societies have experienced an activity which lias for years been unknown. As a 
result, the students of the College uf Engineering have taken advantage of the new opportuni- 
ties of meeting and knowing llieii- fellows and of hearing excellent speakers, and we hope 
they have profited thereby. In a lew weeks, officers will be elected to carry on the work of 
the societies next fall. If the students sliow eqnal ability in selecting the right men for lead- 
ership, we sliall see these organizations of tlie College of Engineering return to the same lion- 
oi'able positions wlii( li Ihcy held some years ago but from which they liad unliaiijiily fallen. 



A MEMORIAL 

The student engineering (ouiicil has sounded the Stadinin ciunmittee on I lie possibilities 
of erecting a memorial tablet in tlie Court of Honor to the students and aliinini of the ('ol- 
lege of Engineering who gave their lives in the service bf their country. Their service was of 
a unique kind, and was tyi)ical of the spirit that is generally displayed among engnieers. To 
these men no honor can be done wiiicli is great enough to express our appreciation for their 
sacrifice, the supreni(> sacrifice. The funds for such a memorial could l)e raised by pojiular 
sul)Scri])tion, and it is hoped that cNcryonc in the College will feci it a piivilcge to coiiti-ih- 
ute to so worth v a cause. 



WHAT DETERMINES? 



Are you going to be an engineer? yes, going to be, — but when? AA'hat determines? Will 
graduation make the senior an engineer? The-se (piestions cannot be exactly aiiswere(l. (>iie 
thing is certain, however. The sooner one identifies himsell' itii engineers the sooner will 
others recognize hini as (nie. ( >ii(' way is by bt'coniiug idenlilied with an engineering society. 
As a member. — a live niendier,- a man will meet with all tyiies of men, will be benefitte<l by 
some, and can, in turn, bcnelil otiiei-s to the influences of an engineering society, from taking 
an active part in the discussions, asking ([uestions, and being a ri<il UKMuber. To associate 
with others and take part intelligently in discussions, one must know wlial men are doing. 
The live engineers talk to each other, not only vocally, but through technical |ia|iers, and the 
constant habit of closely following discussions in tlie ju-ofessional magazines is a most valu- 
able one. By learning how others think ,iiid reason, and by knowing what is new. the engi- 
neering student can fullill (wo of the reiMiirenients of being an engineer. 



An engineer's handbook is to be ollci-ed as a ])rize I'oi- (he best article written by an tin- 
der-graduate for the first issue of I lie Teclinograidi next fall on summer work. This prize is 
similar to the one olfered last fall ami is worthy of t\\w consideration. Think of this during 
the summer. 



It was with iileasant suriirise (hat we learned of the marriage of C.. L. X. Meyer, the 
former editor (d' the Techiiogra|)li, (o Miss Edna Alice Zuerner of Milwaukee. The Techno- 
graph extends its deepes( felicitations. 



George Joseph Ray 



l"\ M. WiviiMii'. III. 



Sn|)|M)S(' \(inr iiiiiIIht \\:is coiiiiiii; here li> sec ils lciii;lli :iiiil licii^lil. Ilic ili'|>ili iil its riMiiMl:il inns 

you ^radiijitc, iind vnii li;iil proiiiiscil lo lalic Ikt aii<l llicvcrv iiijjcuioiis inctluMls iiscil in ils consl riic- 

liDiiii' lu .McliUiioi'M. illiiiiiis liic (lay allcr Coinniciicc- )j,,||. || js ilic largest concrete liriil-ic ever linill. lie- 

nieiil. 'I'hen rurtiiei- sii|i|iose (tliis will he ^oo.l ex- in^ i':!7.-, iVct ion<;an(l •_'!:'. Feet lii^h. 



ercisi- \'i\y all seniors" iniajjinat ions ) that just as yon 
were |intlini; on yonr ca|i anil tjow'n to i^o oxer to 
(he Aiiilitorinni for thai olil sheepskin yon were 
ollered a j;oo(l joh— rK( )\'l I )i:i ) yon conlil he in 
("hicas" the next day at S :(l(l A. .M. to take it. Would 
yon retnse the joh so yon conlil take yonr niothei- 
home as Mill had |ironiiseir.' Well, that's what 

(icor-e Ua'y did. and it may hi^ a i.artial explana- ""'' '^ "I' l«'><ti"'Ji. while Air. \Vester.i;aard has do- 

ti r whv he is now Chier Mniiineer of the l.acka- velojied for the Coinniitlee the mathematical theory 



.Mr. IJay is proniineiit in the American Railway 
lOniiineerini; Association, some ol' his most recent 
noted work lieini; done as a iiiemhei- of the .Vssocia- 
lioiTs ('ommittee ini Stresses in Ti-ack. rrol'. A. X. 
Talbot is ("liairman of this ('ommittee. Prof. II. F. 
Moore is ilieii- adviser as to instrnments and the 



(it the stresses (levelo|)eil when a train rolls over 
the track. (■ousideriii!> the rail as lieiiin on a con- 
tinnons elastic sn]i|iort. In addition to tests run on 
the tracks of till' Illinois Central north of Clianr 
|iaii;n, Mr. Kay has had charge of a ,<ireat deal of 



wanna Kailroail. 

He was horn in .Metamora. Illinois, on March 
III. Is7(i, and r<'ceivcd his eilnca t ion in that locality 
until he came to the rniversily in IS'.t4. lie was a 
stnileiit of Civil I'hijiineerinj;- at the I'niversity, and 
I'lof. linker thonjiht enoiifih of him when he grad- 
iialed in IS'.tS to recommend him to the Illinois Cen- 
tral when they asked for an extra i;ood man. This 
was the joh he refused in order lo fake his mother 
home, tint when the railroad |ieo|ile heard why he 
Inrned llieiii down they l.in (c they wanted him, and 
held the Jul) o|icn for him. I»ni-in.i; his nnderjiradn- 
ate days he mel I'Miia .Mamniers, a Champai,t;n fi'irl, 
w lioni he married in l!l().">, two years after she i;radn- 
.■ited from I lie rniversily. 

In the live years from IS'.i.s to l!)0:! Kny clindied 

the railroad ladder fr rodman lo li-ansitman, then 

assistant eniiineer, track supervisor and up to road- 
master. In I'.Mi;', he was made l>ivision i'jinineer. 
which joh he left in I'.IOS to enter the contractini; 
j;anic. .\fler one year of this, the Lackawanna olVer- 
ed him the ollice of Chief I>;u<iineer, which he has 
held since, except fin- a year when he was l^nnineer- 
in,i; .\ssislanl to the liegional director, Ivistern Keg- 
ion of the r. S. I\. K*. Ailniinislratioii. 

As Chief lOngineei- of the Lackawanna, Kay lia:; 
had chin-fje of two of the most conspicuous and note- 
worthy acliievenienis in modern .\inerican railroatl- 
iiij; — the Ilopntcong-Slatelord Cnt-olV and I lie Tnnk- 
liannocU Viaduct. The Hoi>atcou<;-SIateford Cm oil 
is one of the heaviest pieces of const rn<-t ion work .lersey. This commillee is doing sonu- vei-y striking 
yet accom|)lislied on any American railroad, and work on the snliject of stresses in track, some of 
furnished Hay with the material for his very noted ijicii- vvork of last summer heing on the stresses in 
Mastei''s thesis on its huilding. The Tnnkhannock cnived track, and I lie ell'ects of flat wheels ui)on the 
^'iadllct is a reinforced concrete structure noted for si resses developed in track liotli straight and curved. 




George Josppli Ray 



testing done ini the Lackawanna at Dovei-, New 



Mathematics and Engineering 

KditKUT K. MoKIT/. 

I'rofi'Mxor of MdllicNKiticx, I'nircrsil i/ of Wasliini/loii 

I'rofiKsor .Voril: inis iiski il lo irrilr an iirHcIc xiiiiniKiriziiii/ the nmillx of <ni iiKiuirij made In/ liini 
^oiiii- I'niic fu/o OH llir )ih(irc siihjrcl. Hi liiix riri/ kiiidli/ cniil rihuli <l lln' foUoiriiiii iirtirlf. — Editor. 



Tlic Icriii "ciijiiin'ci-in^"" is (oila.v npplitMl to so 
many ami varied activities tiiat it would be a futile 
attempt to seek a consensus of ojiiniou of engineers 
regarding the essentials of an engineering training. 
The man who designs a culvert for an alley and the 
man who designs an East Kiver bridge, both are eu- 
gineei-s. One engineer locates the coi-ner of my town 
]o1 and another determines the figure and dimen- 
sions of ilic j)lanet on which we live. Thousands of 
engineers never rise above the jilane of the draughts- 
man or compnter, yet it must not be forgotten that 
in training these thousands we are also training the 
few who design onr ocean liners, lind new Tiieans of 
utilizing the forces of nature, or it may be, built a 
Tanama Canal. It is a great tpiestion how to train 
the thousands without neglecting the training of the 
few. Tliere is an answer, which, in the judgment of 
the writer, should be engraved on the portals of 
every college of engineering. AV. M. <ioss, fi)rmerly 
dean of the College of Engineering at the T'niversity 
of Illinois, has most clearly and concisely e.\i)ressed 
it in tlie woids. "W'c niiisl lay foundations in the 
training given to all studcnls which .serve in the up- 
building of the few." 

What is the place of matlieinatics in the laying 
of these foundations? How slionld the subject be 
taught to engineers and by wlmni? In order to get 
the reaction of practical engineers on these ques- 
tions, the writer decided some time ago to address 
a questionaire to a limited nnnd»er of successful en- 
gineers. But whom should he address? It is per- 
fectly obvious that any liesircd answer might be 
obtained by a proper selection of correspondents. 
After some constdtatio7i with his colleagues on the 
engineering faculty it was decided to send the letter 
to each of five i)ast presidents of the three national 
institute.s of engineers, of civil, mechanical, and 
electrical, and two other pi-onunent engineers of the 
Northwest, one electrical, the other civil, whose judg- 
ment we considered valuable. None of these men or 
their view on mathematics were known to the writer 
at the time the inquiry was made. 

.\n explanatory note, of which the fullowing is 
a type, acconi|)anied Ihc iiuestionnairc. 
Dear Sir: 

This letter is addressed to each of live electrical 



engineers of national eminence in oi-dei- to ;iscertain 
their views relative to engineering mathematics. 

You are probably aware that the utility of 
mathematics for engineers as formerly taught is 
seriously questione<l by many engineering teachers. 
In view of this fact, the mature judgment of men 
who have achieved eminence in their profession will 
be of considerable weight to those of us who are 
interested in the actual teaching. 

May I thank you in advance for the courtesy 
of a reply. 

Yours vei-y truly, 

Kobert E. Jloritz 

Kei)lies were received to fourteen of the letters, 
but only eleven containetl answers to the questions 
asked. One of the persons addressed had died before 
the letter reached him, another felt incompetent to 
give an opinion, another claimed to be too bu.sy to 
give the ((uestions proper consideration. But most 
of those who wei-e sutficiently interested to answer 
the (piestions. wrote in considerable detail setting 
forth their ideas on the relation of mathematics to 
engineering. The following e.xcerjit is typical of sev- 
eral of the letters received : 

"In general comment njion this ipiestionnaire I 
will say that 1 have found in my own experience, not 
that mathematics was useless to me, but that I did 
not know nearly enough of it. I have found frequent 
occasions for the use of Calculus, very many for an- 
alytical geometi-y. ami no end of use for the less 
abstruse branches. I will not say that a knowledge 
of that science is indispensable. An engineer can 
(as nine-tenths of them do I secure the necessary 
ability in some std)orilinate to do his work for him. 
But that method can never be a complete substitute 
for ability to do it himself. An engineer can never 
know top much i he may deceive himself as to what 
he actually does know, and how well I in any line — 
mathematics, jiliysics, geology, chemistry, even Lat- 
in, French, (ierman. I would not part at any cost 
with my smattering of these subjects. As time goes 
on and the pressure of work iiu-reases, I find it more 
difficult, nay, even impossible, to keep up in them; 
and I find myself more and more compelled to rely 
on Younger heads, not so far distant from the col- 



ITS TIIH Ti:<'lIN()(;KAriI Mill/. IU.it 

Ic^'c class i-()i)iii. ISiil cNcr.v siicli iici-cssil v is :icc(iin liavc no special traiiiiii;; in liij;iici- iiiallie- 

]iaiiicil li.\ a |iaii^' dI' i'(';;r('t. iiialics; 

AVhiic Ihc al)i)Vi- cxiircsscs my ii si npinicii. ,,. , ( irailiiatcs of cii,niiicci-in- sci Is who 

I (In iiol think it wise Id try In Infer nialhcmatics |,;iv(. snlisc.|iicnl ly s|.cciaH/,c(i in hi-hiT 

into heads that liaxc nn ea|iacity I'lii- it. The (|nes- mat heina I ics. 

lioiniairt' cuiivcns the imuressidii that the antlioi- _ , , 

,. , , ,',,,. • , . . , •'• !•" von think ll likelv that liettei- fesnlls woiilil 

llmiks till' tronhle he has in niinil is inaiiil\ a mat , ', ■ i ■■ , ' , • 

, . . , ,. , ' , I"' I'hiailieil ll malheniatics were taiii;lit in cdii 

tef ol teachinii. 1 1 is iiiainix a mat ler ul I he si iiileiil. ., , . . , . . 

.' , , . , liecllon with Ihe in-olessKiiia I ein;l iieefl li" siih 

It IS (inl\ a slciKJcr iiiitiiuil \ wlm can excel in these . ,,,,'• 

' , , . . jeets when ami as neeiled. than il taught sep- 

ileepei- sciences. Ici 1fv to make a mat heinal leiun ' . 

,.,',. , ,. , araleh' in separate cotirscs as prereiinisites lot- 

ul a lion iiiathematical stmleni is wasted elli.rl. I , ' . . , . . ', . ' 

,, , . , , Ihe prolessKiiial ensjiiieei-lll't siiliiects? 

would hesiiate lo i^d so tar as to say that a student >- >- .j 

wilhoiit Tail- malhematical ability oiii;lil md lo <>• I ><' yon prefer not hein.u (iiKdeil? 
adopt eiiyineerin^ as a prol'ession ; Inil I do Ihink I'l'MM I FS 

lliat such a one is ^reallv handicapped in Irviiii; 

to make a success .d' thai lirolVssion." ' ' ''""'"' '• ' "" "'' "»' ^■''■^■^■" '■''l''''^'^ ivceived, 

ten stated without (pialification that tlie time s])ent 

The (piestioiinaire sent out read as follows: ,,11 mathematics had been time well spent. Several 

orh'^^TK )\\ Viri'' cori'es])(m(lents took si)ecial pains to em))hasi/,e their 

answei-s in .such >statenieuts as the following. "1 am 
1. In the li^hl of your past exiM.rience.loy.m think ^, ,i,,n believer in the value of malhematical train- 
that the tune yon spent on mallHrnial ics while ,,,„ ,.„,. p„„i„ej,,,, „ .g,. „„ ,„,,,„, ,,.,,,,te,l, but vain 
m colh-e was (on th.. whole) time waste.l? Or .,,,,^. .^^ ., ^^.^^^^j. ^^j ^^^^j^^.^j discipline and ess.-utial 
time well six-nt? ^,, .,„ ,|,„|,.,.standino- of enoineerin.tf problems." -.My 
•1. ir yon think it was time wasted, what relative ;,„swer is made with emphasis and without reserva- 
weifjlits would you assijjn to the following pes- tion." 

sible causes : , . , ,,,,.... 

( lirioiisly eiioiii;li, (he (Uily dissenting; opiiiKUi, 

(a I l'o(U' leachint;; I,, j, ^..^i^ |^^. ^..^n^,^, di.sseutin- came li-oin an engineer 

lb) \\'ron,u kiml <d' mathemalics taiit;li1 : who had taken a doctor's dejii-ee in pure and ajiidied 

((•) l-'ailnre of leaihers of |irol'essional sub- inathematics. He wrote "As to whether the time 

Jecls to draw lui the student's knowledge s]ient by lue on niatlieniatics was wasteil. or lud. 1 

of matlieniatics ; may say "Ves" and "Xo". The time speiil in my 

idl Tselessness of inallKMualies lor successful earlier sclio(d life inix largely wasted. What 1 

engineering practice. learned of inatheniatics, 1 really taught myself after 

:!. If you Ihink your time was well spent wlial re- m.v earlier school days. After T had really made a 

lative weights wcmld you assign to the following start, and had realized to what extent mathematics 

possible benefits: could be of benefit in different ways, such as those 

(ai l.iscipliuary values, i. ... the elVect of the >iientioiied in Questions :! of your list, T devoted still 



<tiid\' on the f<u-inatioii of wlndescune men- 



more time to the subject. 1 returned to school when 



tal hahils. clear Ihinkin- precision in I was about f.u-ty. and took my MS degree in pure 

stalement, ability to Ihink in symbols, »"•! aPl'lied mathematics, and s.mie years later I 

i.|i. . again returned to school to take a doclor's degree in 

, , ,. 1 1 1 ,■ .1 . inire and aiiiilied mathematics." 

lb) liiip(M-Iance ol a knowledge ol malhemat- ' '' 

ics in the imrsnit of pr(dessi(Mi,-il sub (iliestion L'. In Ihe light of the practically 1111- 

j,.,-ls: animous judgment that the t inie sjieiit on malhemat- 

(c) Importance of malhemalics as a I in i"'-^ "'as time well spent, .pu'stion L' was logically 

actual eugiueeriug ]n-aclice. ignore.l by most of the corr.'sp(,ndeiils. There were, 

I. In your jmlgmeiit which of the I liree 1y|ies of however, several comments which may be of iuteresi 

teachers mentioned below slnmld lie employed lo the reailer. such as "It is absurd to speak of math- 

in teaching mathemalics to engineering sin emat ics as useless lor engineering ju-aclice." "Teacli- 

deiits: ing could have been better." "Malheniatics is an 

lal Teachers who have speci.ili/.ed in niaihe important and essential element in the educational 

matics, having had no special training in e(|uipment of a snccessfiil engineer who is ([ualifled 

engineering subjects : to design as well as to direct engineering work." 

(b) Graduates of engineering schools who "Time could, no doilbl. have been better spent both 



Mai/, IH21 



Till-: TECHNOdRAl'H 



17'J 



;is to tcMchiiiu and It-aiiiiii.n. Xotliiiiy is |K'rrcct in 
this world." 

Question .■>. To the U-aclici- of iiiatiiciiiat Ics to 
cugineei-iiig students the replies to this iineslion are 
peculiarly interesting and signiticant. Now I hat 
educationists have shown to their own satisfaction 
that the doctrine of mental disci])line is a ■•myth," 
it is jiassing strange that men of practical affairs 
reaffirm tlieir faith in the disciplinary })ower of 
mathematics. Of the eleven replies recei\(»d, one 
ignored the (piestion, one holds that while (a). (1>I 
and (el arc all imi)ortant, their relative weights 
woidd proliahly vary at different points in the engi- 
neer's career, a third would place the disci])linary 
value of mathematics "at par with its elucidation of 
engineering problems," while the remaining eight 
give the disci])linary value of mathematics the first 
place. Seven agree ui»ou the order (a), (li), (c), one 
gives the order (al, (c), (b). In other words, there 
is j)ractical unanimity in the conviction that the use 
of mathematics as a tool in engineering practice is 
of le.ss importance to the successful engint'cr, than 
the aid which it renders in the pursuit of profcs 
sional studies, and each of. these values is consi<lercd 
of less importance to the engineer than the so-called 
disci])linary value of mathematics, that is the effect 
that the study of mathematics has in the formation 
of wliole.some mental habits, on clear thinking, pi-e- 
cision in expression, etc. 

Tliose who assigned ilelinile weights as askt'd 
for in the (luestionnaire, assigned a greater weight 
to (a) than to (b) and (c) combined. One assigned 
weights as follows, (a) 75 '/f < (b) and (c) 25'7f , an- 
other la) CO',, (b) 30%, (c) 1070. Others empha- 
sized their conviction in the disci]ilinarv value of 
mathematics by such comments as the following. 
"Mathematical training must always be disciplin- 
ary," "The chief value of any study lies in the train- 
ing of the mind," "No disci])linary .study could l)e 
substituted for mathematics that would be ci|\ially 



valuable as a loid in engineering pi-actice." "I do 
not regai-d uia tlieiiiat ics as a iiiere tool." 

(iueslioii I. One would naturally expect that 
engineers would fa\or teachers of mat hematics who 
at the same time Innc had engineering training. It 
is therefore surprising that there shotdd be com- 
ments such as the following, "The teacher should lie 
highly sjiecialized in nuif hematics. If he is also 
trained in engineering so much the licltcr, hut he 
should lie a iiuithemat ician fii-sf." "l''<n- teaching the 
fundamental principles of inatlieniat ics (ai would 
be best." "There are good and pooi- teachers in all 
three classes. I do not know that I am prejiared to 
express an oi>inion as to whether the class of teacher 
has anything to do with his proficiency ami cllici 
ency." "It iloes not necessarily follow that a gi-eat 
nmthematician is an effective teacher, nor because 
a man is a successful engineer and also a good math- 
ematician he is an efficient teacher of matluunatics." 

Notwithstanding these comments seven of the 
corresiiondents expressed themselves in favor of (ci. 
Only one held that no teacher should be eniiiloycd 
who had not had practical engineering work. 

(Question 5. The replies to this question siiowed 
conclusively that the advocates of the doctrine that 
mathematics is best taught in connection with jiro- 
fessional studies, "when and as needed" are not to 
be sought among the jiractical men of affairs. Nine 
of tlie corresjiondents are definite in their judgment 
that nuithenmtics should be taught separately, one 
of these emphasizes coordination with engineering 
work and another would have it taught with engi- 
neering subjects. Only one was clear that the best 
results would be obtained if mathenuitics were 
taught in connection with engineering sulijects. and 
another while not sure which method is the better, 
thinks that the experiment of teaching matluMuatics 
in connection with engineering subjects is worthy of 
trial. One answers the (pu'stion in the words, "Teach 
mathematics as nuithematics. The engineer will 
adai)t his knowledge readily enough." 



Testing Camera Shutter Speeds 

iroiiiiniu'il from I'lig.' l."il ) 
which do not appear in the tables: a I're.ss (iraflex fore. There is little doubt tiiat the canu-ra m 



and a Keflex. The 1500th. of the 5 x 7 Press was 

about a 77lli. of a second, and the KlDdtli. of the 
4 X 5 Keflex was only a (iOdtli. 

Little remains to be said about these illumina- 
ting results except to in(piire the why and where- 



factui'crs know these facts already. It is also ap 
jiarent that most shutters of either the lens or the 
focal phiue tyjie are quite constant in their speeds, 
and it only remains for the shutters to be marked 
with a greater regard for their actual speed limita- 
tions. 



Modern Practice in Coal Mine Hoisting Engines 

.1. I\. lliii,.Mi:s, III. ('. "lil! 

'I'lu-rc lire iki sIcmiii ciijiiiics liiillt w liicli iiinst Siilli\,iii Ahicliiiici-y Co., oT Cliicaj^o. ^nul ;i lew 

stiiiid more Irciiiciidoiis sli-;iiiis, snUVr more ioii;;li ollicis li:i\c hiiill sonic ol' liicsc ciiiniiics in aildilion 

usafie, Jliiil possess more sl;iniiii:i ;iii(l i-eli;ihili1 y llinn to llicir dllici- lines ol milling in.-icliiiiery. 
tliose used for Jioislin^ |ini-|ioses in comI mines. Nee ( »ne of llie inosi i-eeeiil iiisliilliiieiils ol' note wms 

essaril.v, liiey innsi he of |iond<Tons si/.e willi e.\ made in llie lall ol' l!ll.'l) hy Ivoliert Holmes and 

treniely liea\,\' mo\inf; parls in order llial lliey may Ui-oliiers al llie iaille X'ermilioii Mine, sonlli of 




lt> incli b.v :i(! iiicli First Motion Hoistiiif; Kiigiiies; Little Vermilion Mine. U. S. Fuel Company, Westville. Illinois 



give sjit istactory ser\iee with such nidaxortihle \\'esl\ille. I llinois. of wliicli 'i'lie Itiitei] States l'"iiel 

liandlinj;. and in oi-dei- that theii- life iiniy he com Co., :i hfain-li of the C S. Steel Co., is the owiiei-. 

inensiii-;ite with (lie lirst cost of Ironi lifteen llioiis- Ijittle X'ei-milion mine is re|)n'senl;iti\-e of mixh'fn, 

and to tliifty tli<ms;ind dolh-n-s aecofdin^ to tlie elTieieiit mine pfttetiee tiiid is tilso one ol' recoi'd 

hoistili}; i-a|>ii('ily. Yet with till llie immense size hreakiiig ])i-odnet ion. The propefty litis now heeii in 

of ll<)istilij< eiljjilies, they must he desiiiiied so that ojiertilion for tihoiit 1!) yetirs tind tit ]iresent employs 

their control will he as inftillihie, ticcurate, and ctisy nine linndrcd men. Ltist yetir, this mine was re- 

as tliat of tin tinlomohile. This htirnessing of gigan- hnilt. tin all-steel tipple being erected and the new 

tic power tind size to the perfect control jiossible un- hoisting engines installed, preparatory to a great in- 

der ti mtin's linger in mine hoisting has given rise cretise in daily production. The results have been 

to many good prohlems in stetim engine design as Nci'y grtitifying tis their hoisting record for tin eight 

far iis hoisting engines are concerned. In ftict, only hour dtiy litis heen incretised Ironi ll'lll) ions to ."illOll 

a few coniptuiics in the I'liited Sttites htive titteni|)t tons of cotil. 

ed to engage in llie hnilding tind mtirkeling ol' these ,j,|„, ^i,^,,-, ,,, ,,„. , i,,,,, xvrmilion .Mine is 171) 

engines tis till exclusive product. Tlf most re|.re.sen ,.,,., ,|,,,.|, .,,„, |,.,^ , ^^.„ ,.,„„|,artment.s, that is, two 

lative concerns in this lield tire Crawford ami Mc ,,.,„.,,^ „|„.,ate in the shaft, side hy side. The lioist- 

Crimmon, of I'.rti/.il, Inditinti; The l.ichlield Foiin j,,, ,..||,|,.^ .,,.,. ^,, :,,.,.:|„j,,.,| that while om^ ctige is 

dry iUKl Machin.' Co., of l.ichtield, Illinois; tind Koh j,,,j,|„ |,, th,. ImKoiii with tin empty jiil ctir, the other 

ert Holmes tmd Bros., of Dtiinille, Illinois. How cage is coming up with a lotided ctir. Tims only the 

ever, the Nordberg Co., .\llis-Clitinihers of .Milwtiii loti<l of cotil in the coining up ctir produces tlii" lotid 

kec, The \'iilctin Iron \\'orks of Wilkes r.tnre, I'a., to lie hoisted. The |iit ctirs ii.syd tire of i."l- ton 



May, 1921 



THE TECHNOGEAl'H 



181 



eaitacitv. Tlierelorc, in (inlcr to hoist ."iOOO tons of in (li.iniclcr a1 llic ccutcM'. As seiMi fi-om llic illustra- 

coal ill ('ij;lit liours, it is seen that tlie cajjes must tioii, t h('si> t'lijjiiH^s wen- of the IioihmI <iiii(h' ly|)(', tiic 

make a trip from holtoiii to top in 12 seconds or <i"'i<l("« foriniug a i>art of tlic frame. To |)rovi(U' 

they must make over 1!»0() trips [ler eifi;ht hours. Tiie stitfiiess and streugtli, tiiese guides were cast extra 

perfect coordination of the forces of men and mach liea\ y, each weiohing :{i/i tons. 

inery necessary in o](eralion of the cages is obvious A notewortliy feature of tliese mighty engines 

and truly .i marvel to those who have witnes.sed the is the cylinders and pistons. The liore and stroke 

o|ieralioii. The powei- and splendid control needed for each cylinder is twenty eight inches hv thii-ty 

to ])rodnc<' the Iremeudous acceleration and sudden six inches and the weight, ^l/^ tons. The seemingly 

stojis (d' the cages can he appreciated, for a single short stroke for such a large hore was purposely 




IS inch by 36 iiicti First Motion Hoisting Engine, Flat Guide, Single Drum Type. Kelly. No. 4 Mine, U. S. 

Fuel Company, Westville, Illinois 



slip in the placing n( the cages at the to]) or liotlom 
would mean a costly accident. 

The Little Vermilion engines are of the lirst 
motion type, that is, the two cable drums are niount- 
eil upon a single shaft which has a crank disc and 
pin keyed to each end to each of which connecting 
rod of one engine is directly attached. This ar- 
rangement makes a right hand and a left hand en- 
gine when viewed from the engineer's stand. The 
entire machine is referred to as ;i |iiiir of engines. 
( >ii this |iarticular machine, their are two drums, one 
for the hoisting cable for each cage. Each drum is 
giMioved for a one and a half inch steel calde, in 
the manner <il' a thi-ead cnl upon a huge holt. This 
was done in order that the cable would roll np 
smoothly upon the drum and aMiid slips and jerks. 
lOach di'um and its "spider", i.e.. the hub and spokes, 
weighs ."i-'i Ions. The main shaft of the engines is 
fourteen inches in diameler and sexcnteen feet long 
and is a solid ni.-iss of forged and turned steel 
weighing 41/, Ions. The crank discs weigh 2 tons 
apiece anil, besides being doubly keyed upon the 
shaft, they were bored to slide upon the shaft at 
lifty Ions ]iressni'e. The crank iiins wei-e forced into 
the discs al a hundred Ions pressure and Ihen ham 
niered down on the back side of I he discs. lOach of 
the two bed plates or I'ranies weigh ."i Ions. The con- 
necting rods are each ten feel long and (i'/.. inches 



made in order to give a (piick accereration to the 
engines, in short, to make them "snappy" if sncli 
a term can be applied to. so ponderous a machine. 
To further jirodnce this result, the cylinder ]ioi-ts 
are made of such exceptional size thai the steam 
chest is almost larger than the cylinder itself. The 
intake ports are 251/2 indies wide and two inches 
deep, these ports are also the exhaust outlets since 
the engines have the "D" type of slide valve. Surely, 
there slumld be no "wire-drawing" of the incoming 
steam through jwrts of such size. A particular type 
of "D" valve is used, lint we shall sjieak of this later 
under the discus.sion of the c(Uitrols of these engines. 
Ivich end of each cylinder is lilled willi an ordinary 
"]iop" \al\-e such as used for a safety \al\'e on boil- 
ers. This is done to relieve the ext raordinarily high 
pressures which occur when the engines are siul- 
denly reversed under a fnli head of steam. The |)is- 
lons are cast hollow and are seven inches deep, giv- 
ing light weight, slreiiglh, and a broad wearing 
snrface. The piston rods are 4 l.'i/Ki inches in diaui- 
elei- and arc secnreil in the pistons by a ta]>ei' fit 
;ind a nnt. The crossheads are threaded for the 
olher ends of I he pislini i-ods. liabbitt metal is used 
for facing on I he ci-osslieads wlu-re they fit in the 
unides. This li,-is been round lo make a very satis- 



182 



THE TEOHNOORAPH 



May, 1921 



facldry \vc;irin^ smi;icc', l)csi<lcs rcdncini; Irididii c;!! cnsliiin ciiiil,-! iiiiii,^ .-i l:irt;c |)i)|]|prl viihc, U'-y^ 

I'isscs. iiiclirs in (liiiiiiclcr jiicl li:i\in;^ .-i lill oT (Hic iiicli. 

I''i-mu llic iliMiiiclcr of llic (li-iiiiis :iii(l llic ilc|illi 'I'lic niiiiii slc.nii Ir^id iiilii llic IliruiHc is :i 1 1' ini-ji 

of Ihc sliiil'I. it will he seen lli;il liii' IJlllc N'crniii |ii |ic. w hi Ic I lie hr:! licli Iciiis l<i cncli ol' Die cii^i lies is 

inn l';Mi;iiH's iiial;c iiiii\ '.)' ^, rc\(ilnl imis lor cmcIi tri]i a 7 inch pipe. The |io|)|ii'l is raiscil I'l-oni its seal 

of llic cam's. Tills means that llic engines arc re- liv means of a cam o|iei-alcil liv Ihe en^ineerV lever. 

\crseil every !)l/o re\olnl ions. Since revcrsinj; is Si.\ inches' movcmeiil of this lexer is siillicienl lo 

iloiie liy the Steiiheiison melhoil of links ami a pair throw llie Ihroltle wide open, so rapid is the cam 

of opposed eccentrics for each engine, and since the aclion. 'I'lins a fnll head of steam can he llirown 

\al\'es. \al\(' I'ods, links, and olher parls arc of nee- inio the cylinders in the Iwinklini; of an eye. .\ 

essity very heavy and lar.i;c. a way mnsi he pro\iiied small rtdief \al\c on llic liody of llie llir<i|||e opens 




J*=~L 



24 inch by 41' inch First Motion Hoisting Engine, Bored Guide Type; Bell & ZoUer Coal Company 

Centralia, Illinois 



to reverse the eiigine.s quickly without tiring' the en- 
gineers unduly. In the illustration, the reversing 
lever is shown extending up from tiie floor and oji- 
enitiiig in a (piadrant — 'Very similar, indeed, lo the 
reversing lever of Ihe (trdinary locomotive. How- 
evei', this lever operates a small, njiriglit steam cyl- 
inder which in turn, throws the links to reverse the 
engines. The action of this reversing cylinder is 
cushioned hy a shock alisorher in the form of an oil- 
lilled cylindei- on the other end of the piston rod 
which Ihiows the links. By adjusting the flow of 
oil from one end of this cylindei- to the olher, the 
rapidity of reverse of the engines can be regulale(l 
to suit the most ))artic\ihir engineer that ever opened 
a throttle. The vahcs ,-ire also (piite difficult to 
move under a full head of steam, liecause of the 
great pre.ssure in the steam chests, holding these 
against their seats. To renie<ly this disadvantage, 
the slide valves are h.ilanced hy a small |)iston 
against which the steam in the chest exerts an op 
posite pressure to that on the valves, thus the two 
|M"essiires are lialanccil and the valves mercdy floal 
on their seats. ,\ system of i-ollers is used to Iraiis- 
init the jiressiire of the piston in the steam chest 
lo I he moving valves. 

The throttle valve is aclnalcd hy the horizontal 
lever e.xtending from the siand to the left of the re 
versing lever as shown in the cut. The Ihrotlle it 
self is henealh the floor and is an immense sphcT-i- 



when the throttle is closed, so that all steam in the 
hranch leads to the engines is immediately ex- 
hausted thereby making possible an immediate stop 
of the engines when the brakes are ai)plied. The two 
great brakes on the drums are brought to bear on 
the drums by the tVtot jiedal protruding from the 
floor. An almost immediate stop can be att'ected by 
means of these brakes. They are so powei'ful that 
when locked a full head of steam in the cylinders 
cannot tiii'ii the engines over. 

In order that the hoisting engineer may land 
the cages accurately, he must know just where they 
are. \ large dial with a pointer is therefore i)laced 
in front of him connected by gearing to the main 
shaft and so set that each cage landing in the mine 
corresi)onds to a mark on the dial. These dials are 
marked with snch accuracy that Ihe engineer can 
stop t-lie cage within a fraction of an inch of the de- 
sii-eil s|iot althougli he cannot see the cages at all 
from his station. However, the pointer is checked 
and reset at freipient intervals owing to stretching 
of the hoisting cables. Some engines are also ])ro- 
vide<l with anolher safety devic(», called the Xichol- 
s(Mi overwind stop, which prevents the engineer 
from running the cages past the top or bottom, by 
slinltiiig (itf the throttle and locking the brakes 
automatically, .\notliei- safety measure usually pro 
\ided is a secondary throttle in the form of a cnl-olf 
(CoiicliirlPil on page 189) 



.Uay, 1i)21 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



is:i 



Acoustical Specifications in Buildings 

(Continued from Page 14S) 
]i(isiti()ii of an uiihridged air space, so that the next 
best aiTaniieiiieiit is used, namely, liaii-felt or some 
other air filled material as i)art of a floating floor, 
d(»nl)le wall. etc. The problem is not yet solved in 
a ])ractical way foi' all conditions; hiil progress has 
been made. 

l''or instance, in the Sniitii Music Itiiilding al- 
ready mentioned, an effort was made by the Super- 
vising Architect and the writer to sound proof the 
entire building from attic to hascmenl. This problem 
involved the sound insulation of some tifty small 
practice rooms, twelve studios and the larger con- 
cert hall, besides the acoustic control of sounds of 
motors, fans and elevators. Ooulilc walls, floors, 
and ceilings were constructed in accordance with 
tiie descriptions set forth in the |)revions ])aragraph. 
Tight fitting doors and windows were s|)ecitied to 
prevent leakage of sound and separate MMiIilalion 
ducts wei'e designe<l to convey air to and from each 
room. 

\\'itiiout dwelling on all the details it is per- 
hap.s sufficient to state that some degree of success 
attended the efl'orts. Stndents use adjacent rooms 
for piano practice, singing, violin and othei- instru- 
mental drill, etc., without serious disturbance to 
eacli other. The rooms are not absolutely sound 
proof nor does this appear necessary because the 
sound that leaks into the room is so diminished in 
intensify that it is unnoticed when jiracfice is in 
progress. The \entilators transmit sound between 
different parts of the building, bnf the use of separ- 
ate pipes for each room diminishes flic infcnsity of 
these transmitfed sounds so thai they become un- 
important conijiared with sounds generated in the 
room itself. 

After several months of use, tjie building is con- 
sidered satisfactory for the purpose. .Vbsolute sound 
proofing cannot be attained withouf very unusual. 
and perhajis ini]tractical, building constructions. It 
a]ipears from the experience with the JIusic IJuild- 
ing thus far that absolute sound jircxtfing is not es- 
sential. There are many things yet to be leariu^d 
by further experience, but enough has been revealed 
to give encouragement to the belief tiiat sound |)roof- 
ing may be prescribed in the ne;ir fnlurc with much 
of the cei-tainty that now attends the .icoiistic dc 
sign of auditoriums. 



Mining of Upper Mississippi Lead and 
Zinc Ores 

(Continued from Page IfiM) 
lieing converted from the old type of steam hoist to 
the new elect riciliy oiierated hoist. The pumping of 



water is also liandled by electric tiiotor driven cen- 
trifugal pumps. 

The materials niiued in tiiis district consist of 
zinc siili)hide, lead sul|)hide, and iron suipliide. I!e 
fore the material is worth anything, the four con- 
stituents must be separated. The i)rinci|)le of sepa- 
ration depends on the following facts. Pieces of 
lead and w<iod of eipial volume fall at the same 
rale in a \ac(ium. In a water medium lead falls, 
but wood floats on the surface. We therefore see 
that imiterials of higher specific gravity fall faster 
than imiterials of lower sjjecific gravity in a medium. 
The specific gravity of lead is greater than that of 
zinc suli)hide. The specific gravities of zinc sulphide 
and iron sul])hides are ecpial, while the s])ecific grav- 
ity of all the minerals is greater than the gnngue 
rock in which they are found. 

It can now be seen that with the aid of water 
we can sei)ar;ile the materials mined into the fol 
lowing products: 1. Lead sul|ihi(le, II. zinc sulidiide 
and iron suipliide. 111. Tailings or refuse. 

The niacliine used for this .separation process 
is termed a jig. If you take an old ash sieve, place 
it in a bowl of wat<'r and arrange the rest of it to 
conform to the diagram shown (Fig. it i you will 
have a hand jig. If now you will till that jiart of 
the sieve which usually holds the ashes with zinc ami 
lead ore, and by means of the lever cause the sieve 
to be raised and lowered in the water several time.s, 
y(ni will liud that the top layer in your sieve, after 
the jigging operation, will consist of waste or gan- 
gue material. The next layer will lie a mixture of 
zinc sul|)hide and Iimui sulphide and the bottom layer 
will be lead sulphide. These three layers can be 
sejiarated. The lead ore is now ready to be sold. The 
waste or gaugiie nuiterial is removed to the failings 
pile. The zinc ore, however is mixed with iron sid 
phide which must be se])arated before the zinc sni 
|)hide can be sold. Here we cannot make use of ,i 
water medium as the sju'cific gravities are about the 
same. The ircui siil]ihide. however, when slightly 
roasted becomes magnetic. 

The iiiellio<l of separation llieu of the iron siil 
l>liide from tlie zinc sul|ihi(le is to tirst gi\-e the ore 
a slight roast and then to pass it under re\<>l\iiig 
magnets which pick out ilie iron sulphide and throw 
it to one side. 1 do not wish lo gixc the im])res.sion 
that the milling operalicni consists of a hand jigging 
o|)erati(Mi and a roasting over a tire. The mills in 
the district are u|i fo date ,iud use Ilartz jigs run by 
electric motors. In these mills the ]irodncts separ- 
ate themselves so that all (hat must be done is to 
open one spigot and lead runs out. another and zinc 
runs out, while the failings overflow and are car- 
ried automatically to (he tailings pile. The roasting 



RT- 




DEPARTMENTAL 

NOTES 



Mechanical Engineering News 

Oil .M;n<li I. Ilic A. S.M.I-:. ciitcitMimMl tlic cii 
tire College of lOiijiineerinj; ;il ;ni o]ie!i meeting held 
ill the eiigiiieei-iiig lecture luoni. Tlie aiKlience, one 
of llic largest wliieli has ever atteiidetl an engineer- 
ing s(i(ic(\"s meeting, taxed the lecture hall to its 
ulmosi capacity. Mr. (\ M. Uollaiul, who is presi- 
dent (it liolh the New York and New -Jersey Bridge 
and Tunnel ( 'ommissioiis, and also chief engineer 
111' the lludsDii vehicular tunnel jiroject, gave a very 
instructive, illustrated talk. He discussed briefly, in 
the short time at his disposal, the many problems 
thai have been encountered in the preparation of tiie 
jilaiis I'oi' the tunnel. The problem of ventilation 
was one of the most difficult to be solved. Because 
little data pertaining to the problem was obtainable, 
it became necessary to conduct experiments. Mr. 
Holland stated that in selecting a place to carry on 
the tests, all universities and their personnel were 
carefully considered. It was found that Illinois had 
the necessary laboratory apparatus, and men who 
were capable of conducting the important research 
problem. Although loathe to come to a university 
this far west, the tunnel engineers selected Illinois 
due lai-gely to the fact that Professor Willard was 
here. 

Al a business meeting, H. J. Meyers was ap- 
jioinlcd as an A.S.M.E. representative on the com- 
niiilcc wliich is to arrange for an "All Engineering 
Smoker'. <!. 11. Holm "22, and P. F. Witte '23, are 
to sei\e as the society's representatives on the per- 
maiieiil committee for the new Co-op. C. M. Peale 
was appointed as chairman of a committee to in- 
vesligate the feasibil.ity of giving an A.S.M.K. dance 
(•ally in .May. This will lie the lirsl of a series of 
semi annual alVairs. 

l"or the coming meetings of the si'inester bene- 
licial programs have been arranged, which promise 
to lie inlcnsly interesting, as men who are ])roniiii 
enl in tlir industrial world are lo speak, ilr. Bailey. 
President of the Bailey Meter Works, consented 
to talk at the time when he came to interview the 
seniors. L. A. Sci|)io. Dean of Kobeits ("ollege, ("on 



st.intinople, Turkey, and also acting director of the 
icsearcli laboratory of the heating and ventilating 
ileparlnient of the l'. 8. Bureau of Mines, spoke ou 
the "lOngineering Possibilities in the Near East". 
Mr. Scipio was called to Constantinople to start an 
engineering college. As he was there during the 
entire period of the war, he had many experiences, 
and his talk was one of the most interesting of the 
year. ('. M. Peale '22, was the first speaker entering 
the coniiietitioii for the handbook which is to be 
given at the end of the semester to the member 
having made the best talk. He secured slides with 
which to illustrate his talk on the "Manufacture and 
Use of Ball Bearings". 

In addition to the s])eakers, the programs are 
to include a series of motion pictures. The first 
"Combining Earth's Scattered Treasures to Produce 
Light" is a four reel film, secured from the National 
Lamp Company. Another is ou the "Production of 
Petroleum'' which was filmed by the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines. Great eftorts are being made to obtain a 
film on the "Manufacture of Steel Castings".. The 
picture was taken under extreme difficulties and at 
great expense. With these programs and the at- 
tendance at meetings which is expected, the student 
branch of A.S.M.E. will (•onii)lete one of its most 
successful years. 

A hydraulic testing machine for tlie forge lab- 
oratory has been designed and is being built in the 
machine shop under the direction of Director Bene- 
dict. It is to be similar in type to the one wliich was 
used during the war by the munition plant at Mol- 
inc. Illinois. The machine has a maximum ca])acity' 
(.r lOll.dtiO II). per s(|. ill., and is equally well ad- 
aptc<l to tests in tension, conipression, and cross 
bending. 

The design of the machine is fairly simple. To 
the o|i])osite corners of the rectangular shaped base 
are fasteiie<l u]iiiglit columns, ,\ and H. '■'> in. in 
liiaiiiclcr. Sliding np and down on these columns 
and guided by them is the lower platen, which is 
iiio\cd by ,1 ram projecting from the upper ])art of 
tlie base. Seciirelv fastened with nuts lo the other 



Mat/, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRArH 



1S.1 



opposite corners of tlie lower platen are two simi- 
lar upright colunms, C and D, which move up and 
down as the lower platen moves. At the toi5 of 
columns C and D, which are about 5 ft. long, is the 
upper platen, which remains at a fixed distance 
from the lower platen. Between the \i])per and 
lower testing bases is the intermediate platen which 
may be secured to columns A and B with sidit-nuts. 
Tests in comiiression and cross bendings are made 
between the lower and intermediate platen, and ten- 
sile tests between the intermediate and upper platen. 
The middle portion of the upright columns A and B 
are grooved to allow the intermediate platen to be 
adjusted to heights suitable for different size test 
specimens. 

The ram 8 in. in diameter which moves the 
lower platen is ground and lapped to its cylinder to 
l)reveut leakage of oil. An initial pressure of oO 
lb. per sq. in. is produced in the oil under the ram 
with an electric driven pump which has a capacity 
of 7.5 gal. per nnnute. A normal hydraulic pressure 
of l-'OOO lb. per s(i. in. and a maximum pressure of 
IMOO lb. per sq. in. is obtained from a steam driven 
plunger. The steam piston is 12.25 in. in diameter 
and has a 24 in. stroke. The plunger which is 5 
in. in diametei- works in a 5.5 in. oil cylinder. By 
using a steam pressure of i;?0 lb. per sq. in. the 
machine is expected to complete tests within a min- 
ute or so after the pump has been started. As tliis 
testing nuichine has the special feature of recording 
all pressures automatically, it has an advantage 
over the ordinary type ilue to the elimination of 
errors caused by the balancing of the scale beam. 



A. A. E. News 

Fiider the cajiable leadersjiip of I'resident 
Xatili wilh the willing and earnest cooperation of 
the faculty and student mend^ers, the local chap- 
ter of the American Association of Engineers is 
cMi'ryiiig out a very vMlu.il)le and interesting pro- 
gram. 

On Tliursday Feb. 24 tiie visiting engineers and 
contractors attending the Highway Short Course 
were tlie guests of the Chapter at a smoker given in 
the (iyni .Vnnex. witli a total of 500 guests and st\i- 
■dents lu-esent. Tiie very interesting program, ar 
ranged by the comnuttee with the aid of Prof. Wiley, 
included musical nundx'rs by MeKek's orchestra and 
by Ti-aut, a tumbling act, and a i)oxing and a wrest- 
ling bout. Coiicli T.nil I'l-chii held the audience in 
susjiense for I'.d niiniitcs wliilc he demonstrated his 
favorite wrestling lioids. The speaker of tlie evening 
was Dr. F. H. Newell, recently of our faculty and 
past-president and now a leading official of A. A. E. 
The evening wound up with good food and plenty of 



it. The affair was declared by all to be a great suc- 
cess, and will be made au annual event. 

On March 2, Prof. H. F. Harrington, head of 
the Dept. of .Tournalism, addressed the (liapt<M- on 
"I'ublicity and Publicity Methods". 

On .Alarch HI, Prof. G. A. Goodenough, of the 
Dept. of Jleciianical p]ngineering, spoke on "Ad- 
vancing tiie I<]ngineering Profession". His talk was 
ai)preciated by a large audience. 

On March :!0, B. W. Benedict, shop director, 
l>resented the problems connected with summer em- 
liloyment for engineering students, its responsibili- 
ties and value. 

Unusiml opportunities are ottered at the regu- 
lar meetings of the association to hear the leading 
authorities on the campus speak on non-technical 
subjects of great interest and importance to every 
engineering student, and to thus become ac(iuainted 
with our biggest men and our biggest problems. 



Railway News 



The recent nieetings of the Kailway Club have 
been turned over to the presentation of papers by 
members, 1. D. Borders '2;{ gave "Some experiences 
witli the Kansas City Street Railways". James 
Leeming "21 presented "A comjiarison of the recent 
tyjies of AA'estingliouse aud (Jeneral Electric loco- 
motives". 1. Halperin "22 discussed "Railway ad- 
vertising" and C. E. S|)erry '2;'. very interestingly 
told of a tiip to Central Ameiica. 

<)ii .\]iril Till, two reels of moving pictures were 
lii-eseiit('(l. One, entitled "On the (Jreen Bay Trail", 
sliowed tiie ojieration of the Cliicago, North Shore 
and Milwaukee Railroad. The otlii-r was on a iiy- 
dro-electric power development. A feature of the 
evening was the demonstration of ,i new |iortable 
ni(>\ing picture machine by C. E. Keevil '21. 



Duiiiig the month of Maiili a iiunilicr of slu- 
(Irnls ill the Railway Engineering Department, un- 
drr the (lin-cliou of .Mi-. .1. K'. Tiithill, particiiiated 
ill ,-i test <ir rail bonds of llic Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem. Aliout soil miles of the track was tested by 
means of the riiiversity of Illinois I'>lec1ric Test 
Car. TIk' tests were eiiniiiielie<'d al Daii\ille ami 

eoiiliiiued to tl niskilis of St. Louis. .Ml of llie 

liiaucii lines, iiieliidiiig llie one through I'eoria and 
liloiuiiiuglou were coxered. 

Ill oi-dei- to iilili/.e the track tor one of the main 
eoriduetors, il is necessary that a complete electric 
cireuil lie maintained through it. Although ordin- 
ary track, wlieii newly laid, may be a fairly good 
conductor, it deteriorates rapidly through rusting at 
the rail joints, and tiie resistance becomes so high 
that the power loss is excessive. To prevent this 



18fi THE TECHXOORAI'H Maij, lUll 

coiKiiiioii .-ii-isiii.u, it is cusioiinn-y [n iicik,. pcTinaii Civil Engineering News 

(■III cIcclriiMl ((iiiiicctions, li\ iiicans of llcvililc coii ,. i- o • . i i i ,• i • 

rlic ( . I-. Sdciclv lias liail a \('r\ acli\c ami in 

per slraiis. licM ween the cihIs III' the pairs III' aliilKiii.;; . ,■ . . , ' ■ , i . .' >■ 

' ' . , Ici-csl iiij; l\\(i iiioMllis since the last appeaiaiice (il 

rails, Tiiis iirncess is kiidwii as -'I liii^;" llie track. ' 11,111 1 r , n 1 

' the I ecliiKPurapli. It has hail a niiiiilier (il talks liy 

In cities (here is an.ither ilisa.h a Ml a-e InMii |;,,.ulty iiK'Mihers and stn.lents 1 lial have heeii (if un- 

liaviii- hi-li resistance at rail Joints which is even „s, ml 'merit. .\t the time n\ .uoiii- to press the ur- 

iiK.iv siM-ions than the loss ..f power. This is the „.,„|j,.||i,,|, i.., iiiakiii- liiial plans lor an inspection 

(l:iiiia};c to proiierty canseil liy tl led rolyt i<- act ion \^,^^^ ,,, | >,|,|,.i||,, ,,„ _,^,„.i| ^.;;|.,| rp,,,. ,ji||„,,., j],.,,,. 

of stray ninvnts. seekin- a path through the earth ,„.i,|| |.,.i,|„,. .|,|,| (i,.;iv-s striiMiint; mine will he vis- 

which has a n'sistiiiur Iow.m- than that ol' the rails, i,,,,, ,„, ,|,|^ |,.||, .,,,,1 j, j^ .,|^,, |,„|,^.,, ^.^ ^.,|.,. j,, n,,, 

I lomis arc often broken liy repeated poundini; nf water plant of the Interstate Waler I'lailt ('omiiany. 
the rails liy the cars, liy draii;j;ini; lirake rods, aii<l At the ri'^nlar meeting of tile clul) on Jlarcli IS 

other causes, so they must he tested freipieiitly and i'l-of. I. (>. {taker jiave a very sijj;iiific-ant talk on the 

replaced. Hand testers may he used, hut they are ini]ieralive need of halanclnfj; an academic course 

not coineiiieiil or suitable for testin.u a consideiMlile with active iiilcresi iii social and student aetivllies. 

len.ulh of track. To meet the need of te^;tin^^ lionds This was followed liy a talk liy (\ .lenUilis, '■1\ . on 

on iiiteriirlian roads, the I 'iii\ crsity electric test cir the drainaf>e projects of the lower Jlississiiijii val- 

is e(|iiipped with a i-ecordin^; liond tester. In the ley. Mr. -leiikins was en.i;ajicd in work of this kind 

operation of this tester, the c.ir is run at a s]ieed of |;,st summer and with his intimate knowled<i;e of 

alioni lifteeii miles jier hour, and an aiitojiraphic the work he was aide to make the discussion of iin- 

record of the i-esislance of the rail lionds, toyi'lher us)i,-il iuTerest. 
with a location record, is made upon a roll of p.i|ier. On .March :!l the society attain was favored witll 

.\ heavy local current is jiassed tliroui;li the a talk liy a faculty man. This t ime < '. P. Hazelet of 

rails lielweeii the two trucks of the car, and the droji Hie civil engineering de|iartment told of his experi- 

of potential .icross a shori length of each rail is euces on engineering work in Alaska. He reviewed 

measured and recorded as the car ves along. By (he economic status of the territory inclnding the 

comparing the recorded dro|i on coiitinnoiis rail with canning industry, the gold recovering projects, the 

the drop across a joint the resistance of the lioiid is iiaiier and jmlp making possiliililies, and finally the 

determined. development of llie railroads in the past few years. 

Mr. Hazelet reeoniinended strongly that engineering 

graduates take advantage of any offer to «drk for a 

The R. 0. T. C. Engineer Corps time in Alaska, Alaska is a country of wonderful 

A good many engine(>rs and Iniversity students i-e.sources that is waiting to be develoiied by the en- 

at large do not know of the work that is being done gi'ieers of tomorrow, 
by the li. (). T. ( ". engineer unit. Although this unil 

has been a feature of the brigade since September EleCtrical Engineering NoteS 

I'.ll'.l, it was not until this semester that the govern i,, accordance with the policy of having iiiein- 

meiii furnished sulficii'ut eipiipmeiil to facilitate |,,.,.j^ „,j^.,, ,.|||.^ ,,, ||„, society, two seniors spoke at 

special work. ,1,,. ji;,,-ch II meet iiig <if the Electrical Engineering 

One of the most iniportanl |ihases of the work society. The lirsl talk, by 1\. li. I'entlaud 'I'l, dealt 
pl.iniied for this semester is that of iii;;|i making and with his own e\|ieiiences in war work, installing de- 
map reading. This will include contour work, detail \-ices for the detection of submarines. He lirst took 
jilotting, and aerial mapping. The cor|is will do np electromagnetic deleetors, which were used to 

actual work with iilaiie tables. I »e lition. road locate large masses of metal. While these actually 

building, military bridge construction, and military showed t he jireseiice of snlis t hey were not e.xact and 

road location are also in the jirogram. Ile.ivy pon were not \'ery successful. A much better detector, 

toon bridge eipiipment has been ordered from the cnlled a listening device was developed later. Elec- 

go\criimenl and work will till out t l;e schedule for ||.|,. |,,rs when heard through receivers make a 

the year. high pitched huuMuing sound. This is characteristic 

The engineer cor]is is under the commaml and of subs running under water, as then only electric 

iiisirnction of .Maj. L. !•;. Atkins and has an enroll- power can be used. \'ari(ins inoditications were dis- 

meiit of I!) olVicers and lil!) men. The unit has a- cussed, and t he de\ elopineiit from crude mechanical 

ciiieveil sjiecial honor in being given a rating of lirst contrivances to accurate, .sensitive electrical ajipar- 

l)lace among similar units at other universities in atns was jtictured. 
thecountrv. l'"ollowiiig this was a talk on practical exjieri- 



May, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



187 



ences in installiii};; fleet rit-il uuuliiiu'ry hy N. K. 
Stryker '-\. While in the enijiloy i)f John A. Koeb- 
lini; Sons Co. of Trenton, New .Jersey, he helped in 
the installation of some new e(inii)nient in an old 
direct c-nrrent plant. By dia§;rains and explanations 
he iiointeil ont some of the difficnlties encountered 
and showed how they were overcome. It was an e.\- 
l)erience such as mii;ht come to anyone in that line 
of work, and (•onse(|uently ]iroved very interesting 
and practical. These ]iersonal experience talks are 
lieinj; encourajjed by the society for the benefit de- 
ri\i'(l hy liotli listeners and speakers. 



Architectural News 

The fruits of the activities of liie numerous com- 
mittees organized in the architectural department 
will soon be presented, but during the past few 
weeks there has been little of note in the way of de- 
partmental interest. The Year Book, the I'^uturist 
Fete, the Stadium di-ive, and the eternal design prol>- 
leuis are keejiiug every mend)er of the de]iartmeut 
on the active list. 

Floyd Ray, "121, is still managing the Society 
supply store and most of the students of the de])art- 
ment purchase their supplies through him. \\lieii 
the jiroposed Cooperative stores open, the Architec- 
tural Society will have been a loyal supporter for 
some months. The project as a whole has been ex- 
ceedingly successful. 

An added interest in tiic work on designs seems 
to have become evident in tlie iiast few months. A 
decided imi)rovement in the work and a rather gen- 
eral satisfaction of the students is now appaTcnt and 
if this attitude increases with the coming jjroblems, 
some great work along these lines can be jiredicted. 
The pre-war interest is ipiickiy i-eturning and with 
this added intei'est on the part of the students and 
the untiring elfoi-ts of Ilic new men on liic i'aculty. 
tlierc is no iincslion 1>mI what there will I c a large 
quantity of maleiial for the Inliire numbers of the 
Year Book. 



The Largest Municipal Lighting System 
in the World 

(Continiied I'rciii piige ITi') 

a man is dis|ialclieil to 1 he location. TJU' man re- 
moves the defective lixlure and installs a new 

in its place. The cleaning of the lamjjs. globes, and 
shades is done by cleaning gangs. A forenuni in 
charge of each gang directs the work of cleaning. 

Another grouj) of men known as ciiruit rejjair- 
ers, make tests on circuits of each sub-station in the 



morning, at noon, and again just before the circuits 
go on. The purpose of these tests is to locate any 
trouble which nmy exist. If the circuits do not test 
clear, the circuit repairers run down the trouble and 
clear the circuit. After the circuits are in opera- 
tion, any case of trouble will register in the sub- 
station. That circuit is then shut down and the nec- 
essary rejiairs made by the circuit repair gang. All 
trouble is handled through the Local Dispatcher 
who is in complete charge of the system when it is 
in ojieration. Orders to the sub-static^n (tperators 
are given only through him. This is absolutely 
necessary to avoid misunderstandings and serious 
accidents. 



A Coal Pile 

(Continued from page 173) 
from all grain. It is planned to have the Chemistry 
l)ei)artment make a carefid examination and |)os- 
sibly an analysis of it. 

The accepted theory of the formation ol' coal is 
that heat and pressure were ajjplied to vegetable 
matter without the i)resence of oxygen. A\'lien it is 
recalled llial this i)ile was driven into a mass of 
gravel so comjiact as to jtreveut much expansion and 
also to prevent the entranci' of air ami that a large 
amount of energy was expende(l in the di'iving which 
naturally was transformed into heat, it will be seen 
that conditions re(piired for the formation of coal 
were developed locally, and consecpumtly the forma 
tion of a coal-like substance is afterall not snrpi-is- 
ing. 

The I>e()artment of Civil lOngineering is ni- 
debted to Mr. A. H. Hunter. District Engineer of 
the Stale Division of Highways, and to the engi- 
neei's of the Santa Fe Kaili-oad for lu-eserving this 
])ile and sending il to I his department for pei-man- 
ent exhibit. 



FARE, PLEASE! 

"I'are, ])l('ase! Fare I" 

The passenger gave no heed. 

"Fare, please!" 

Still the ])assenger was ol)li\ious. 

"By the ejaculatory teiin -r'ai-e,"' said the con- 
ductor. "I imph no icfcrence lo the stale of the 
weather, the complcxicm of the admii-alile bloml yon 
observe in a contiguous seal, nor e\cn to the (pnility 
(d' the seivice xduclisafed by this |iliilantliro])ic cor- 
poration. I merely allude in a manner perhaps lack- 
ing in delicacy liiii not in concieeness to the mone- 
tary obligation set up by your presence in this car 
and suggest that you li(|Midale." 

At this point the passenger emerged from his 
trance. — Loudon Tit-Bits. 




ALUMNI 

N OTHS 



i) 



II'. ir. Siiiitli, B. A. ■(!(). c. f. "(IT spent several years 
ill private eii^ineeriiig eoiitraetiiif; in Ai'jieiitiiie 
Keiuililic ; ami alioiit two years ajjo went to Chili 
to enjja^c in strnclnral engineerinj; and to act as 
salesman for American tiruis dealinji; in structural 
steel. He lias rei-enlly returned to this country 
lor a hi-ief \isit. 

•/. ('. I'ltniiU If. m. e. "10. spent a few days in Irliana 
not loui; ajiii. lie is now a coustruction enj>iueer 
for the .Milwaukee Electric Light & Tower (V). l)e- 
ing in charge of i7n|»ortant work on the new Lake- 
side station. 

I.. I\ . liiiiiili/. m. e. "Ml. is in charge of the engineer- 
ing de]iarlnient of The Dual Truck and Tractor 
<'o. of Decatur. 

Riiljili liciiiiitt, e. e. '!)!», is a prominent c(Uisulting 
engineer in Los Angeles. 

11'. (1. lliiiiiiiniU . m. e. '1!), who is an erecting engi- 
neer, is installing stokers, regulators, etc. for The 
("oinhustiou lOngineering ("o. of (^liicago. 

(1. N. OhrriK . m. e, "lit. is in the manufacl uring end 
of the feather business of the Colnndiia l'"eatlier 
< 'o.. < 'liicago. 

Curl Kliiifi. cer. "l-'O, is ceraudc engineer for the 
.Natimial l"ire|u-oofing Co. at Ottawa, 111. 

.1. )/. \ iniih r/iiKil . m. e. 'lit. is working on the eval 
nation of the power plant of the Omaha and Coun- 
cil Klufl' Street Hallway Company. He is soon to 
start on condmstion work, and the deterndnation 
of the power ]ilant efficiency. 

11 /■;(//•<</ (liiliir. m. ami s. e. '!l'.(, is pi-omincnt as a 
sanitary engineer mi the West Coast. 

A*. N. Stockfiihiii I/. 111. e. ■]!), is now emploxed in the 
cajiacity of sales engineer liy the •loiinsriu Service 
Coniiiany of Chicago. His work at present con 
sists |U'iniai'ily of the instaliat imi of Inating and 
ventilating eipiipment. 

Will. .M Off/a II, ci'V. '20. is with the E\ens and Howard 
Fire Brick Co. of St. Louis. 

Iliirrij }hi.'<kiii, cer. "20, is ceramic engineer \'<>v the 
A'itrofa.x people in Los Angeles. 

Fred ■hihlc. in. e. '10, who is service engineer for the 



Aliiminiiim .Maiiufaduring Company of Cleveland, 
spent Marili 4 and ."i attending the Stadium con- 
fei'ence. 

.L /•;. I^olk, cer. 20, is in East Canton, Ohio, with the 
National Fireproofing Company. 

//. //. ChapiiKiii. m. e. "19, is sales engineer for the 
^^'estingllouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
jiany in Chicago. 

G. R. RadJcy, e. e. '(H). as a memlier of a Milwaukee 
motion picture commission is helidng to hold down 
exhibitors who jiut money ahead of morals. His 
bread-and-butter occupation is that of electrical 
engineei- for the Cutter Hammer Co. 

■fohii L. liurliamni, c e. "O-l, is president and general 
manager of Wesco Co. He served as a lieutenant- 
cidonel during the war. 

.1/. A'. .l/.(;\,e. e. "05, writes that he is ,i de\ t'lopmeiit 
engineer for the Hobart Mfg. Co. at Troy, ()., mak- 
ei's of electric coffee mills and meat chojipers. "A 
development engineer," says Akers, "is one who de- 
velops something, whether it be a lilm, a new 
type of mixer, nv a cold in the head." 

•/. H. Fnrimni, iii. e. "Oti, is head of the l"recnian- 
J\ilf Co., engineers and manufacturers of convey- 
ing machinery at Tei-re Haute. Ind. 

Cliarlic KiKiirhs. c. e. "II, engineer foi- the ('(Uiiiell 
()il Co. at lOldoiado. Kan, can give you volumes of 
at li-acti\c information about the Kan-Me.x Oil Co. 
which Is getting i-eady to push another well into 
Old Jlexico. 

//. C. 11'///. e. e. "I."!, has recently taken the position 
of ,isst. cliief engineer U<v the Maryland I'ublic 
Service ( "onimission. 

/'. ('. Woi)l(lriil</( . e. e. "i;>. has gone into the line of 
pharinaceut ics at (Jill'ord, 111. 

/.. (l(i>ri/c I'ciiii. e. e. *lo, is engineer of toll lines 
for the .Michigan Slate Telephone Co. at Detroit. 

J'diil l!()i-l,-. c. e. 'i:'). is a major in the engineer cor])s 
of the r. S. Army at Washington, D. C. 

Ihiiri/ ]\'iii. lidiiiiiir. {'. e. "l!l, visited the I'liiversity 
(Ui .March lOth. lie is now connected with the 



Ma)i, 1921 



THE TECHNOGRAPH 



189 



Schweitzer and Courad Co., Chicago, luainifac- 
turers of electrical high tension apparatus. 

Gordon KliiH', cer. '21. has taken a position with 
the Xew Castle Refractory Co. at New Castle, 
Penna. 

D. ir. FiiircJiihl. mill. "l.;. visited the University on 
March 1(>. He is a mining engineer at Denver, 
Colo. 

Andy Charlcfi, cer. 'I'O, is with the Bensman Elec- 
tric Co. at Desplains, 111. 

George tiladek, cer. '17, took his master's degree in 
June and is now with the Beaver Falls Art Tile 
Co. at Beaver Falls, Peuna. 

C. E. Fledf/er, e. e. '99, is snpervising telepliones all 
over the Pacific Coast. 

C. S. Vieri)ik, ni. e. '19, designs for the Cliakra Sol- 
dering Macliine Co. of Chicago. 

G. W. ^aathoff, e. e. "Oti, is an engineer for Henry 
Dougherty & Conii)any, New York. 

//. B.IIeinp, ni. e. '19, is making time studies, setting 
l)iece rates, and writing routing and operation 
cards for the Linograph Company of Davenport, 
Iowa. 

V. •/. Scinil(t)i, m. e. '19, visiteil the University re- 
cently. He is recovering from a complication of 
diseases including an attack of sleeping sickness 
of several days duration. This disease is common 
among undergraduates but this is the first in- 
stance of it for one of our graduates. Mr. Scanlon 
is engaged in experimental Work on "Univents" 
for tlie Molinc Ileal ('oiii]iaHy of Moline, 111. 

1/. O. (libKDii, ry. 111. e. "09, has been re-elected as 
president of the Senate of the Industrial Democ- 
racy of the Champlain Silk Mills of White Hall, 
New York. At the company's ilill no. 2 he has 
been in charge of the second and third draft till- 
ing. He was recently unanimously recommended 
to the position of assistant superintendant of mill 
no. 2 bj- the cabinet and senate, and assumed his 
duties on February 21. 

Robert A'. Mills, c. e. e.\-'19, has been made observer 
on the ship Varncfjie which is collecting data on 
the magnetic variations on the earth's oceans. Mills 
.served in the aviation department during the war 
and after leaving the army he was appointed to the 
expedition which is headed by the Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Washington D. C. The Carnegie is a non- 
magnetic sailing vessel built without incorporat- 
ing any iron or steel in its construction. It has 
covered oO(),0()(l miles in the last year and a half. 



Arthur E. Morgan, has not been giving much per- 
sonal attention to the business of this company in 
the last few years since he has been Chief Engineer 
of the Miami Conservancy District which has been 
doing some large and spectacular engineering work. 
The business of the Morgan Comitany of Memjihis 
is largely in the hands of three graduates of the 
University of Illinois. Mr. C. A. Book, c. e. 'l.\ is 
Vice President, Mr. A. S. Fry, c. e. '13 is Treasurer, 
and Mr. H.A. Wiersema, a. e. '13. These three Illini 
men are said to be very competent and are ably sus- 
taining the reputation of the Alma Mater. 



These days when the promise for positions in 
engineering after commencement is rather blue, per- 
hajjs our readers will be interested in knowing some- 
thing abimt some of the Illini family who are in 
foreign countries. 

6'. il. ^tough, in. s. e. '13, is a Major in tlie Ord- 
nance Department of the U. S. Army, and on 
JIarch 7 .sailed for Hawaii. 
Robert E. Tiirley .Jr., c. e. '13, is a Captain in liie U. 

S. Army and has recently gone to I'anama City. 
./. R. Donaldxon, c. e. 'IG is engaged in building 
roads for the government of Santo Domingo. He 
has recently been in the states for a brief visit. 
//. A'. Burton, c. e. '11 is engaged in general engi- 
neering practice in Porto Rico and also in Santo 
Domingo. In addition he acts as sales engineer 
for three or four prominent American manufac- 
turers of contracting machinery. He recently vis- 
ited his parents in Urbaua. 



The Morgan Engineering Company, Memphis, 
Tennessee, is one of the companies that has been 
doing large things in the South in drainage and 
road building. The Founder of the Company, Mr. 



Modern Practice in Coal Mine 
Hoisting Engines 

(Continued from page 182) 
valve to be used in case the main throttle sticks or 
breaks. Signals to hoist, to lower, to stop, and etc., 
are transmitted to the engineer from the top and 
bottom of the mine by an air whistle, placed right 
at his ear, or occasionally by a large gong. 

The job of a mine hoisting engineer is a very 
responsible one as well as being a strenous, monot- 
onous position. These men are licensed by the State 
and must undergo rigid examinations. Mines, like 
Little Vermilion where very rapid hoisting is done 
daily, employ two or three shifts of hoisting engi- 
neers who work two or three hours at a time then 
re.st for the same length of time. However, the 
hoisting engines get no rests and must be in action 
every minute. Every rule for reasonable, sane steam 
engine operation is disregarded in this service. 
There is no gradual o]iening oi' closing of the 



]J)0 



THE TECHXOGRAPH 



Mai/, 1!)21 



Modern Practice in Coal Mine 
Hoisting Engines 

llll-olllc. hislcail, ,1 I'lill IiinkI of sicaiii Mt llT) pitillids 
)>r('ssnic is llndwn ;i>;;iiiist Ilic pistons ai one lilow 
I'oi- tlic thiol tie is j(M-k('(l wide open in order to ac 
wii'i-atf I lie load to lull speed in tlie siuirlest time 
possible. When the cafje nears the landing, t 



il.v. Some of these enj;ines ha\e lieeii run daily To)- 
ovei- five years before the ori^final adjuslnient of the 
ci-osslieads liad to be (listnrbed. 



Mining of Upper Mississippi Lead and 
Zinc Ores 

(Coiitiiuied from Page 1S3) 
and inaynetic se})arati()ii of the ore. bowever. is ns- 



I f^^ ..^ .». - , ..V .^, .... 

throttle is not elo.sed lint the enj^ines are stoi>peil naliy done at a central roasting plant, 

by reversing tliein nnder fidl load. The brakes are '''I"' "dning game is ever jiresenting new pros 

seldom used after the engineer becomes fandliar i'<'''''^ ''■•"" it« "1"1 discards. JIaterial discarded by 

with the landing jioints. It reipiires no imagination '"'"** "*" .v«'i''^ :'S«> :>« tailings or dump material is 

to understand the terrilic strains and abuses to "•''*^' ■» «<'in-ce of fortune to many men who can 7'e- 

wbicli these engines are subjected bnndreds of times co^^'T' <~'ntmgh of tlu' material in the dumji to i)ay 

in eight horns when live thousand or more tons of I'l''"' '' proht. 

coal are being hoisted. Therefore. w(> believe we are ^''"'' """■'' "'' ^'"' '""''■>'^'l '" "'''^ '"li^'l^' I •'"' 

• ,.,. , • ■ 4.1 , • 1 •,. I ■ . indebted to "I'uler Handbook of .Miiniig." "Lead and 

)ustilied in saving tliat no engines are built winch '^ 

,. , ... , Zinc III \Visc()u.sin." bv H. V. Bain, and Bulletin 

must possess greater stamina and reliability Than ,., ,-, . .,..,, .. .,," ,. c. u .• at- 

. . • l.)4. V. A. ^\ right ot the 1 . S. Kureaii ot Mines, 

the hoisting engines. ( iood engineering practice in ' 

steam engine design miisl needs be developed to the An.^\A' AFFW 

liiyhest deyree here. How well the buildeis have sue 

The cat that nigbtiv liaunts mv gate. 

cee,le.f may b." jmlged from the fact that some of j^,,^^. ,,^^„.ti,v I hate her : 

these engines have seen contiiKUis service for over Some night she'll come aii.l mew till late, 

twenty years and .-ire still hoist iiig to (U-iginal capac- .\iid then l"ll mew 1 i later. 



Can yon fill Major Starling's requirements? 

Tlie Chief EiiBiifeer of the Board of Mississippi Levee Conimi.ssioners. Major William Starling, says 
that a good engineer is of inflexible intergrity, sobe:-. resolute, and discreet. He must have command of 
his temper, must have courage to resist intimidation, and must be firm against solicitation or flattery. 
He must be as fair as a judge on the bench in dealing with men. and he must have sound business hab- 
its and a knowledge ot accounts. Men who combine these qualities are hard to find; but found, they 
are lipvnnil iirice, for their value cannot be estimated in dollars. 

H. F. Dimcan, Photographer, has paid for this space 







Wickes Vertical Water Tube Boiler 

Have you seen the STEEL t ASLU SETTING for emlo.sing this l)oiler? 

.\ir infiltration losses are overcome. 

The highest possible thermal efficiency results. 

Ask for bulletin — Magnitude and Prevention of Air Infiltration 
Losses — sent free. 
Ever cleaned a boiler, lamed your back, bruised your kuees and skinned 
\ our elbows doing it? 

Two men can open. wash, close and fill the WICKES in five hours. Tur- 
liin in ten hours. 

Ask for Bulletin — Reducing Costs on the Boiler Room — sent fre 

The Wickes Boiler Co. 

SAGINAW, MICHIGAN 
SALES OFFICES: 

V York rity, l-l6 Wesl St.. RI.Ir. I'iltsluirg, i-.|.S Empire BUIr. 

cago, 76 West Monroe St. Detroit, 1116 Penrose Bldg. 

ton, 201 Devonshire St. Seattle, -36 Henry Bldg. 




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